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1,471 terms

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theory of evolution by natural selection
vast implications for psychology
Charles Darwin
functional, adaptive value of animal behaviors
Erasmus Darwin
Grandfather of Charles Darwin
early theory of evolution
famous intellectual
1731-1802
Charles Darwin - Early
medical school, Uni Edinburgh
studied geometry, classics, natural theology at Cambridge
mentored by Henslow, Sedgwick
John Stevens Henslow
1796-1861
teacher of Darwin
prof of Botany
scientific views colors by High church conservative
Adam Sedgwick
1785-1873
prof of geology
Anglican clergyman
scientific views clouded by High church conservatism
Sedgwick & Henslow
used clout to discredit anyone who endorse evolutionary ideas
influence destroyed their reps and careers
Charles Lyell
published Principles of Geology
promoted uniformitarianism
uniformitarianism
earth's major features result of gradual processes occurring over vast stretches of time, continued to move in present as much as past

alternative to catastrophism

required much more time than Ussher estimated
catasrophism
geological features arose because of few sudden and massive cataclysms
James Ussher
estimated that earth only 6000 years old
Irish archbishop
megatherium
fossilized remains of extict creature embedded in cliffs of argentina
animals that not make it on arc? or evidence that catasrophism wrong?
Darwin early insights
ask function of characteristic
understand usefulness
noted geographic distribution
Galapagos creatures
subtle variations btwn islands that were result of adaption to environment
argument from design
because of the purpose and order of things they must have a creator.-- organisms and their systems are too complex to have spontaneously appeared

William Paley
William Paley
argument from design
structure of an eye is cure for atheism.
Lamarck
species evolve and change owing to the inheritance of bodily changes produced by voluntary exercise or disuse of particular organ

not able to account for evolution of nonvoluntary characteristics e.g protective coloration
Species vs. breeds
genuine species maintain distinctive qualities automatically by breeding successfully only like with like

breeds artificially maintained, can interbreed
Thomas Malthus
human beings destined to live in poverty
capacity to increase population exceeds their capacity to increase food production

famine, disease, poverty serve as check on future population growth

stable population exist at subsistence level
normal outcome of human and social economic existience
natural selection
those that survive will disproportionately be best adapted to overcoming danger in that enviroment

if adaptive characteristics heriable, their offspring will survive in greater numbers and propagate in greater numbers than those without that trait

selective effects of nature go on much longer than breeders leading to species creation
Helmholtz
eye is optically imperfect, eye evolving organ, not deliberate design
Alfred Ruseel Wallace
naturalist
1858
outlined evolution by natural selective independently of Darwin
hastened Darwin's public presentation of the work
Thomas Henry Huxley
advocate of Darwin
expert in primate anatomy
debated Samuel Wilberforce - bishop of Oxford
archeopteryx
Advanced case for evolution
most ancient bird/dino
had wings
evidence that birds evolved from reptiles
1861
New Great Ape
Advanced case for evolution
sim anatomy to humans in ways that anti-evolutionists had argued where exclusively human
never before discovered 1861
Darwin on the Mind
human mental qualities understood as result of evolution
acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation
Descent of Man
Darwin
argued explicitly that humans descended from animal ancestors
Descent of Man - evidence
evidence in structural similarites btwn humans and higher animals
-bones, muscles, blood vessels, internal viscera, nerves, brain
-able to share diseases with animals
-rudimentary organs
-pass thru embryological development where they closed resembled animals
Descent of Man - mental faculties
no difference fundamentally btwn man and higher mammal in mental faculties
both have: courage,
kindness,
emotion experience sim in dogs
-jealousy
-pride
-shame
-humor
memory
attention
curiosity
dream - capacity for imagination
rudiments of reason
-learn from experience
-communicate
-gesture
difference is a diff of degree, not kind
Descent of Man on race
supported mongenist view
races all have similar structure
only accounted for by common ancestor
enviromental and education variables influenced indiv differences
as well as institutional factors like slavery
enviromental differences created the superficial differences btwn the races

skin color related to sun exposure
europeans had to be cleverer bc of the poor european winters
Structuralism (Theory)
Devoted to uncovering the basic structures that make up mind and thought--looking for the elements of conscious experience - Titchner
Objective Introspection
The process of reporting one's own conscious mental experiences
Functionalism (Theory)
Emphasizes the functions of consciousness and the ways consciousness helps people adapt to their environment
Psychodynamic (Theory)
Behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts; things we are likely not even aware of
free association
Freud's idea "Einfall" was translated to English into the term ________ which means something other than what Freud implied in the original German.
Kenneth Clark.
The first African American president of the APA was:
mechanism
The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry is:
experience
Empiricism attributes all knowledge to
J. Müller
Until the work of ________, experimentation was not the preferred method in physiology.
developed the idea of the pleasure principle.
While euphoric and suffering from delusions of grandeur, Fechner:
whether or not a stimulus is present or absent, sensed or not sensed.
Fechner proposed two ways to measure the lowest level of a sensation. One was the point of stimulus intensity below which no sensation is reported and above which subjects do experience a sensation; the other was:
the process of organizing mental elements into a whole.
Wundt's doctrine of apperception refers to:
Ebbinghaus
While Wundt had argued that learning and memory could not be studied experimentally, who soon proved him wrong?
Ladd-Franklin
Who scolded Titchener for still practicing "a very old fashioned standpoint" in excluding women from psychology meetings?
Washburn
Who was Titchener's first doctoral student?
To identify the physiological correlates of the elements.
The determination of the laws of association of elements of consciousness.
The reduction of conscious processes.
Which of the following was a topic to be explored by Titchener's psychology?
existential
By the 1920s, the term used by Titchener for his system of psychology was ________.
existed long before Titchener used the method.
Substantial doubts about, and attacks on, introspection:
develop a working vocabulary free of meaning.
Ordinary words such as "table" were not to be used by Titchener's introspectionists. Therefore, it became a goal to:
retrospection
Because some time elapsed between the experience and the reporting of it, critics charged that introspection was really a form of:
his experimental method and a strong position to protest.
The two most important contributions of Titchener's system to modern psychology are:
the work of Darwin and Galton and comparative research.
The most significant immediate antecedents of functionalism were:
There were too many identified species to fit two by two into a boat.
Why, after many centuries of accepting biblical stories, did scholars question the one about Noah's ark?
fact of variation among members of the species.
The most fundamental point of Darwin's theses was the:
Darwin had underestimated the power of natural selection.
under drought conditions, more thick- than thin-beaked birds survived and reproduced.
when heavy rains became common, birds with slender beaks flourished.
In the study of finches' beaks, the biologists Peter and Rosemary Grant found that:
comparative psychology.
The influence of Darwin's work can be seen most directly in:
eugenics
The early 20th-century American government policy of sterilizing mentally retarded females is an example of:
Galton
Who was the first to show that human mental characteristics followed a normal distribution?
the effects of childhood experiences on the adult.
Galton found that a substantial proportion of word associations were evidence of:
studied psychic phenomena and moved away from scientific psychology.
James was vocally criticized by other early psychologists because he:
William James
Although it took twelve years to complete, this person's great book on psychology represented a commitment to evolutionary principles and a rejection of Wundt's approach to psychology.
the changing nature of consciousness prevents its analysis into mental elements.
William James used the term "stream of consciousness" to indicate that:
Calkins
In contemporary measures of memory, a common task is to assess one's learning of paired associates. This technique was developed by:
the variability hypothesis.
Hollingworth's research refuted:
child development.
Hall's Pedagogical Seminary reflected his early interest in:
Hall
The introduction of psychoanalysis to the American public was accomplished by:
recapitulation theory.
The notion that children's development reflects the history of the human race is the:
Behavior cannot be properly understood or analyzed into simple stimulus-response units. Behavior must be understood in terms of its result and the adaptive significance of the behavior to the organism.
John Dewey is credited with initiating the early development of functional psychology in his paper entitled, "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology." What was the major point that Dewey made in this paper?
adaptive and essential for an organism's survival.
For Angell, the fact that consciousness exists demonstrates that it is:
literary and artistic creations of a culture
Like Wundt, Carr proposed that studying ________ would illuminate mental processes.
his meeting with Galton while at Cambridge University.
Cattell's interest in mental tests probably was aroused most by:
Binet
The first effective tests of mental faculties were developed by:
Lillian Gilbreth
The first person to earn a PhD in industrial/organizational psychology was:
Münsterberg's
Whose therapeutic technique might be described as "therapist-centered?"
polygenists
different races difference species of being
monogenist
common ancesrty and relatedness of all human groups
sexual selection
gradual selection and evolution of characteristics that are specifically favorable for reproductive success

