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198 terms

Respiratory System - study guide for MT & AP

Respiratory System
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alveoli
thin-walled microscopic air sacs - hardest working structures - where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
apneustic center
area in the lower pons in the brain with input to the medullary inspiratory neurons; helps to control the inspiratory rate of respiration
bronchioles
small tubes that branch off the bronchi that contain clusters of alveoli at each end.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
AKA: COPD, any persistent lung disease that obstructs the bronchial airflow, such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema - occurs by smoking
diaphram
The major muscle of breathing, anatomic point of separation between the thoracic cavity and the abdomen. Has (3) three major openings for:
Aortic, Esophageal, and the inferior vena cava - stimulated by the PHRENIC nerve
emphysema
Occurs in conjunction with COPD - it is an obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air, with destructive changes in their walls resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange - caused mostly from smoking
epiglottis
lid-like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway
respiration
the process of taking in oxygen from inhaled air and releasing carbon dioxide by exhalation - the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation
expiration center
Exhalation, occurs when the respiratory muscles relax and results in the output of air from the lungs
external nares
nostrils: which open into the nasal cavity; where air enters and exits the respiratory system.
external respiration
exchange of gases between the air that has been inhaled into the ALVEOLI and the BLOOD in the PULMONARY CAPILLARIES
hemopneumothorax
is a collection of blood in the space between the chest wall and the lung the pleural cavity - The most common cause of hemothorax is chest trauma. It can also occur in patients who have:
• A defect of blood clotting
• Death of lung tissue (pulmonary infarction)
• Lung or pleural cancer
• Placement of a central venous catheter
• Thoracic or heart surgery
• Tuberculosis
inspiration center
Rhythmic impulses located in the Medulla controls inhalation - the intake of air into the lungs - Inhibited by apneustic center
Hering-Breuer reflex
A protective mechanism that terminates inhalation, thus preventing overexpansion of the lungs.
internal intercostal muscles
11 Expiratory muscles - located underneath the external muscles, depress (downward and backwards) the rib cage when contracted - in an oblique fashion
external intercostal muscles
11 muscles that raise the lungs during inspiration, increasing size of thoracic cavity - located closest to skin
larynx
AKA: voice box; it is the passageway for air - connecting the pharynx to the trachea, and also contains the vocal cords - made up of 3 single cartilages called the: thyroid, cricoid, and epiglottic - and also 3 paired cartilages called the: arytenoid, corniculate, and cuneiform.
lobules
Basic units of the lungs - they are smaller compartments in the lungs that contain lymphatic vessels, veins, arteries, and branchings of alveoli
lungs
two spongy organs, located on either side of the sternum - in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration. Right lung is divided into three sections and Left lung into two sections.
nasal cavities
filters, moistens and warms, lined with cilia and mucous membrane.
nasal cochae
causes air to become turbulent which increases the time the air is in the nasal cavity which gives it more time to warm/humidify. Consists of inferior, middle, superior
nasal musoca
lining of the nasal cavities that are made of Ciliated Epithelium - containing Goblet cells - that produce mucus.
nasal septum
the partition that divides the nasal cavity into two sections, the dividing wall between the two nasal cavities. Formed posteriorly of bone (mainly the vomer and perpendicular plate of the ethmoid), anteriorly of cartilage.
olfactory organ
In the olfactory part of the vestibule
Contains receptors for smell
Extends downward from roof of each nasal cavity over septum and superior turbinate bone
epithelium = olfacatory = pseudostratified columnar
paranasal sinuses
Their names indicate location: specifically they are the: sphenoid, ethmoid, maxillary, and frontal sinuses - they surround the nasal cavity and make the skull lighter; they also serve as resonance chambers for speech
pharynx
AKA: throat - it is the muscular tube at the end of the gastrovascular cavity that connects the mouth with the rest of the digestive tract - and serves as a passageway for air and food - innervateed by the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) - for he swallowing & saliva production. Divided into three different sections named based on location: NASO, ORO, and LARYNGO - PHARYNX
pleural cavity
the space within the thorax that contains the lungs and pleural membranes
pneumotaxic center
respiratory center in pons. interrupts action of apneuistic center, which contributes to exhilation
pneumothorax
abnormal presence of air in the pleural cavity resulting in the collapse of the lung
primary bronchi
the trachea bifucates into the right and left primary bronchi, which each enter the hilum of the corresponding sides of the lung and further subdivide to supply eah lobe section - AKA: branch tree.
pulmonary edema
Accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissues and alveoli, caused most commonly by congestive heart failure
pulmonary surfactant
mixture of lipids & proteins secreted by the type II alveolar cells. it intersperses between the water molecules & lowers alveolar surface tension
increases pulmonary compliance & reduces the lungs' tendency to recoil
reduces the surface tension of small alveoli more than that of larger alveoli
recurrent laryngeal nerve
1. branch off of the vagus nerve
2. between trachea and esophagus
3. terminates in the larynx
4. under aorta on the left and under the subclavian artery on the right
5. innervates the esophagus and trachea as well as parasympathetic innervation to the tracheal glands
6. ends as the inferior laryngeal nerve
7. distributed to all the larynx muscles EXCEPT the Cricothyroid.
