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Chapter 26B: Political Experiments of the 1920s
Terms in this set (43)
Black Shirt March (1922)
Italian fascists under Mussolini march on Rome. King Victor Emmanuel refuses to sign a decree that would allow the army to stop them. Results in the cabinet resigning. The monarch then tells Mussolini to become the prime minster. Mussolini would not have become PM if he had not made allies within the government months prior to the march.
Was a new system of reparation payments for Germany. Idea came from American banker Charles Dawes. Lowered the annual payments and allowed them to vary according to the fortunes of the Germany economy. The United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S.
Eamon de Valera
became First President of Sinn Fein. After the civil war between the Irish moderates and extremists, resigned his presidency and organized a resistance to the treaty.
Term describing the self-governing lands under the British empire. The Irish Free State was provided this as a provision of the treaty that ended the guerrilla war between the British army and their Irish supporters, the Black and Tans, and the IRA (Irish Republic Army).
Movement where single-party dictatorships arose from fears of the spread of Bolshevism. Right-winged. Originated with Mussolini in Italy. Were against democracy, Marxism, parliament, and were often anti-Semitic. Sought to make the world safe for the middle class, small businesses, owners of moderate amounts of property and small farmers (capitalists). Rejected French Revolution political thought and liberalism of the 19th century. Wanted to overcome Marxist class conflict by uniting classes within a nation.
Germany's currency, soon became worthless. Early 1921: German mark traded with American dollar is 64 to 1 compared with 4.2 to 1 in 1914. By 1923, American dollar is worth more than 800 million German marks.
General Strike of 1926 (Great Britain)
Because of wage cuts, coal miners go on strike. Sympathetic workers in other industries join them in a strike the lasts nine days. Lots of tension but with little violence. In the end, the strikers surrendered. After the strike, British government tries to appease workers through new housing and reforms in the poor laws.
Founder of the Sinn Fein. He was very involved in the Irish fight (both diplomatically and militarily) for Home Rule.
Was deeply affected by German nationalism, racism and extreme anti-Semitism that existed in Vienna. Began to hate Marxism, which he associated with Jews. Became associated with the Nazis during a period when the Social Democrats governed Munich. Eventually began to dominate within the party. Spoke highly of Mussolini's accomplishments.
Germany suffers from this after the war. French invasion of the Ruhr makes this situation worse. Eventually leads to unemployment, which creates a new drain on the treasury and reduces tax revenues. Middle and lower middle class suffered the most from this, and their savings, pensions insurance policies and investments in government bonds were all wiped out. However, farmers, speculators in land, real estate and industry did relatively well, and mortgages and debts could be easily paid off.
Irish Easter Monday Uprising (Rebellion) (1916)
Occurred in Dublin, was a nationalist uprising to the protest the postponing of the implementation of the Irish Home Rule Bill. Was the only rebellion of a national group to occur against any government engaged in war. When the leaders of this rebellion were executed, led to the Irish Party becoming the Sinn Fein.
Kapp Putsch (1920)
The right-wing "armed insurrection" attempts to seize power from the German Weimar Republic in Berlin. Led by a conservative civil servant and supported by army officers. The coup fails, but had collapsed only after the government fled the city and German workers carried out a general strike. Created additional problems for the Weimar Republic.
Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
The European powers, Japan and the United States agree to renounce "war as an instrument of national policy."
British political party founded in 1900 with the help of trade unions to represent the interests of the urban working class. MacDonald eventually leads this party towards becoming a ministry. Grew in power until it surpassed the liberal party, becoming a major party. Entered the House of Commons with votes from the Liberals. Were socialist in platform but were really democratic and non-revolutionary. Its decline in power in 1924 signaled a return to the conservative government.
Lateran Accord (Pact/Treaty) (1929)
Treaty between the church and Mussolini that allowed the Roman Catholic Church and the Italian state to make peace with each other. Recognized the pope as the temporal ruler of the independent state of Vatican City. The Italian government also agrees to compensate for the territory it confiscated by payment. Recognized Catholicism as the religion of the nation, exempted church property from taxes and allowed church law to govern marriage. Gave Mussolini respect.