creates pressure for a particular type of beauty
Darwin on Sexual Selection
influence in human evolution
resulting in characteristic mental and physical differences
w more tender and less selfish for maternal instincts
m must compete w/ other men - > makes him more ruthless, clever, and selfish
complementarity
men and women evolved so as to manifest seperate psychological characteristics that complement each other
variation hypothesis
males more modified by evolution
show more variation than females
males have greater range
expression of emotion - Darwin
three general principles could account for all emotional expression
1) direct serviceability of the expression
2) antithesis of direct serviceability
3) direct activation of the nervous system
human emotions similar throughout human groups
biographical sketch of an infat
observations of son in early stages of life
roles of instinctive reflexes and other sensibilities in an increading effective adaptation to the world

in general this was done by gradual strenthening, complication, and fusion of simple seperate tendencies
recapitualtion
individuals stages and patterns consistent with earilier and less highly evolved species
suggested each indiv retain rudiments of the long evolutionary past

aid Darwin's argument of evolution
social darwinism
popularized by philosopher Herbert Spencer

evolution highly desirable progress
presumed vechiule is unbridled competition amoung indivs
justification for system of unregulated free enterprise
Spencer
early supporter of Lamarack's theory of evolution
synthetic philosophy
synthetic philosophy
spencer fused bio, psych, sociology, anthropology

indiv organisms etc all tend to evolve from relatively simple and homog entities into complex heterogenous ones
George J. Romanes
comparative psychology
Animal intelligence, Mental Evolution in ANimals
study similarities betwenn various animals
evolution contrib to psychology
focus on issue of variation and differences within indivs