Sellick's Manuever
common term for applied cricoid pressure - is performed to minimize the possibility of regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents during tracheal intubation
superior laryngeal nerve
external branch does motor to the cricothyroid. internal branch pierces the thyrohyoid membrane to enter the larynx. it does sensory to mucosa of the larynx superior to vocal folds. irritation of this mucosa can initiate the cough reflex - if damaged can result in loss of high-pitched vocal tones
tension pneumothorax
A life-threatening collection of air within the pleural space; the volume and pressure have both collasped the involved lung and caused a shift of the mediastinal structures to the opposite side. AKA: mediastinal shift - which is life threatening and may require a chest tube or sugery
trachea
AKA: the windpipe; which is the main air tube leading into the lungs. The trachea is composed of alternating "C ringed-shaped" cartilage, and connective tissue. The walls between are flexible, and that design makes it possible for it to adjust to different body positions
vagus nerve
This is the name for cranial nerve X - provides sensory and motor fibers for pharynx, larynx, and viscera
vocal cords
These structures are anchored to the arytenoid cartilages of the larynx. They are spread apart to facilitate breathing, but when they are closed they vibrate as air passes over them. This results in sound production. The sound is modified by the tongue to produce words.
venitlation
AKA: breathing - the movement of air in and out of the lungs
cellular respiration
the use of oxygen by the cells, and the subsequent production of carbon dioxide as the "waste gas", that must be expelled from the body
upper respiratory system
consists of nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx.
lower respiratory system
includes the: larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles (lungs), alveolar ducts and sacs (lungs), alveoli (lungs)
goblet cells
Mucus secreting cells in mucous membranes, columnar epithelial cells that contain a large vacuole with mucus
Earth's Oxygen Atmosphere
Dry air contains roughly - by volume - 78.09% Nitrogen, and 20.95% Oxygen.
endotracheal intubation
the passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway
bronchoscopy
the visual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope
esophageal hiatus
hole in which the esophagus travels through the diaphragm to get to the stomach. It's a pronounced ring that can be torn or stretched.
thoracoscopy
minimally invasive surgery of the thoracic cavity; also referred to as video assisted thoracoscopic surgery or VATS - performed to obtain tissue biopsies of: lungs, mediastinal lymph nodes, or pleura
inhalation
inspiration - the act of breathing in
expiration
exhalation - , the process of breathing out
inspiration
the process of inhaling - is at a 1 to 2 ratio over expiration
exchange of gases
Occurs along the alveolar space across the respiratory membrane by diffusion.
3 factors that influence the rate of diffusion of oxygen and CO2 through the respiratory membrane are:
Partial pressure gradient of O2 and CO2
Area and thickness of the respiratory membrane - larger the area faster the rate of diffusion; thicker the membrane slower the rate of diffusion.
Solubility of the respiratory gases - higher the solubility, faster the rate of diffusion
diffusion
the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
pulse oximeter
an external monitor placed on the patient's finger or earlobe to measure the oxygen saturation level in the blood
lung capacity
the volume of air in the lungs - inhaled and exhaled during - normal respiration.
pneumonia
acute infection and inflammation in the lungs, caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or resulting from aspiration of chemicals - that impairsa the normal exchange of gases
chest tubes
following a cardiothoracic surgical procedure. It is a tube inserted to restore negative pressure to chest cavity for pneumothorax, chemothorax and pleural effusion
Surgical Technolgist specific procedures
thoracotomy
thorascopy
bronchoscopy
wedge resection
lobectomy
pneumonectomy (with or without lung transplant)
endoscopy
inspection of body organs or cavities using a lighted scope that may be inserted through an existing opening or through a small incision
lamina propria
Layer of connective tissue underlying the epithelium of skin or a mucous membrane.
thyroid cartilage
largest cartilage of larynx; Adam's apple. It is sometimes described as plow or shield shaped. It forms part of the walls of the glottis and is the insertion for the sternothyroid muscle
alkalosis
High blood pH (above 7.45) is called alkalosis. Severe alkalosis (when blood pH is more than 8) can also lead to death, as it often happens during last days or hours of life in most people who are chronically and terminally ill.
acidosis
Blood pH that drops below 7.0, can lead to a coma - and even death - due to severe acidosis
traumatic pneumothorax
results from injury, typically blunt force or penetrating trauma that disrupts the parietal or visceral pleura - typically occurs from knife wounds, gun shots.
cricoid cartilage
The ring shaped structure that forms the lower portion of the larynx.
