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thin-walled microscopic air sacs - hardest working structures - where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
area in the lower pons in the brain with input to the medullary inspiratory neurons; helps to control the inspiratory rate of respiration
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
AKA: COPD, any persistent lung disease that obstructs the bronchial airflow, such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema - occurs by smoking
The major muscle of breathing, anatomic point of separation between the thoracic cavity and the abdomen. Has (3) three major openings for:
Aortic, Esophageal, and the inferior vena cava - stimulated by the PHRENIC nerve
Occurs in conjunction with COPD - it is an obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air, with destructive changes in their walls resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange - caused mostly from smoking
lid-like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway
the process of taking in oxygen from inhaled air and releasing carbon dioxide by exhalation - the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation
Exhalation, occurs when the respiratory muscles relax and results in the output of air from the lungs
nostrils: which open into the nasal cavity; where air enters and exits the respiratory system.
exchange of gases between the air that has been inhaled into the ALVEOLI and the BLOOD in the PULMONARY CAPILLARIES
is a collection of blood in the space between the chest wall and the lung the pleural cavity - The most common cause of hemothorax is chest trauma. It can also occur in patients who have:
• A defect of blood clotting
• Death of lung tissue (pulmonary infarction)
• Lung or pleural cancer
• Placement of a central venous catheter
• Thoracic or heart surgery
Rhythmic impulses located in the Medulla controls inhalation - the intake of air into the lungs - Inhibited by apneustic center
A protective mechanism that terminates inhalation, thus preventing overexpansion of the lungs.
internal intercostal muscles
11 Expiratory muscles - located underneath the external muscles, depress (downward and backwards) the rib cage when contracted - in an oblique fashion
external intercostal muscles
11 muscles that raise the lungs during inspiration, increasing size of thoracic cavity - located closest to skin
AKA: voice box; it is the passageway for air - connecting the pharynx to the trachea, and also contains the vocal cords - made up of 3 single cartilages called the: thyroid, cricoid, and epiglottic - and also 3 paired cartilages called the: arytenoid, corniculate, and cuneiform.
Basic units of the lungs - they are smaller compartments in the lungs that contain lymphatic vessels, veins, arteries, and branchings of alveoli
two spongy organs, located on either side of the sternum - in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration. Right lung is divided into three sections and Left lung into two sections.
causes air to become turbulent which increases the time the air is in the nasal cavity which gives it more time to warm/humidify. Consists of inferior, middle, superior
lining of the nasal cavities that are made of Ciliated Epithelium - containing Goblet cells - that produce mucus.
the partition that divides the nasal cavity into two sections, the dividing wall between the two nasal cavities. Formed posteriorly of bone (mainly the vomer and perpendicular plate of the ethmoid), anteriorly of cartilage.
In the olfactory part of the vestibule
Contains receptors for smell
Extends downward from roof of each nasal cavity over septum and superior turbinate bone
epithelium = olfacatory = pseudostratified columnar
Their names indicate location: specifically they are the: sphenoid, ethmoid, maxillary, and frontal sinuses - they surround the nasal cavity and make the skull lighter; they also serve as resonance chambers for speech
AKA: throat - it is the muscular tube at the end of the gastrovascular cavity that connects the mouth with the rest of the digestive tract - and serves as a passageway for air and food - innervateed by the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) - for he swallowing & saliva production. Divided into three different sections named based on location: NASO, ORO, and LARYNGO - PHARYNX
respiratory center in pons. interrupts action of apneuistic center, which contributes to exhilation
the trachea bifucates into the right and left primary bronchi, which each enter the hilum of the corresponding sides of the lung and further subdivide to supply eah lobe section - AKA: branch tree.
Accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissues and alveoli, caused most commonly by congestive heart failure
mixture of lipids & proteins secreted by the type II alveolar cells. it intersperses between the water molecules & lowers alveolar surface tension
increases pulmonary compliance & reduces the lungs' tendency to recoil
reduces the surface tension of small alveoli more than that of larger alveoli
recurrent laryngeal nerve
1. branch off of the vagus nerve
2. between trachea and esophagus
3. terminates in the larynx
4. under aorta on the left and under the subclavian artery on the right
5. innervates the esophagus and trachea as well as parasympathetic innervation to the tracheal glands
6. ends as the inferior laryngeal nerve
7. distributed to all the larynx muscles EXCEPT the Cricothyroid.
common term for applied cricoid pressure - is performed to minimize the possibility of regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents during tracheal intubation
superior laryngeal nerve
external branch does motor to the cricothyroid. internal branch pierces the thyrohyoid membrane to enter the larynx. it does sensory to mucosa of the larynx superior to vocal folds. irritation of this mucosa can initiate the cough reflex - if damaged can result in loss of high-pitched vocal tones
A life-threatening collection of air within the pleural space; the volume and pressure have both collasped the involved lung and caused a shift of the mediastinal structures to the opposite side. AKA: mediastinal shift - which is life threatening and may require a chest tube or sugery
AKA: the windpipe; which is the main air tube leading into the lungs. The trachea is composed of alternating "C ringed-shaped" cartilage, and connective tissue. The walls between are flexible, and that design makes it possible for it to adjust to different body positions
This is the name for cranial nerve X - provides sensory and motor fibers for pharynx, larynx, and viscera
These structures are anchored to the arytenoid cartilages of the larynx. They are spread apart to facilitate breathing, but when they are closed they vibrate as air passes over them. This results in sound production. The sound is modified by the tongue to produce words.
the use of oxygen by the cells, and the subsequent production of carbon dioxide as the "waste gas", that must be expelled from the body
lower respiratory system
includes the: larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles (lungs), alveolar ducts and sacs (lungs), alveoli (lungs)
Mucus secreting cells in mucous membranes, columnar epithelial cells that contain a large vacuole with mucus
Earth's Oxygen Atmosphere
Dry air contains roughly - by volume - 78.09% Nitrogen, and 20.95% Oxygen.
the passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway
hole in which the esophagus travels through the diaphragm to get to the stomach. It's a pronounced ring that can be torn or stretched.
minimally invasive surgery of the thoracic cavity; also referred to as video assisted thoracoscopic surgery or VATS - performed to obtain tissue biopsies of: lungs, mediastinal lymph nodes, or pleura
exchange of gases
Occurs along the alveolar space across the respiratory membrane by diffusion.
3 factors that influence the rate of diffusion of oxygen and CO2 through the respiratory membrane are:
Partial pressure gradient of O2 and CO2
Area and thickness of the respiratory membrane - larger the area faster the rate of diffusion; thicker the membrane slower the rate of diffusion.
Solubility of the respiratory gases - higher the solubility, faster the rate of diffusion
the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
an external monitor placed on the patient's finger or earlobe to measure the oxygen saturation level in the blood
acute infection and inflammation in the lungs, caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or resulting from aspiration of chemicals - that impairsa the normal exchange of gases
following a cardiothoracic surgical procedure. It is a tube inserted to restore negative pressure to chest cavity for pneumothorax, chemothorax and pleural effusion
Surgical Technolgist specific procedures
pneumonectomy (with or without lung transplant)
inspection of body organs or cavities using a lighted scope that may be inserted through an existing opening or through a small incision
largest cartilage of larynx; Adam's apple. It is sometimes described as plow or shield shaped. It forms part of the walls of the glottis and is the insertion for the sternothyroid muscle
High blood pH (above 7.45) is called alkalosis. Severe alkalosis (when blood pH is more than 8) can also lead to death, as it often happens during last days or hours of life in most people who are chronically and terminally ill.