shift psych to focus on functional and differential
Cattel
-student of Wundt (American)
-did studies with light intensity and shock
-him and Berger were only subjects
-simple RT
-discrimination RT (reaction with perception time), and choice RT (reaction with perception and will time)
-Used Donder's system to arrive at above
-T-scope: allowed you to flip card for controlled amount of time
fractionation
seperation of task into its components, each of which could be introspected (Kulpe)
Reverend William Paley
-arguement from design
-need a supreme being to watch over complex nature
Zoonomia
-Erasmus Darwin
-theory of creation
-theory of transmutation
Jean Baptiste de Lamarck
-chain of being theory: all the species on earth could be arranged on a linear scale with reference to their complexity
-inheritance of acquired characteristics
Charles Darwin
-studied at Edinburgh, then Cambridge
-Reverend John Henslow (botany teacher and mentor)
-Reverend Adam Sedgwick (geologist and mentor)
-captain Robert FitzRoy, captain of the H.M.S. Beagle
-primary focus of the Beagle to survey the southern coasts of South America
-Galapagos Islands
-finches differed from island to island
-presented his theory to the Linnean Society
catastrophism
-world was created through catastrophes
-supported God within scientific theory
-Sedwick, Darwin's mentor supported it.
uniformitarianism
-change occurs slowly in planet to cause geological changes
-endorsed by Charles Lyell
The 2 clues that led Charles Darwin to his theory of evolution.
1st clue: Political economist Thomas Malthus suggested that the poor should not be supported under England's government. Believed that the fittest would survive and that this would create population control so that they wouldn't be in crisis because of resources.
2nd clue: farmer were using artificial selection to create different breeds of pigeons.
What caused Charles Darwin to publish?
Alfred Russel Wallace wrote a letter to Darwin. It's contents contained a theory of evolution similar to his own.
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life
-written by Charles Darwin
-sold out first day
-contained theory of evolution
Thomas Huxley
Darwin's Bulldog
The Descent of Man
-written by Charles Darwin
Selection in Relation to Sex
-written by Charles Darwin
Expressions of the Emotions in Man and Animals
-written by Charles Darwin
What was Charles Darwin's primary contribution to psychology?
-functionalism
-comparative psychology (systematic study of similarities and differences among all animal species)
How did Charles Darwin mimic real life emotions in other people?
-galvanization
-identified the muscles associated with emotions
-originally thought to observe children and insane because they wouldn't have normal inhibitions.
What did Darwin find by studying the expressions of animals?
1. The principle of serviceable associated habits: sneering started from the reaction we gave to people when they smelled bad
2. Principle of antithesis: emotions that are opposite of each other are expressed in bodily reactions that are opposed.
3. Direct action of the nervous system: side effects of physiological arousal
George Romanes
The Anecodotal Method
-excited over Darwin's theory (& his protege)
-investigated the levels of mental ability that could be found in other species
-founder of comparative psychology
Animal Intelligence
-written by Geroge Romanes
-a detailed catalog of animal behavior from insects to primates
-tends to be anthropomorphic and anecdotal
Francis Galton
-won medal from Royal Geographical Society for exploring South Africa
-found that all finger prints were unique
-pioneered surveys and twin studies
-eugenics (artificial selection in humans for intelligence)
-tested senses for intelligence
-believed women were inferior because of their inferior senses
-invented the statistical concept of correlation
-did studies with mental imagery and free association
-created a word association test
-tried to empirically see if prayer was effective (saw no evidence)
-Anthropometric Laboratory
Hereditary Genius
-written by Francis Galton
-intelligence is innate
English Men of Science: Their Nature and Nurture
-written by Francis Galton
-gave questionnaires to The Royal Society (the scientific elite of England)
William James
1st psychology lab in America
Edward Bradford Titchener
-setup lab at Cornell
-1st graduate student was a woman
-tried to transplant Wundt's psychology
-defines structuralism and brings it to America
Introspection (Wundt)
-had to be trained to do
-must have lazer like view of mind
-must use type of stimulus that can be quantified
-gave subjects warning of stimulus
-must be repeatable
-must catalogue essence of mind
-sensations and emotions
Sir Charles Lyell
-Principles of Geology
-Darwin took his book on his trip
-believed world was older than currently believed (6,000 years old)
-gave the amount of time for Darwinian evolution to take place
-believed physical features were developed by natural forces
Thomas Malthus
-population growth in Britain and economic growth with it
-struggle for population
Herbert Spenser
-survival of the fittest
-comparable psychology
-inheritance of elements in men and animals
Karl Pearson
-opened eugenics lab for Galton at the University of London
-wanted to measure differences in people
-discovered regression towards the mean (Pearson's R)
-tall parents have shorter children, short parents have taller children.
1965
In what year did the Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences begin publication?
history
Psychology is marked by diversity and divisiveness. The one aspect of the discipline that provides cohesiveness and a common ground for discourse is its:
experimentation
The hallmark of psychology's separation from philosophy was its reliance on:
altered and/or deleted some of Jung's writings to present him in a manner suiting his family and followers.
An "autobiography" of Jung was evidently written not by Jung but by an assistant who:
free association
Freud's idea "Einfall" was translated to English into the term ________ which means something other than what Freud implied in the original German.
Kenneth Clark.
The first African American president of the APA was:
personalistic
The viewpoint that whatever discovery was about to happen today, Freud would discover it would be an argument for which of the following theories?
his findings challenged the prevailing view in stimulus-response (S-R) learning theory.
In the 1970s, the publication of the research of John Garcia was significantly delayed because:
scientific revolution
In Kuhn's philosophy of science, when Einstein's theory of relativity replaced Galilean-Newtonian physics, a(n) ________ occurred.
mechanism
The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry is:
developed the idea of the pleasure principle.
While euphoric and suffering from delusions of grandeur, Fechner:
whether or not a stimulus is present or absent, sensed or not sensed.
Fechner proposed two ways to measure the lowest level of a sensation. One was the point of stimulus intensity below which no sensation is reported and above which subjects do experience a sensation; the other was:
introspection
Titchener discarded aspects of Wundt's system, including:
Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice (1901-1905).
One of Titchener's most profound influences on the development of experimentation in psychology was his publication:
Washburn
Who was Titchener's first doctoral student?
To identify the physiological correlates of the elements.
The determination of the laws of association of elements of consciousness.
The reduction of conscious processes.
Which of the following was a topic to be explored by Titchener's psychology?
existential
By the 1920s, the term used by Titchener for his system of psychology was ________.
existed long before Titchener used the method.
Substantial doubts about, and attacks on, introspection:
develop a working vocabulary free of meaning.
Ordinary words such as "table" were not to be used by Titchener's introspectionists. Therefore, it became a goal to:
retrospection
Because some time elapsed between the experience and the reporting of it, critics charged that introspection was really a form of:
his experimental method and a strong position to protest.
The two most important contributions of Titchener's system to modern psychology are:
the work of Darwin and Galton and comparative research.
The most significant immediate antecedents of functionalism were:
fact of variation among members of the species.
The most fundamental point of Darwin's theses was the:
Darwin had underestimated the power of natural selection.
under drought conditions, more thick- than thin-beaked birds survived and reproduced.
when heavy rains became common, birds with slender beaks flourished.
In the study of finches' beaks, the biologists Peter and Rosemary Grant found that:
comparative psychology.
The influence of Darwin's work can be seen most directly in:
eugenics
The early 20th-century American government policy of sterilizing mentally retarded females is an example of:
Galton
Who was the first to show that human mental characteristics followed a normal distribution?
the effects of childhood experiences on the adult.
Galton found that a substantial proportion of word associations were evidence of:
stimulation of the development of comparative psychology.
Despite Romanes's deficiencies in methodology, he is respected by scientists for his:
Spencer
Who did Darwin call "our philosopher"?
Each nation should have a social welfare program that supports the poor.
Which of the following statements is NOT part of social Darwinism?
studied psychic phenomena and moved away from scientific psychology.
James was vocally criticized by other early psychologists because he:
William James
Although it took twelve years to complete, this person's great book on psychology represented a commitment to evolutionary principles and a rejection of Wundt's approach to psychology.
the changing nature of consciousness prevents its analysis into mental elements.
William James used the term "stream of consciousness" to indicate that:
Calkins
In contemporary measures of memory, a common task is to assess one's learning of paired associates. This technique was developed by:
the variability hypothesis.
Hollingworth's research refuted:
child development.
Hall's Pedagogical Seminary reflected his early interest in:
Hall
The introduction of psychoanalysis to the American public was accomplished by:
recapitulation theory.
The notion that children's development reflects the history of the human race is the:
Behavior cannot be properly understood or analyzed into simple stimulus-response units. Behavior must be understood in terms of its result and the adaptive significance of the behavior to the organism.
John Dewey is credited with initiating the early development of functional psychology in his paper entitled, "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology." What was the major point that Dewey made in this paper?
adaptive and essential for an organism's survival.
For Angell, the fact that consciousness exists demonstrates that it is:
literary and artistic creations of a culture
Like Wundt, Carr proposed that studying ________ would illuminate mental processes.
to embrace it.
The American public's response to the new science of psychology was:
his meeting with Galton while at Cambridge University.
Cattell's interest in mental tests probably was aroused most by:
study whatever they liked.
Unlike Titchener, Cattell believed graduate students should:
Binet
The first effective tests of mental faculties were developed by:
separate the neurotic from the average recruit.
Woodworth's Personal Data Sheet was designed to:
Goodenough
Who developed the Draw-A-Man Test, a widely used nonverbal intelligence test for children?
Münsterberg
Who wrote Psychotherapy?
Lillian Gilbreth
The first person to earn a PhD in industrial/organizational psychology was:
Münsterberg's
Whose therapeutic technique might be described as "therapist-centered?"
Three elements of Sensation
1. Modality
2. Intensity
3. Quality
Three elements of Feelings
1. pleasant-unpleasant
2. excitement-calm
3. strain-relaxation
Tichener's school of psychology?
Structuralism: focus on immediate conscious experience
Elements of Conscious Experience
1. Sensations
2. Images
3. Affective States
Books by Galton
1. Hereditary Genius: An inquiry in to its Laws and Consequences
2. English Men of Science: Their Nature and Nurture
3. Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development
Stream of Consciousness
By William James. Is always continuous, changing, selective, and adaptive.
The Empirical Self
By William James

1. Material Self
2. Social Self
3. Spiritual Self
William James on Memory
1. Primary memory: information in consciousness
2. Secondary memory: information that must be retrieved back into consciousness
Name the three Gestalt psychologists
1. Max Wertheimer
2. Kurt Koffka
3. Wolfgang Kohler
Phi Phenomenon
an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession: by Wertheimer. Believed two sensations our often interpreted as one.
Insight learning
also called reasoning; learning process in which an animal applies something it has already learned to a new situation without a period of trial and error
Freuds Studies on Hysteria
1. Repression: truamatic experiences are blocked from consciousness
2. The unconscious: lack of conscious awareness of motives
3. Seduction theory:
Henry Goddard
1. Translated the Binet-Simon into English
2. Made family tree of the "Kallikaks"- to show feeble mindedness was a part of genetics
3. Eugenics meets politics
4. Deporting the "feeble-minded"
William James
1.Stream of consciousness
2. Habits
Stream of consciousness is. . .
1. Adaptive
2. Selective
3. Continuous
4. Changing
Habit
pysiological basis and adaptive

described as a worn in coat with creases in the elbows that cannot be undone
Hugo Munsterberg
Industrial-Organizational psychology: certain people adapt to certain jobs better.
Three books by Sir Francis Galton
1. Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry in to its Laws and Consequences-- Children of prominent scientists were also scholars

2. English Men of Science: Their Nature and Nurture-- nature and nurture influence genious

3. Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development--Identical versus non identical twins. Intellectually sameness in monozygotic twins.
Alfred Binet
Used Binet-Simon scale to calculate mental age. Found IQ: Mental age/Chronical age*100. First successful intelligence tests.
Mary Whiton Calkins
American psychologist who conducted research on memory, personality, and dreams; first woman president of the American Psychological Association.

Developed paired associate learning

Never awarded a PhD from Harvard
William James on the Empirical Self
1. Material self: what physical stuff any person owns
2. Social self: different selves in different contexts

3. Spiritual self: Inner self
Self Esteem
Successes divided by pretensions
William James on Memory
Primary Memory: information in consciousness

Secondary Memory: information that must be retrieved back into consciousness
Edward Chace Tolman on Intervening Variable
Psychologists at the time believed that it was a simple stimulus --> response

Tolman believed that there is some other process going on in between the stimulus and response stage. This stage "O" is what is happening within the organism.

