DECEPTIVE TACTICS: (feigned flight of Mongol center...then swift turnaround & fresh attack, while concealed cavalry on the flanks closed in & cut off the enemy's retreat) Maneuvers were executed at high speed: required exact coordination. (Smoke signals, flares, colored flags, messengers) Kan improved systems of communications, control, and strict discipline. MONGOL CAVALRY: 3-4 horses each, covered in armor. MONGOL BOW: recurve bow, accuracy, force, and reach. Small and could be used on horseback (men would carry up to 60). MILITARY TECHNOLOGY: iron stirrup, catapults & explosive missiles.