Danger Areas during Hiatus surgery
Such as Hiatal hernia repair
bronchial glands
produce water which is released onto the surface of the airways and the water is used to control the visocity of the mucus
respiratory epithelium
A mucous membrane that lines the entire respiratory tract - which are Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar epithelium - containing goblet cells - they help transport mucus
parietal pleura
the outer layer of the pleura that lines the walls of the thoracic cavity, covers the diaphragm, and forms the sac containing each lung
visceral pleura
Lines the surface of the lung and follows the contours of the lung itself
pleurisy
inflammation of the pleura of the lungs (especially the parietal layer)
pleural effusion
accumulation of fluid within the pleural cavity
zero pressure
pressure in thoracic cavity is equal to atmospheric pressure
negative pressure
756 mmHg below atmospheric pressure where serous fluid causes visceral and pleural space to adhere to each other
positive pressure
Any rise above normal atmospheric pressure. Hyperbaric chambers for oxygen therapy & autoclaves, which use steam pressure for sterilization, are ex of equip using positive pressure.
muscles of inspiration
* Diaphragm
* External intercostals
muscles of expiration
* Abdominal muscles
* Internal intercostals
pneumonomelanosis
AKA: black lung cancer - lung disease often found in coal miners in which lung tissue becomes black due to breathing black dust
spiro
breathe - as in ex/spir/a/tion
re
again - as in re/generate
halo
breath out - as in ex/hale
exo
out - as in exo/crine
in
in, into, not - as in in/formation
oxo or oxia
oxygen
carbonic acid
a weak acid that forms when water mixes with carbon dioxide from air
tachypnea
an abnormally rapid rate of respiration, usually >20 breaths per minute
thorax or thorac/o
pleural cavity, chest
mediastenum
this pleural membrane cover the middle area - trachea, esophagus, bronchia
eupnea
normal relaxed breathing
rhino or naso
nose - as in rhino/plasty
pharyngo
throat; pharynx - as in pharyg/o/logist
glottis
the vocal apparatus of the larynx
laryngitis
inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx
tracheotomy
a surgical operation that creates an opening into the trachea with a tube inserted to provide a passage for air
pyo
pus - as in trache/o/py/o/sis
melano
black - as in melano/cyte
myco
fungus - as in pneumon/o/myc/o/sis
centesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid - as in amnio/centesis
pnea
breathing - as in a/pnea
a
no, not, without, or absence - as in a/phonia
phonia
sound or voice - as in a/phonia
rrhea
flow or discharge - as in gon/o/rrhea
rragia
bursting forth of blood - hem/o/rragia
scopy
process of visual examination - as in end/o/scopy
osis
abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
dys
bad, painful, difficult, abnormal
stomy
new opening
dyspnea
Difficulty breathing
pneumonitis
inflammation of the lungs
tracheorrhagia
hemorrhage of the trachea
pneumonomycosis
fungal infection of the lung
thoracocentesis
removal of fluid from the chest by centesis for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes
hemoptysis
coughing up blood from the respiratory tract
laryngostomy
creation of an artificial opening into the larynx
bronchoscopy
visual examination of the bronchi
chest X-ray
An X-ray image of the thoracic cavity used to diagnose TB, tumors, and other lung conditions; also called chest radiograph
diphtheria
acute contagious infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae
tuberculosis
infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)
upper respiratory infection
URI, infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi
coryza
(aka rhinitis or nasopharyngitis) Inflammation of the nasal mucosa, often caused by a viral infection AKA: the common cold.
rhinitis
inflammation of the nose
nasopharyngitis
inflammation of the nose and pharynx
tracheal rings
C shaped rings of cartilage that prevent the compression of the windpipe
bronchial tree
branched airways that lead from the trachea to the alveoli
pressure gradient
The difference in pressure between two locations, causing air to move as wind from areas of high pressure to low pressure.
cystic fibrosis
a human genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele for a chloride channel protein; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consquent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated (4% whites are carriers - most common lethal genetic disease)
anthracosis
A type of pneumoconiosis that develops from the collection of coal dust in the lung. Also called black lung or miner's lung.