He demonstrated this through cognitive maps, and the rat maze.
Tolman on latent learning
Latent learning is learning without reinforcement. Rats in maze; never reinforced would learn later if reinforced.
Wertheimer Phi Phenomenon
Seperate stimuli can be perceived as one stimulus.
Anecdotal method
The use of observational reports about animal behavior.
Romans
Introspection by analogy
A technique for studying animal behavior by assuming that the same mental processes that occur in the observer's mind also occur in the animal's mind.
Romans
Law of Parsimony
(Lloyd Morgan's Canon): The notion that animal behavior must not be attributed to a higher mental process when it can be explained in terms of a lower mental process.
Menta Tests
Tests of motor skills and sensory capacities; intelligence tests use more complex measures of mental abilities.
Assumption based on Locke's empiricism
Functionalism
how the organism uses the mind to adapt to the environment, American, Applied
Charles Darwin
academic problems, partied a lot
On the Origin of Species

Overall Hypothesis: continuity in mental functioning between humans and lower animals
Implied study animal behavior vital to understanding human behavior
Evolutionary theory changed subject matter of psychology from elements of consciousness
to functions of consciousness
Goal became how organism functioned in adapting to their environments
Methods and techniques were broadened in scope
Increased focus on individual differences and their measurement
Thomas Malthus
Essay on the Principle of Population (1789)
Food supply increases arithmetically
Human population increases geometrically
Results= many humans live in near-starvation state
Only the most aggressive, intelligent and flexible will survive
Lamarck
(1809) Modification of Animal's Bodily Form
changes in form due to experiences are inheritable
precursor to epicgenetics
Thomas Henry Huxley
Champion of Darwin's theory
Debate on theory of evolution at Oxford:
Huxley versus bishop Samuel Wilberforce who defended the bible and Robert Fitzroy
Robert Fitzroy
captain of HMS Beagle
blamed himself for giving Darwin chance to collect data. Committed suicide 5 years later
Alfred Russel Wallace
wrote Darwin about a theory of evolution similar to Darwin's
not bitter over Darwin's fame; instead was happy to have brushed fame and content to have spurred Darwin to complete his book
1871: The Descent of Man
Evidence for human evolution from lower forms of life
Emphasized similarity between animal and human processes
1877: A Biographical Sketch of an Infant
Based on his son's developmental stages
Francis Galton
Individual Differences
Invented periscope
(no bases of opportunity)
Established eugenics laboratory at University College, London
founded organization for promoting racial improvement
Developed mean and standard deviation
Produced correlation measure
Pearson's r
The association of ideas
first extensive use of psychological questionnaire
Determined imagery distributed normally in the population
Found similar images more likely to occur between siblings than between unrelated persons
Arithmetic by smell
Self-induced paranoia
1869: Hereditary Genius
Galton, Eminent men have eminent sons
Specific forms of genius inherited
Founded eugenics: improve inherited human traits through artificial selection
Applied statistical concepts to heredity problems
Quetelet
first to apply statistical methods and normal curve to biological and social data
George John Romanes
Formalized and systematized study of animal intelligence
Selected by Darwin to apply theory of evolution to the mind
1883: Animal Intelligence
Romanes
First book on comparative psychology
Purpose:
Demonstrate a high level of animal intelligence
Similarity of animal intelligence to human intellectual functioning
Continuity in mental development
Conway Lloyd Morgan
law of parsimony
Goal: give comparative psychology a more scientific basis
Believed most animal behavior due to learning based on sensory experience
First to conduct large-scale experimental studies in animal psychology
comparative psychology
Regard each anatomical structure as a utilitarian element in a total living adaptive system
Help lay the ground work for Functional psychology
Herbert Spencer
odd, By age 35: neurotic ailment
Social darwinism, Principle of "survival of the fittest"
Dynamic Psychology
Robert Woodworth's system of psychology, which was concerned with the influence of causal factors and motivations on feelings and behavior.
Pragmatism
The doctrine that the validity of ideas is measured by their practical consequences.
Recapitulation theory
Hall's idea that the psychological development of children repeats/reflects the history of the human race.
Reflex Arc
The connection between sensory stimuli and motor responses.
Stream of Consciousness
William James's idea that consciousness is a continuous flowing process and that any attempt to reduce it to elements will distort it.
Synthetic Philosophy
Herbert Spencer's idea that knowledge and experience can be explained in terms of evolutionary principles.
Organism survival depends on adaptation to the environment
Variability Hypothesis
The notion that men show a wider range and variation of physical and mental development than women; the abilities of women are seen as more average.
Social Darwinism
application of the theory of evolution to human nature and society
Henry Hollerith
invented information-processing method
started own company, tabulating machine company, which eventually turned into the IBM corporation
William James
anticipator of Functional Psychology
Pioneer of new scientific psychology in the United States
Not an experimentalist in attitude or action
Frequent journeys abroad, particularly when ill
Caught his hotel room on fire with his chem set
failed artist
After reading about free will decided 1st act of free will would be to believe in it
Writes his wife about how he fell in love with an Italian women
Birth of children: made him nervous and jealous
philosopher
Wrote with a clarity rare in science
Opposed Wundt's goal of psychology
Offered alternative view of the mind
The cultural climate what ready for what he had to say
Living creatures are "bundles of habits"
neurasthenia
Americanitis
Most typically afflicted: Educated and self-aware people
Often led to career postponement
mid-life crisis
1890: Principles of Psychology published
Great success
Influential
Panned (criticized) by Wundt and Titchner
Panned by James (himself):
"There is no such thing as a science of psychology"
"[James] is an incapable"
Hugo Munsterberg
studied under Wundt in the first lab, among the first to apply psychology to industry
accused of being a spy
died lecturing during class
Phenomena
the subject matter is the immediate experience
Conditions
the importance of the body
Especially the brain
psychologists' fallacy
James, Introspection does not show elements exist independently of the observer: simple sensations do not exist in consciousness experience they are inferred
Jame's Theory of Emotion
physical arousal/response precedes emotion
bodily change is the emotion
if no bodily change, then no emotion
Granville Stanley Hall
First American doctorate in psychology
Second American student in first year of first psychology laboratory
Began first psychology laboratory in the US
Began first American journal of psychology
First president of Clark University and APA
One of the first applied psychologists
Receptive to women and minority students at graduate level and to Jewish faculty
Instrumental in founding of APA
self-promotion, untrustworthiness, and deviousness
Pedagogical Seminary reflected his early interest in child development
Francis Cecil Sumner
1st African American Ph.D. in psychology
Studied under Hall became chair of psychology at Howard University (black Harvard)
Translated foreign language journal articles for American journals
Harry Kirk Wolfe
Second American to get PhD. with Wundt -1886
four months earlly James McKeen Cattell
Established first undergraduate psychology lab - 1889
At University of Nebraska (Lincoln)
Where he went to undergrad
Helped Hall found:
The American Journal of Psychology
APA
Devoted his life to training undergraduates in psychology
John Dewey
first American textbook in psychology
Proper subject for psychology: study of the total organism as it functions in its environment
Consciousness results in appropriate responses for survival
Functional psychology: study of the organism in use
Argued structure and function cannot be meaningfully separated
Influenced development of the philosophical framework for functionalism
Behavior cannot be properly understood or analyzed into simple stimulus-response units. Behavior must be understood in terms of its result and the adaptive significance of the behavior to the organism.
The reflex arc concept in psychology
Dewey
Attacked molecularism, elementism, and reductionism of reflex arc
Suggested reflex is a circle rather than an arc
Behavior cannot be reduced to sensorimotor elements
Consciousness cannot be meaningfully analyzed into elements
Artificial analysis removes all meaning, leaves a construct
Behavior should be treated in terms of its significance to the organism as it functions in its environment
James Rowland Angell
Made functionalism into a working school/ functional enterprise
Made the University of Chicago the most influential
Function of consciousness: to improve the organism's adaptive abilities
Goal of psychology: to study how the mind assists the adjustment of the organism to its environment
Angell's Three Themes of Psychology
The psychology of mental operations
How a mental process operates
What it accomplishes
Under what conditions it occurs