Liberal Party (Great Britain)
The war divides this party. Party becomes divided between supporters of David Lloyd George and Herbert Asquith. Because of their division, were not able to win many seats in Parliament. George is eventually replaced with a conservative as prime minister. Never again will a member of this party be prime minister. Helped Labour Party get into House of Commons.
Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia. Had much to lose from the revision of the Versailles treaty. France makes military alliances with these states and with Poland.
France and Germany both accept the western frontier as legitimate; however, nothing is said about the eastern frontier. It also allowed Britain and Italy to intervene if one side violated the agreement or if Germany sent troops into the Rhineland. As a result:
- Germany: respectability and a guarantee against another Ruhr occupation in the East.
- Britain: allowed to play a more evenhanded role.
- Italy: recognized as a great power.
- France: Germans accept the permanence of their western front.
First Labour Party prime minister of Great Britain. His version of socialism was not like Marx's. Wanted social reform instead of nationalization or seizure of industry.
Was a leading noncommunist, socialist leader and member of Parliament that the fascists murdered. Had frequently criticized Mussolini and had exposed the criminality of the fascist movement. Deputies that were against the murder withdrew from parliament and were not given readmission. This gave Mussolini more freedom to do as he wished.
"Mein Kampf" ("My Struggle")
Book Hitler wrote while in prison. Hitler outlines key political views of anti-Semitism, opposition to Bolshevism (which he associated with Jews), and a belief that Germany must expand east into Poland and Ukraine to achieve greater living space. Was not taken seriously enough at the time.
Munich Beer Hall Putsch (1923)
Hitler, his followers, and General Ludendorff attempt a coup. Local authorities stop uprising, killing 16 Nazis. Hitler and Ludendorff are arrested for treason. Hitler uses the trial to make himself a national figure. In his defense, he condemns the republic, the Versailles treaty, the Jews, and the weakened condition of his country.
Italian leader of the Fasci di Combattimento or "Bands of Combat" where fascism originated. Initially supported socialism, but moved on to support nationalism when Italy entered the war. He and his fascists began to form local squads of terrorists who threatened and abused Socialists in Italy. He and his fascists controlled the local government in northern Italy in 1922. Eventually became prime minister of Italy after the Black Shirt March. Was granted dictatorial authority of one year to bring order to the government. By changing the election law, was able to transform Italy into a single-party dictatorial state.
National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazis)
Party in Munich, Germany that Hitler became associated with. Was a small nationalistic, anti-Semitic political party. Issued the Twenty-Five points. Originally had called for the nationalization (transfer to state ownership) of industry to compete with Marxist political parties for the vote of workers, but when this failed, manipulated the meaning of "socialist" and made it sound nationalistic. Their form of socialism was not orthodox and was actually the submission of all economic enterprise for the welfare of the entire nation. Found support among war veterans.
To get war payments from Germany, the French government ordered its troops to occupy this land of Germany's mining and manufacturing district; in response, the German government ordered resistance; this led to a strike. Poincare, the French minister, sends French civilians to take over German mines and railroads, so the French prevail. Despite the success of the confiscation, resulted in the alienation of France by Britain, as well as French and German inflation.
SA (Sturmabteilung) ("Storm Troopers")
Leader was Ernst Roehm. Was a paramilitary organization that initially provided its members with food and uniforms and eventually paid them. Were the chief Nazi instrument for terror and intimidation before they controlled the government. Attacked socialists and communists. Led to other paramilitary organizations of the Communists and Social Democrats being formed that weakened the Weimar Republic.
Sinn Fein ("Ourselves Alone") Movement
The Irish Party in Parliament becomes this after the execution of leaders of the Easter Monday Uprising. Refused to attend Parliament in Westminster after they won a majority of the seats, but instead formed their own Parliament, the Dail Eireann. Declared Irish independence in January 21, 1919. Created the IRA (Irish Republican Army) who fought a guerrilla war with the British. The treaty that ends the war results in a division between the Irish moderates and diehards. Eventually abolishes oath of allegiance to the monarch.