asbestosis
Type of pneumoconiosis, caused by asbestos particles in the lungs and is found in workers from the ship building and construction trades
Broncho
bronchus, bronchi
cyan
blue
laryngo
larynx or voice box
Oxi
oxygen
Pharyngo
pharynx or throat
Phono
sound, voice
pleuro
pleura
Pnea
breathing
Pneumo
lungs; air
Pulmo
lung; pulmonary
Somno
sleep; dream
Spiro
breathe
Tachy
abnormally fast
Thoraco
thorax or chest
Tracheo
Trachea; windpipe
anoxia
lack of oxygen
anthracosis
the form of pneumoconios caused by coal dust in the lungs; also known as black lung disease
antitussive
Drug that suppresses the cough reflex
aphonia
absence of voice
apnea
cessation of breathing
asphyxia
a condition in which insufficient or no oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged on a ventilatory basis
asphyxiation
to cause to die or lose consciousness by impairing normal breathing, as by gas or other noxious agents; choke; suffocate; smother.
aspiration pneumonia
pneumonia that occurs when a foreign substance, such as vomit, food, etc. is inhaled in the lungs
asthma
a chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing
atelectasis
absence of gas from part or the whole of the lungs as a result of failure of expansion or reabsorption of gas from the alveoli - especially in infants
bradypnea
abnormally slow respiratory rate, usually less than 10 respirations per minute
bronchodilator
a drug that relaxes and dilates the bronchial passageways and improves the passages of air into the lungs, used to treat chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, and emphysema
bronchorrhea
term for the excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi
bronchoscopy
visual examination of the bronchi
bronchospasm
constriction of bronchi caused by spasm of the peribronchial smooth muscle
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
a pattern of alternating periods of hypopnea or apnea, followed by hyperpnea
croup
an acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and a barking cough
dysphonia
difficulty producing speech sounds, usually due to hoarseness
empyema
accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
epistaxis
nosebleed
hemothorax
accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity (the space between the lungs and the walls of the chest)
hypercapnia
the presence of an abnormally high level of carbon dioxide in the circulating blood
hyperpnea
excessive breathing that occurs normally after exercise, or abnormally with fever or various disorders
hypopnea
slow or shallow breathing
hypoxemia
deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
hypoxia
deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
laryngectomy
surgical removal of part or all of the larynx (usually to treat cancer of the larynx)
laryngoplegia
paralysis of the larynx
laryngoscopy
visual examination of the larynx
mediastinum
the part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymus
nebulizer
AKA: an atomizer - a device that pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a vapor, which is then inhaled by the patient via a face mask or mouthpiece
otolaryngologist
physician who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, and throat diseases
pertussis
Acute infectious disease characterized by a cough that has a "whoop" sound; also called whooping cough
pharyngitis
Inflammation of the pharynx; AKA: a sore throat.
pharyngoplasty
surgical repair of the pharynx
pleurectomy
Excision of part of the pareietal pleura; performed to reduce pain - caused by a tumor mass or to prevent the reocurrence of pleural effusion.
pleurodynia
pain in the chest caused by inflammation of the muscles between the ribs
pneumoconiosis
an abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs that usually develops after years of environmental or occupational contact - such as black lung disease
pneumonectomy
surgical removal of all or part of a lung - usually performed to treat lung cancer
polysomnography
AKA: a sleep apnea study - the diagnostic measurement of physiological activity during sleep -using a polygraph to make a continuous record of the sleep cycles
pulmonologist
A physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating the diseases and disorders of the lungs and respiratory system
pyothorax
Pus in the chest cavity
sinusitus
-An infection of the sinuses
-Ethmoid sinuses are most commonly affected due to their proximity of the nasal passages
-Upright sinus radiographs along with CT are helpful for diagnosis
-Chronic sinusitis can lead to polyps
-Treatment involves antiobiotics, and analgesics
-Severe cases may involve the surgical drainage and/or polyp removal
thoracentsis
surgical puncture to the chest wall to obtain fluid
thoracostomy
insertion of a tube into the chest for the purpose of draining off fluid or air.
tracheostomy
a surgical operation that creates an opening into the trachea with a tube inserted to provide a passage for air
Internal respiration
exchange of gases between the SYSTEMIC CAPILLARIES and the TISSUE cells of the body
alveolar ducts
fine tubes that carry air to air sacs of the lungs
Vital capacity
The amount of air that can be forcibly expelled from the lungs after breathing in as deeply as possible. Avg. 4000 - 5000mL
inspiratory reserve volume
maximal volume of air that can still be inspired beyond normal tidal volume exhalation
expiratory reserve volume
Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation
stoma
a mouth or mouthlike opening - especially one created by surgery on the surface of the body to create an opening to an internal organ
Breathing regulation
Controlled in brain stem. Pons regulates normal breathing. When the brain chord is severed above the medula the person breathes irregularly. The pons can change breathing in respons to increasing levels of CO2.
bronchial tree
bronchi and their branches(bronchioles) that carry air from trachea to alveoli of lungs