The psychology of the fundamental utilities of consciousness
Mediates needs of organism and demands of the environment it has survived
Must be essential
Must identify what service consciousness provides

The psychology of psychological relations
No distinction between mind and body
Total relation of organism to its environment
Harvey A. Carr
Functionalism peaked
1925: Psychology
His finished form of functionalism
The subject matter is mental activity/processes, including memory, perception, feeling, imagination, judgment, will
Function of mental activity
to acquire, fixate, retain, organize and evaluate experiences
To then use these experiences to determine one's actions
Adaptive behavior: are the specific form of action in which mental activities appear
Robert Sessions Woodworth
Not a formal member of school of functionalism, Would be too confining
1921: Psychology (best selling introductory text)
Subject matter: consciousness and behavior
Introspection necessary to know what occurs inside the organism
Observational and experimental methods also necessary
Dynamic psychology- concerned with the causal factors and motivation in feelings and behavior
Dynamic psychology concerned with motivation
Elaborated on Dewey and James, wanted to develop "motivology"
Emphasized physiological events underlying behavior
Focused on cause-and-effect relationships
Psychology's goal: determine why people behave as they do
Dynamic Psychology (1918)
Psychological knowledge
Begins with investigation of nature of the stimulus and the response
Should be both external, objective
Most important part: the living organism
Stimulus not the single cause of a response
Organism also acts to determine the response
Psychology must consider the organism as interpolated between the stimulus and response
Calkins
remembering paired associations
Hollingworth
research refuted the variability hypothesis
IQ
A number denoting a person's intelligence, determined by the following formula: mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100.
Mental Age
The age at which children of average ability can perform certain tasks.
Binet (?)
Mental Tests
Cattell
Tests of motor skills and sensory capacities; intelligence tests use more complex measures of mental abilities.
James McKeen Cattell
Advocated a pragmatic, test-centered approach to analyses of mental processes
focused on human abilities, not elements of consciousness
One of first in U.S. to stress quantification, ranking, ratings
developed ranking method
First psychologist to teach statistical analysis of experimental results
encouraged the use of large groups of subjects interested in Galton's eugenics
Binet
Used more complex measures than Cattell did for testing intelligence
Provided effective measure of cognitive abilities
Initiated modern intelligence testing
Conclusion: Cognitive functions reflect intelligence, sensorimotor responses do not
Henry Goddard
Translated Binet's test from French to English
Worked with mentally-retarded children at the Vineland School
Used the term "moron" in describing low intelligence scores
Lewis Terman
Developed the now standard version of Binet's test: The Stanford- Binet
Robert Yerkes
staff of 40 psychologists to develop group test
Lightner Witmer
Began "clinical psychology"
Not same as today's clinical psychology
Did not use psychotherapy, which he "detested"
Assessed and treated learning and behavior problems
Today his work would be called "school psych"
Experimental research on individual differences and pain
Goal: application of psychology to abnormal behavior
Demand for educational psychology courses
Advocated early childhood enrichment
involved families and schools in treatment plans
Walter Dill Scott
First to apply psychology to advertising, personnel selection, management
1st professor of applied psychology
Founded 1st psychological consulting company
First psychologist to receive Army Distinguished Service Medal
Advertising executive asked him to apply psychology to improving advertising
Consumers: not rational, easily influenced
Focused on emotion, sympathy, and sentimentality to increase suggestibility
law of suggestibility
use direct commands
return coupons
Developed rating scales and group tests of successful employees
Group tests of intelligence and other abilities
Wilhem Wundt (1832-1920) German
Founding father of psychology as a discipline
created first lab in Germany in 1879.
Wilhelm Wundt studies these topics in his lab..(The university of Leipzig
visual illusions
color perception
emotional reactions to external stimuli
reaction time
perception
apperception
wundt employed the term "apperception" to refer to what phenomenon?
reaction to complex stimuli, combining detection of stimulation and emotional reactions.
wundts favorite label (in translation) for his approach to psychology was not
introspection but rather voluntarism.
introspection (wundt)
examining our own conscious mind
based on techniques developed by fechner
experimenters are trained to observe their own
perceptual experiences.
Wundts theories
volunatarism
Further, Wundt's voluntarism reflected his belief that "the mind is a creative, dynamic, and volitional force...[which] must understood through an analysis of its activity--its processes"
tridimensional of feeling (wundt)
pleasure-displeasure
tension-relaxation
excitement-depression
wundts theory
he thinks mind and body are parallel but not interacting
Hermann ebbinghaus (1850-1990) Germany
introduced human learning and memory
-Used self as subject
-Counted trials to criterion
-Memorized new list every day.