Social Democratic Party (Germany)
Headed the Weimar Republic.
Spartacist Group (Movement)
Led a communist uprising in Berlin that supported the efforts of the Bolsheviks.
Was primarily responsible for reconstructing the Weimar Republic and giving it a sense of self-confidence. As chancellor, decided to abandon the plan of resistance in the Ruhr because he believed Germany couldn't afford it. Introduced a new German currency. Moved against challenges from the left and right wings. Supported the resistance to Hitler's putsch and other disturbances. Became foreign minister in 1923 until his death. Although he was willing to accept the Versailles settlement in the west, was a revisionist in the east and wanted German territory back, and to reunite with Austria.
created by the Treaty of Versailles out of the ruins of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Were supposed to be a shield against the rise of Bolshevism. Included countries like Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Yugoslavia. Goal was to make new parliamentary governments function in a stable manner. Had economic difficulties, were not financially independent (except Czech), had to depend on trade with Germany, and consisted of agricultural, rural economies. All except Czechs surrendered to domestic authoritarian governments.
Twenty-five Points (1920)
Program issued by the National Socialist German Workers' Party. It called for:
1. the rejection of the Versailles treaty
2. the unification of Austria and Germany
3. exclusion of Jews from German citizenship
4. Agrarian (agricultural) reform
5. the prohibition of land speculation
6. the confiscation of war profits
7. state administration of giant business cartels
8 . the replacement of department stores with small retail shops
Weimar Republic (1919-1933)
German republic founded after the WWI and the downfall of the German Empire's monarchy. Was created from the defeat of the imperial army, the revolution against the Hohenzollerns, and the hopes of German Liberals and Social Democrats. Had accepted the provisions of the Versailles treaty; as a result, came to be associated with national disgrace. Its constitution did not receive loyalty from Germans, and permitted a temporary presidential dictatorship in an emergency, as well as allowed small extremist groups to get more power than they would have otherwise. Lacked support and coup attempts occur. Violence marked the first five years of this republic. Also suffered from inflation after the invasion of the Ruhr by the French.
____________ developed in the 20th century and is associated with Benito Mussolini. Characteristics include:
1. extreme, expansionist nationalism
2. dynamic and violent leader
3. glorification of war and the military
1. anti-democratic 2. anti-Marxist 3. anti-Semitic
Except for the period 1924-6, Conservatives remained in power and ________ enjoyed general prosperity until 1931, longer than any other European nation.
In 1923, France occupies the Ruhr to ensure German payment of its reparations. Germans refuse to work, so France sends French civilians to run the mines and railroads. However, the cost of the occupation led to dramatic ___________ in both Germany and France.
From 1922 onward, the British economy was depressed with unemployment never less than ___%. The government expanded insurance programs to cover unemployment, widows, and orphans.
The emergence of traditional conservative regimes in the ____________ of Eastern and Central Europe resulted from all of the following:
1. lack of a tradition of self-government
2. belief that authoritarian dictatorship would preserve national unity
3. large landowners who turned to dictators to protect them from radical political movement
The foreign policy of __________ after the first world war was to keep Germany weak and build a defensive alliance with the eastern countries that would replace the Dual Entente (France + Russa).
Irish Free State
Created after the treaty that ended the War between the British army and the Irish nationalists. Provided dominion status. The six countries were known as Ulster, aka Northern Ireland, and were allowed to remain a part of the UK.
Alexis de Tocqueville
After reading Gobineau's book, wrote him a letter in which he criticized racial determination of human actions. Also points out that the idea would be dangerous if it influenced the political life of nations with mass electorates.
Believed most people are racially mixed and that this mixture weakens human characteristics needed for physical and moral strength. Also believed that people who were assured of their racial purity could act with self-confidence and arrogance. His views had a major impact on the Nazi Party and others who wanted to use their racial superiority for political reasons.
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