78 terms

WH Imperialism, Industrial Revolution, Opening Asia

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What country in Europe was the first to become industrialized?
England.
Roughly, when was the Industrial Revolution?
1750s
What happened in the Industrial Revolution?
life changed to be factory-based. Farming stopped being the most popular way to live.
Which countries industrialized first, second and so on?
England, then Western Europe, then US, then Japan
How did the industrial revolution spread from Britain to other European countries?
railroads
What type of factory work was 80% women?
textile industry
What is the textile industry?
making clothes from cotton and wool.
Give three examples of factory conditions during industrialization.
bad temperature, long working hours, and child labor
How did industrialization bring about early Socialism?
bad industrial working conditions leads to socialist's fight for workers' rights.
Who were the Great Powers?
England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia.
Where did the Great Powers meet?
Congress of Vienna.
Why did the Great Powers meet?
To make an alliance to stop another Napoleon
What did the First Republic do in France?
Made workshops for unemployed and gave food to the poor. (like the New Deal that Roosevelt put into place in US)
Who shut the First Republic down in France?
Conservatives.
Who was the president of the second French Republic?
Louis Napoleon (AKA Nap 3)
Who fought in the Crimean War?
Russia and the Ottoman Empire/England/France.
Why did Russia and the Ottoman Empire fight in the Crimean War?
Russia wanted the Balkan Islands, but the Ottoman Empire didn't want them to have them because Russia would get too much power.
Who won the Crimean War?
England and France helped the Ottoman Empire win.
Who unified Italy?
Garibaldi unified Italy from south to north.
What was Garibaldi's group called?
the Red Shirts.
What does realpolitik mean?
"Do what needs to be done, even if it seems to be bad or wrong"
Who finally unified Germany?
Otto von Bismarck.
Which small state eventually became Germany?
Prussia
What happened in the Franco-Prussian War?
Prussia whipped France and took over Paris. They were paying them back for Napoleon taking them over earlier.
How did the Franco-Prussian War create Germany?
It showed how powerful Prussia was. They then took over the other states around Prussia and renamed itself Germany.
What war combined Prussia and Germany?
Franco-Prussian war.
Why did England not have revolutions like everyone else in Europe at this time?
their country was liberal. Gave poor rights.
Who was in charge of France when the Germans were invading?
Nap 3 (Louis-Napoleon) gets PWND!
How is Austria-Hungary two countries but one country as well?
2 countries for inside. 1 country for outside (wars)
How did John MacDonald free Canada?
asked England for Canada to be free England.
Who was the first Prime Minister of Canada?
John MacDonald.
1. List three reasons the Qing dynasty declined.
Corruption in gov
Rebellions (Boxer and Taiping)
Pressure from West
Food shortage
2. What happened in the Opium Wars? Who won? What were the results?
ENG used IND to grow opium (drug). Sold it to CHN b/c CHN wouldn't buy anything from ENG. Wanted CHN silver. CHN gov says no, loses wars w/ ENG.
What was the biggest thing that came from the Treaty of Nanjing?
England now owns Hong Kong
4. Why did the Tai Ping Rebellion happen? What kind of country did they want?
Peasants rose up for land and food. Led by Hong Xiuquan (Jesus' lil' brother). Wanted a Free, Christian communist country.
5. How many people died in the Tai Ping Rebellion? How long did it last?
20 million over 14 years. Only ended when West stepped in. West got even more influence by helping.
What is the most significant thing about the Tai Ping Rebellion?
20 million people died. It was the deadliest war in world history until WWII.
6. What were the 100 Days of Reform? How was it stopped?
Free press, western schools, modern factories. Emperor was stopped by aunt, put him in jail.
7. What was the Open Door Policy? Who started it?
Opened and protected West's right to trade in China?
8. Who were the boxers in the Boxer Rebellion? What did they do? How were they stopped?
"Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists". Buddhists monks/boxers who hated foreigners. = killed them (roaming the countryside) Took 5 countries to stop them
9. What problem did Sun Yat-Sen and the nationalists have with foreigners in China?
Thought CHN was too good to interact w/ foreigners, especially to lose to them. Saw Qing as weak.
Why did Perry go to Japan for the first time?
To take a letter from US President, Millard Fillmore to ask to open trade between JPN and US.
What did the Japanese Emperor tell Perry the first time they met?