learning curve
main contribution: variables
George Elias Muller
invented memory drum
extended feshners work on color vision
franz bretano
studied mental activity not content
key figure in "act psychology"
studied mental activity and process rather than content and structure.
ecological validity
Carl Stumpf
music student at university of Wurzberg
advocated phenomenology
fought with wundt about reliability of reports
Oswald Kulpe
studied under wundt at leizpig,became Wundts assistant
prof at university of wurzberg
considered to have founded wurzberg school
advocated experimental study of higher thought
established competing lab
wurzberg school in the 19th century
mainly focused on studies of conscious perceptual experience and memory.
stressed full descriptions not simple measurements
asserted existence of "imageless thoughts" seperate from sensory experience.
Francis Galton
fingerprinting,photography,cartography
developing statistical measures for prediction of variables
studying family resemblance in cognitive abilities
pioneering in the measurement of intelligence
George Romanes
animal intelligence
Edward B. Titchener british
student of wundt
made up structuralism(mind/body problem)
he created stimulus error- to argue that if you disagree with him you arent well trained like him
Margaret floy washburn
first phd student of titchener
but still wouldnt let her join his experimentalist group
william james
principle of psychology 1890
webner-fechner law
2 small weights get put into a bucket that are about the same as the ones in the bucket already it doesnt make a huge difference
ex kitty litter adding 5lbs to a 50lb bag of little isnt going to make a difference as it would by adding 5lbs to a 10lb bag
lloyd morgan
famous principle "morgan canon"
is similiar to occams razor
simple is better
charles darwins work made psych releveant because
it called attention to the bio signifigance of individual difference
established relevance of research w/ animals to human behavior
it gave credibility to researchers studying organism in their natural habitats
what did william james conclude about wundts and titcheners elements of perception
they were artificial results of expectations that didnt exist unless people tried to study them
Determinism
all behavior has causal explanations.
Biological determinism
emphasizes the importance of physiological conditions and/or genetic predispositions in explaining behavior
Environmental Determinism
emphasizes the importance of environmental stimuli as determinants of behavior.
Sociocultural determinism
emphasizes cultural or societal rules, regulations, customs, and beliefs that govern human behavior
Indeterminism
human behavior may be determined but the causes cannot be accurately measured
Nondeterminism
science is not a way to study humans;Humans behavior is freely chosen and self-generated
Hard determinism
Causes behavior in an automatic, mechanistic manner;Notion of personal responsibility is meaningless
Soft Determinism
Cognitive processes intervene between experience and production of behavior;
a person is responsible for actions
subjective reality
how you experience the world
Phantom limb
feeling in a limb that isn't there
Led psychologist to study sensation and perception
American/French revolution soldier injuries
Thomas biscof
wanted to see if there were consciousness after beheading ,face twitching after beheading call name after beheading or let them smell something and no reaction. reflexes can still happen - muscles can contract from lack of water and oxygen, cuticle and tissues reseed, nails don't really grow.
Why Germany for Biscof's early work?
Germans defined science broadly
history, literary criticism, linguistics, applied logic Germans wanted to apply scientific method to human behavior
Reform movement in education
( you teach what ever you think is important in your discipline)
What were other European colleges teaching?
Most of europe you learned about religion and latin but not much of a liberal arts education
church dictated what was taught
Charles Bell
Demonstrated that there are separate nerves for sensory and motor functions
sensory neurons come in the back motor goes out the front
Magendie
Found similar results as Charles Bell thus the "bell-magendie" law
Bells paralyses
paralysis after a stroke
Johannes Muller
developed the doctrine of specific nerve energies
Doctrine of specific nerve energies
each nerve responds in its own characteristic way regardless of the stimulation that activated it.
Helmholtz
Materialist -Life can be explained in chemical and physical processes, Speed of nerve conduction
165-330 feet per second. theory of color vision, Resonance place theory of auditory perception - interpret sound at a pitch based on where it is vibrating on the membrane
very little practical application
Christine Ladd Franklin
Evolutionary theory of color vision
black and white- blue and yellow - red and green
her research "fell into neglect" because she was a woman
Franz Josef Gall personal life
began studying for the priesthood and could not do it, he became a surgeon and anatomist
he was excommunicated because his work was ungodly, had several wives supported many households, church not super on board
Phrenology
Human "faculties" can be identified and located in specific parts of the brain
Francis Galton
began testing human for psychological traits and intelligence
Loved to measure everything
How a man who had a job that didn't pay have some many interest.
cousin to charles darwin- independently wealthy
educated at home - self guided schooling
mapped most of Africa
wrote some of the first travel guides
first systematic weather maps
Basis for current meteorology
all precise measurement
Interested in individual differences
fingerprints
quantifying traits
Believed there must be an evolutionary reason that people are better than other people
survival value in intelligence which would put you at the top and passing those traits to children would keep you at the top.
Good to marry your daughter off to someone with money and title
he studied people who were famous for talent and studied their ancestry concluded traits must be heritable
Methodologies created by Galton
Survey method, twin studies
Galton
Figured out that not all twins are identical
Hereditary Genius
Book galton wrote "i propose to show in this book that a man's natural abilities are derived by inheritance"
Eugenics
the use of selective breeding to increase the general intelligence of the population( galton)
Positive Eugenics
encourage people who have intelligence to marry each other have produce offspring. will end up with super race of British people who are white and rich and titled. (galton)
Negative eugenics
prevent people with undesirable traits from reproducing (galton)
Eugenics ideas
if you are poor you are not smart
immigration diluted to breeding stock
didn't want Italians to marry british
but Scandinavians could
the whiter you were the purer the darker the worst
the whiter the better
similar to dog breeding
E-Harmony
Quantifying traits to determine who they should marry, eugenics used this so do modern dating sites
Anthropometric Lab
Galton's human testing lab 1884
Health Fare
People paid for Galton to measure them (10000 people)
Galton whistle
a dog whistle galton invented to determine what pitch each animal could hear
Who invented the correlation
Galton
Hermann Ebbinghaus
Tested children for mental fatigue and did not find any but did see a difference between weak students and strong students- beginning of educational testing
Alfred Binet
Asked to develop test to determine which students needed to be in special ed
Developed test using "mental age" If your actual age was 2 years below your mental age you should be in special ed.
Binet's categories of children
Idiots - severely handicapped
Imbeciles- could someone take care of themselves
Debiles -weak students ( taught some kind of skill, could be put in slowed down classes)
Karl Popper
Scientific method guy; principle of falsifiability
Kuhn
Paradigm challenged the normal science and created the next set of test that created the next normal science. its a process
Stages of scientific development; Kuhn
1. Prepardigmatic stage: prior to the development of a paradigm a number of competing viewpoints exist.
2. paradigmatic stage: the puzzle solving activity called normal science occurs.
3. revolutionary stage: the existing paradigm is replaced by a new one.
Theories of how are the mind and body related
1. materialists/monists: mental events are ultimately explained by the laws of physics or chemistry
2. idealists: explain everything in terms of consciences.
3. Dualist: there are both physical and mental events. This is where the question of the mind body relationship comes up.
Descartes
dualist, first to say, pineal gland controlled the body "I think therefore I am"
Nativism Vs Empiricism
Nativism- origins of our attributes
Empiricism- based on experience
Mechanism vs. Vitalism
Mechanism: the behavior of all organisms can be explained in the same way that the behavior of a machine.
Vitalism: life can never be completely reduced to material/mechanical laws. Living things contains vital force.
Helmhotz
Materialist
Rationalism Vs irrationalism
Rationalism: emphasizes the importance of logical, systematic and intelligent thought processes. (intellect better then emotions)
Irrationalism: explanation that emphasizes unconscious determinant. (if true causes of behavior are unconscious they cannot be pondered rationally)
Naïve realism
the belief that what one experiences mentally is the same as what is present physically
Fechner
Nightview/Dayview - Materialism/ vitialism
He is a vitilism - the good and consciousness
Nightview- the cold sad part- materialism
all physical things are conscious
Published as Dr. Misees- about day view and vitialism
interested in psycho physics- like weber work
Created Webers law
Everyone has different perceptions
Weber
Did two point threshold work, the Just noticeable difference
Wrote the elements of psychophysics 1860
Fechner, considered the first experimental psych book and psycho-physics
Wundt
Had the first psych lab, established psychology as a separate science
University of Leipzig
Fechner (16) studied with Weber here
Fechner got med degree here
Psychophysics
the study of the relationship between pysical and psychological events
Absolute thresehold
the lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be detected
Differential threshold
How much a stimlus magnitude needs to be increase in order to be notices
Fechner created what?
Psychophyicis and experimental asethics
Studied after images and became blind because he stared at the sun
Fechner
Bessel
showed that the observer influences observations which fueled interest in the discrepancies between objective and subjective realities.
Descartes thought about nerves
thought that a nerve consisted of fibers that connected sense receptors to the brain. These were hollow tubes that transmitted "animal Spirits" from the brain to the muscles
Hartley thought about nerves
nerves were the means by which vibrations were conducted from the sense receptors to the brain and from the brain to the muscles
Adequate stimulation
each of the five types of sense organ is maximally sensitive to a certain type of stimulation (muller)
Muller was a
Vitialist -energies
First institute for experimental physiology was created by
Muller
Young-Helmotz theory of color vision
three colors have separate receptors on the eye the combo of each make new colors
-Trichromatic theory of color vision
Herring theory of color vision
3 types of receptors but each could respond 2 different ways "red-green" "white-black" "yellow blue"
Gall's claim
1. the mental faulties do not exist to the same extent in all humans
2. the faculties are house in specific areas of the brain
3. if a faculty is well developed a person would have a bump or protrusion on the corresponding part of the skull, visa versa.
first to distinguish the functions of white and grey matter of the brain
Gall
Flourens
-Wanted to scientifically prove that phrenology was a croc.
-after studying the brain concluded that there was some localization but that contrary to what the phrenologists believed, the cortical hemispheres do not have localized functions. Instead the functions unit.
-at least one part of the brain had the capacity to take over the function of another.
found contra-lateral function
Gall
One of the first to think the brain was the seat of intellect and emotion