Blood pH that drops below 7.0, can lead to a coma - and even death - due to severe acidosis
results from injury, typically blunt force or penetrating trauma that disrupts the parietal or visceral pleura - typically occurs from knife wounds, gun shots.
produce water which is released onto the surface of the airways and the water is used to control the visocity of the mucus
A mucous membrane that lines the entire respiratory tract - which are Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar epithelium - containing goblet cells - they help transport mucus
the outer layer of the pleura that lines the walls of the thoracic cavity, covers the diaphragm, and forms the sac containing each lung
756 mmHg below atmospheric pressure where serous fluid causes visceral and pleural space to adhere to each other
Any rise above normal atmospheric pressure. Hyperbaric chambers for oxygen therapy & autoclaves, which use steam pressure for sterilization, are ex of equip using positive pressure.
AKA: black lung cancer - lung disease often found in coal miners in which lung tissue becomes black due to breathing black dust
a surgical operation that creates an opening into the trachea with a tube inserted to provide a passage for air
An X-ray image of the thoracic cavity used to diagnose TB, tumors, and other lung conditions; also called chest radiograph
infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)
upper respiratory infection
URI, infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi
(aka rhinitis or nasopharyngitis) Inflammation of the nasal mucosa, often caused by a viral infection AKA: the common cold.
The difference in pressure between two locations, causing air to move as wind from areas of high pressure to low pressure.
a human genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele for a chloride channel protein; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consquent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated (4% whites are carriers - most common lethal genetic disease)
A type of pneumoconiosis that develops from the collection of coal dust in the lung. Also called black lung or miner's lung.
Type of pneumoconiosis, caused by asbestos particles in the lungs and is found in workers from the ship building and construction trades
the form of pneumoconios caused by coal dust in the lungs; also known as black lung disease
a condition in which insufficient or no oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged on a ventilatory basis
to cause to die or lose consciousness by impairing normal breathing, as by gas or other noxious agents; choke; suffocate; smother.
pneumonia that occurs when a foreign substance, such as vomit, food, etc. is inhaled in the lungs
a chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing
absence of gas from part or the whole of the lungs as a result of failure of expansion or reabsorption of gas from the alveoli - especially in infants
a drug that relaxes and dilates the bronchial passageways and improves the passages of air into the lungs, used to treat chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, and emphysema
a pattern of alternating periods of hypopnea or apnea, followed by hyperpnea
an acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and a barking cough
accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity (the space between the lungs and the walls of the chest)
excessive breathing that occurs normally after exercise, or abnormally with fever or various disorders
the part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymus
AKA: an atomizer - a device that pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a vapor, which is then inhaled by the patient via a face mask or mouthpiece
physician who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, and throat diseases
Acute infectious disease characterized by a cough that has a "whoop" sound; also called whooping cough
Excision of part of the pareietal pleura; performed to reduce pain - caused by a tumor mass or to prevent the reocurrence of pleural effusion.
an abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs that usually develops after years of environmental or occupational contact - such as black lung disease
AKA: a sleep apnea study - the diagnostic measurement of physiological activity during sleep -using a polygraph to make a continuous record of the sleep cycles
A physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating the diseases and disorders of the lungs and respiratory system
-An infection of the sinuses
-Ethmoid sinuses are most commonly affected due to their proximity of the nasal passages
-Upright sinus radiographs along with CT are helpful for diagnosis
-Chronic sinusitis can lead to polyps
-Treatment involves antiobiotics, and analgesics
-Severe cases may involve the surgical drainage and/or polyp removal
a surgical operation that creates an opening into the trachea with a tube inserted to provide a passage for air
exchange of gases between the SYSTEMIC CAPILLARIES and the TISSUE cells of the body
The amount of air that can be forcibly expelled from the lungs after breathing in as deeply as possible. Avg. 4000 - 5000mL
inspiratory reserve volume
maximal volume of air that can still be inspired beyond normal tidal volume exhalation
expiratory reserve volume
Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation
a mouth or mouthlike opening - especially one created by surgery on the surface of the body to create an opening to an internal organ
Controlled in brain stem. Pons regulates normal breathing. When the brain chord is severed above the medula the person breathes irregularly. The pons can change breathing in respons to increasing levels of CO2.
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