To go back to the US. Japan didn't want to trade with the US.
How did Perry finally get Japan to open up and trade with the US?
He brought a bunch of battleships to Tokyo Bay. He basically threatened them.
13. What was the Meiji Restoration?
MAY-GEE. Emperor Meiji (a pro trading guy) was restored by the US as emperor. Leads to the Industrial Revolution beginning in Japan.
15. During the Meiji Restoration, how did Japan's education, military and women's rights policies change?
Education = modern and universal
Military = stronger and moderner
Women = more rights
What does universal education mean?
Everyone has to go to school. It is not optional
16. When Japan starts to imperialize, what areas does it take?
All of Korea, parts of Russia, China and French Indochina.
When does Japan start to imperialize?
Around 1900
17. What was the Gentlemen's Agreement?
US agreed with JPN to stop JPN immigration to US
1. Give three reasons for European countries starting to imperialize.
Resources like rubber, oil, silk
Market to sell stuff they made
Growth of power and control (EUR was competing w/ each other)
2. What was the "White Man's Burden"?
Poem. It is the job of the whites to civilize and Christianize non-white savages.
What is Social Darwinism?
The belief that Africans and Asians aren't as "advanced" as white people because they haven't evolved yet.
3. How was Social Darwinism used to justify slavery and imperialism?
If natives are not civilized, they need to be ruled. It's just "how it is".
4. Which two countries fought over Vietnam? Who won?
France v. England. France wins (call it French Indochina)
5. What countries made up French Indochina?
Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos
6. What is the only country that stayed independent in Southeast Asia? How did it stay free?
Thailand - kings negotiated w/ FR and ENG to stay free and become a buffer zone
7. How did the US get the Philippines?
Won it from Spain in Spanish-American War.
8. How were plantations in Southeast Asia similar to plantations in America?
Work was done by slaves.
9. Why did England want the Suez Canal to be built?
For a shorter ship ride to Asia.
Where is the Suez Canal?
Between the tip of Africa and Asia in Egypt. Connects the Mediterranean and Red Sea.
10. Which country and leader were the first to colonize Central Africa?
King Leopold II, Belgium
Brutally treated the natives.
Murders, hands cut off, hobbling
11. What do the Berlin Conference and a pie have in common?
Everyone gets a slice. "Berlin Pizza"
What was the Berlin Conference?
When European leaders met in Berlin to divide up Africa because they all wanted resources from there, but didn't want to start a war over it.
12. Who were the Boers?
From the Netherlands.
Why did England want to control South Africa?
The (Boers) Dutch discovered diamonds there.
What happened in the Boer Wars?
England pushed the Boers north into the Zulu Nation. (This was a bad thing for the Boers)
Why was it a bad thing for the Boers to run into the Zulu Nation?
Zulus were ruthless warriors. They were led by Shaka Zulu who was the baddest of the bad.
13. Which English guy took over South Africa? What did he rename it? How did he get so rich?
Cecil Rhodes. Rhodesia. Diamonds (forced natives to mine them as slaves) (blood diamonds)
14. What are the only two countries in Africa that stay independent during African colonization?
Liberia b/c US set it up for freed slaves from Civil War
Ethiopia - beat back the Italians with sticks and stones
15. What happened in the Sepoy Mutiny? How did it change England's rule in India?
Sepoys are Indian soldiers protecting English Viceroys (Governors) in India. The Sepoys are treated bad. There is a rumor that they are using bullets greased in cow and pig fat. They revolt, kill many, but are defeated and ENG takes control of all of IND
16. What was the first free country in Latin America and the first successful slave revolt in history?
Haiti. Overthrew French b/c Nappy was screwing up Europe and not paying attention.
17. How did Napoleon's actions in Europe affect revolutions in Latin America?
Focused on Europe, Spain doesn't send enough troops to hold back revs.
18. Who is the father of Mexican independence? What did he do?
Father Hidalgo. Cried out for Independence. Started revolution, killed by SPN (martyred)
Why did Panama agree to let the US have control of the Panama Canal?
They wanted the US to help them break free from Colombia.
Why did the US want control of the Panama Canal?
It was much easier to go through it than go around the tip of South America and they could charge every ship that uses the canal.
How long did the US have control of the Panama Canal?
100 years
What two bodies of water are connected by the Panama Canal?
Atlantic and Pacific Ocean.