Gall
Wanted to prove women were inferior to to men but was SURPRISED when he didn't find their brains didn't look different
Expected their brains to be soft and look like monkey brains
Gall
Method of ablation
Cutting out parts of the brain to figure out what they did
Florens-
Found that the brain worked together: Support wholism ///against phrenology
Clincal Method by broca
first determining a behavior disorder in a living patient and then after the patient had died location the part of the brain responsible for the behavior
Broca
Studied "Tan" and found the area that made language
Wernike
Found the area that comprehended language
Ferrier
Mapped the motor cortex
Fritsch and hitzig
found When certain areas are simulated motor movement in the opposite side of the body, Found this by poking at dogs and monkey brains, evidence for localization of functions
Wundt
sought to explain conscious experience in terms of unobservable cognitive processes.
Lewis Terman
created the Stanford-Binet test
Developed best known IQ test (coined term "intelligence quotient")
Genetic studies of genius: mental and physical traits of a thousand gifted children
Society thought about gifted kids
Thought intelligent kids were socially troubled or could "burn through" their intelligence
dating manuals told girls to steer clear of smart boys they will beat you
Terman found
just as likely to have Stable marriages, children socially adept, as control
women tended have more dissatisfaction with their careers than a control group because there were not the same career opportunities
Gifted children did not "burn out"
Terman's termites had a _____ response rate
93% response rate
Developed Test for army recruits
Yerkes
Army beta test
for illiterate soldiers
Army Alpha test
for literate soldiers
Yerkes
Was drafted in the army to make tests
Yerkes primate Center
animal behavior center at yale
got the funding from yale but went to florida
Functionalism
is this useful?
First guy to self-identify as a psychologist
William james
James
Anti-materialism
Came up with introspection
James
Wrote Principles of psychology
James/Alice
The Jimmy
The shorter version of "principles of psychology"
Went to med school but hated sick people
James
Comparative method
Comparing normal human consciousness to animals infants, criminals, savages, idiots, eccentrics.
Functionalism
functionalism: concern for practicality, emphasis on the individual, and evolutionary theory.
Titchener
Thought psychology should be a pure science, developed structuralism, not interested in meaningful experiences. Studied with Wundt. Both believed that psychology should study immediate experience. Structuralism died with him
Structuralism
the study of the structure of the mind/refused practical knowledge
Started the "experimentalist" the group
Titchener
more women completed their Ph.D under him than any other men during this time
Titchener
Brentano
Believed that mental processes(judging, recalling,expecting,loving) should be aimed at performing some function
Act psychology
every mental act refers to something outside itself (brentano)
Phenomenological introspection
Introspective analysis directed towards intact meaningful experiences
Was Brentano's student
Freud
Volunteerism
Wundt's approach to psychology emphasis on will choice and purpose, Believed people decided what to give attention to and to what is precieved clearly
legna
angel backwards
Stetter hollingworth
Applied to graduate school in NY after she wasn't allowed to be a teacher because she was a women, Interested in gifted children and developed curiculum for gifted children. Wanted to prove women were equal to men, "woman have not had the opportunity to excel because of the burden of child bearing and rearing"
Mamie Phipps Clark
A black women who was from an affluent family in Hot Springs AR. Wasn't allowed to study math and physics so studied psychology instead. Developed the doll test used in brown v. board of education Started "north side center for child development"
social services, education, testing, and psychological services
Amy Tanner
Doctoral degree in philosophy from the uni of Chicago 1898 .
published in psychology journal
stayed an associate at the Uni Chicago for 4 years
1902- prof of philolosiphy at Wilson college in Pennsylvania
head of childrens psychology and pedegogy dept
studied mediums
figured out they were just really good at picking up on sublte cues
worked at a restaurant
12-15 hour days for room and board
constantly sore thought and sensation was dulled
Alice Lord, Seattle union organizer 1900
Studied medums and found they were really good at picking up on sutble cues
Amy Tanner
said "The real tendencies of women can not be known until they are free to choose, any more than those of a tied-up dog can be
Amy Tanner
head of children's psychology and pedagogy dept at Wilson College
Amy Tanner
Conscious inference
Helmholtz notion that perceptions are transformed from sensations after past experience has given the sensations meaning
G. stanley Hall
first pres. of clark Uni, first pres of APA
taught at Harvard and John Hopkins Uni
pioneer of developmental psychology
Wrote the "contents of children minds"
Stages of psychology in American
Moral and mental philosophy
Intellectual philosophy
the us renaissance
U.S. Functionalism
U.S. Functionalism
concern for practicality, emphasis on the individual, and evolutionary theory.
-began with the principles of Psychology
-the assumptions concerning the mind were derived from evolutionary theory, the goal was to understand how the mind and behavior work in aiding an organism's adjustment to the environment, and research tools include anything that was informative—including the use of introspection, the study of animal behavior, and the study of the mentally ill.
the us renaissance
psychology was completely emancipated from religion and philosophy and became an empirical science.
-it was in this stage that Titchener began his influential structuralist program at Cornell which successfully competed with functionalism for several years.
Intellectual philosophy
-The Scottish philosophers also maintained that self-examination or introspection, yields valid info and that morality is based on self-evident intuitions.
-the strong influence of the Scottish commonsense philosophy, as well as the emphasis on the individual that was later to characterize modern us psych
Moral and mental philosophy
During this time psyc concerned matters of the soul, psyc existed for the sake of logic, and logic of or the sake of god
Mary whiton Calkins
Went to smith college, sat on in Jame's lectures at Harvard, conducted dream research with E. Sanford
Thought dreams were a reproduction of events during the day
Mary Whiton Calkins
First woman President of APA
Mary Whiton Calkins
Developed system of Self-psychology
Mary Whiton Calkins
Major contributions to psychology:
-Self-psychology which led to personality theory
-the conscious self is the central fact of psychology
Mary Whiton Calkins
History
the interpretive study of the human past
Empirical component
historical data
Explanatory component
interpretations of data
Objectivity
implies a correspondence between a historical narrative and the past events it describes.
cyclical hypothesis
suggests that history repeats itself in cycles
linear-progressive hypothesis
argues that progress is a fundamental characteristic of history
linear-regressive hypothesis
argues that decline is a fundamental characteristic of history
chaos hypothesis
maintains that there is no overall identifiable and universal meaning of history. As things happen, it takes us in directions
Historiography
the principles, methods, and philosophical issues of historical research
zeitgeist
the intellectual and cultural climate or spirit of the times.
Personalistic theory
the view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the ideas of unique individuals
Naturalistic theory
the view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the zeitgeist, which makes a culture receptive to some ideas but not to others
Paradigm
an accepted way of thinking within a scientific discipline that provides essential questions and answers
Preparadigmatic Phase
the stage in the development of a science when it is still divided into schools of thought
Paradigmatic Phase
When the majority of the scientists agrees on theoretical and methodological issues
Behaviorism
Watson's science of behavior, which dealt solely with observable behavioral acts that could be described in objective terms.
Cognitive Psychology
A system of psychology that focuses on the process of knowing, on how the mind actively organizes experiences.
Functionalism
A system of psychology concerned with the mind as it is used in an organism's adaptation to its environment.
Gestalt Psychology
A system of psychology that focuses largely on learning and perception, suggesting that combining sensory elements produces new patterns with properties that did not exist in the individual elements.
Humanistic Psychology
A system of psychology that emphasizes the study of conscious experience and the wholeness of human nature.
Psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud's theory of personality and system of psychotherapy.
Structuralism
E. B. Titchener's system of psychology, which dealt with conscious experience as dependent on experiencing persons.
Association
The notion that knowledge results from linking or associating simple ideas to form complex ideas.
Creative Synthesis
The notion that complex ideas formed from simple ideas take on new qualities; the combination of the mental elements creates something greater than or different from the sum of the original elements.
Derived Ideas
produced by the direct application of an external stimulus
Innate Ideas
arise from the mind or consciousness, independent of sensory experiences or external stimuli.
Determinism
The doctrine that acts are determined by past events.
Empiricism
The pursuit of knowledge through the observation of nature and the attribution of all knowledge to experience.
Materialism
The doctrine that considers the facts of the universe to be sufficiently explained in physical terms by the existence and nature of matter.
Mechanism
The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry.
Mentalism
The doctrine that all knowledge is a function of mental phenomena and dependent on the perceiving or experiencing person
Mind-Body Problem
The question of the distinction between mental and physical qualities.
Positivism
The doctrine that recognizes only natural phenomena or facts that are objectively observable.
Primary Qualities
characteristics such as size and shape that exist in an object whether or not we perceive them
Secondary Qualities
characteristics such as color and odor that exist in our perception of the object.
Reductionism
The doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas).
Reflex Action Theory
The idea that an external object (a stimulus) can bring about an involuntary response.
Repetition
The notion that the more frequently two ideas occur together, the more readily they will be associated.
Simple Ideas
elemental ideas that arise from sensation and reflection
Complex Ideas
derived ideas that are compounded of simple ideas and thus can be analyzed or reduced to their simpler components.
Galileo
matter is comprised of atoms that affect one another by direct contact
Newton
movement was not by actual physical contact but by forces that attract and repel atoms
the universe is a clock, and god is a mathematician. Originally trained as a clock maker
Charles Babbage
invented the difference engine.The calculator did basic math, had memory, played games
Dogma
doctrine proclaimed by an authority figure or institution
Rene Descartes
mathematical principles can be applied to all sciences and produce certainty of knowledge
mutual interaction of mind and body
Single function of mind: thought
Pre Descartes
mind influences body - not vice versa. Mind is master of mental and material aspects
Two-Point Threshold
the threshold at which there are two points of stimulation
Two-point discrimination of the skin: the distance between two points that must be spanned before subjects report feeling two distinct sensations
Just Noticeable Difference
Concept: the smallest difference that can be detected between two physical stimuli
Jnd of two weights = constant ratio of 1:40
William Wundt
2 elementary forms of experience: sensation and feeling
Titchener
contributions

his experimental method and a strong position to protest
Jan Swammerdam
disproved Descartes idea about the pineal gland hypothesis
He demonstrated that a frog muscle can contract even if separated from the frog's brain
He also demonstrated that a muscle can contract even if cut.
according to Descartes, the cut would allow the animal spirits to leak out
He demonstrated that muscles do not inflate when they contract
Neils Stensen
He argued that the pineal gland cannot swing from side to side
He demonstrated that the pineal glad is not richly supplied with nerves
He located the pineal gland in non-human animals
Stephen Hales
established the importance of the spine in the reflex
He demonstrated that a decapitated frog could exhibit reflexes if the frog's spinal cord was intact
Robert Whytt
replicated the work of Hales and more thoroughly studied the role of the spinal cord in reflexes.
Whytt also addressed the distinction between voluntary and involuntary actions
Johann August Unzer
provided a systematic framework for the reflex action
He was the first to use the terms "reflex," "afferent," and "efferent."
applied his theory to the practical questions of pain and the guillotine
Body flaying around because info is trying to get to brain, and pain cannot be sensed by body
Julien Offray de la Mettrie
wrote L'Homme, la Machine (Man, a Machine).
He advocated a meticulous use of materialism and determinism
He argued that the differences between humans and animals were differences of degree. Apes taught language.. They are like primitive man
Body temp high/low interfered with mental thoughts, brain is a thinking thing
Pierre Jean Georges Cabanis
argued that psychological processes are a consequence of neurological activity
Gustav Theodor Fritsch and Julius Eduard Hitzig
initiated research in electrophysiology.
They demonstrated localization of motor functions
Via dogs, stimulate different parts of brain and see what part moved
Therefore, we need more human treatment of psych patients
Camillo Golgi
created a staining procedure
Inhances features of NS/ cell
Santiago Ramon y Cajal
described the synaptic gap by using Golgi's staining procedure
Sir Charles Sherrington
published The Integrative Action of the Nervous System.
He demonstrated the complexity of neural action
He coined many of the terms used in neuroscience
Discovered pain receptors in NS
Hermann von Helmholtz
measured the speed of a nervous impulse.
Neural impulses were surprisingly slow by the miograph (stimulate musle at different lengths)
50-100 m/s
His success fueled optimism about the power of science.
devised a theory of color vision as well as conducted research on audition
Law of Conservation of Energy
ophthalmoscope
Indirectly contributed to inventions of the wireless telegraph and radio
Recognized importance of applied research
Jacques Quételet
He argued that human behavior is subject to the laws of nature
He was able to mathematically relate external factors and human behavior.
studied both physical traits and moral or psychological qualities and noticed that the distributions were very similar
is responsible for the idea of the average man
his data (on bell curve) reinforce the importance of the study of development, individual differences, and the relevant differences between people in various places on the normal curve.
J. Müller
experimentation
He proposed the Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies
He argued that qualities of the nerve caused the qualities of perception within a given sense
He argued that a nerve is only capable of transmitting one type of sensation.
Flourens
localized 4 specific functions of the brain
studied brain function through lessions of specific areas of brain tissue
He found some localization.
Also demonstrated neural plasticity (new cell growth due to cell death)
Used extirpation
Gall
produced the theory of cranioscopy
Galvani
credited with the finding or conclusion that nerve impulses are electrical within the neuron
Weber
developed both the two-point threshold and the concept of the just noticeable difference
Fechner
developed the idea of the pleasure principle
proposed two ways to measure the lowest level of a sensation. One was the point of stimulus intensity below which no sensation is reported and above which subjects do experience a sensation the other was whether or not a stimulus is present or absent, sensed or not sensed
sensation depends on stimulation crossed the barrier between body (physical stimulation) and mind (mental sensation)
by relating one to the other empirically, making it possible to conduct experiments on the mind
Absolute threshold
Absolute threshold
The point of sensitivity below which no sensations can be detected and above which sensations can be experienced.
Clinical method
Posthumous examination of brain structures to detect damaged areas assumed to be responsible for behavioral conditions that existed before the person died.
Differential threshold
The point of sensitivity at which the least amount of change in a stimulus gives rise to a change in sensation.
Electrical stimulation
A technique for exploring the cerebral cortex with weak electric current to observe motor responses.
Extirpation
A technique for determining the function of a given part of an animal's brain by removing or destroying it and observing the resulting behavior changes.
Just noticeable difference
The smallest difference that can be detected between two physical stimuli.
Psychophysics
The scientific study of the relations between mental and physical processes.
Two-point threshold
The threshold at which two points of stimulation can be distinguished as such.
Phrenology
an ill-fated theory that claimed bumps on the skull could reveal our mental abilities and our character traits.
Feel for bumps on head and they determine functions of brain
The main premises
Mental functions are localized within the brain
The surface of the skull conforms to the relative development of brain tissue related to the specific faculty under that area of the skull
Paul Broca
clinical method
Marshall Hall
Observed movement of decapitated animals
Concluded different levels of movement depend on different parts of the nervous system
Voluntary movement = cerebrum
Reflex movement: spinal cord
Involuntary movement = direct stimulation of musles
Respiratory movement: medulla
Luigi Gaivani
Suggested nature of nerve impulse is electrical
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Discovered the direction of travel for brain and spinal cord nerve impulses
Nobel prize (1906)
Spanish was not a language of professional journals
Voluntarism
-Wihelm Wundt, 1862
-emphasized will, choice & purpose
-psychology's first school
-wanted to understand consciousness
Structuralism
-Edward Titchener, 1893
-structure of the mind (describe the 'is' of mental life)
-focused on observable conscious events
-wanted to describe mental experience, not explain it
Psychoanalysis
-Sigmund Freud, 1890
-emphasized unconscious process as cause of mental illness
-development is based on childhood experiences
-study of human behavior by irrational drives
Functionalism
-William James & John Dewey, 1896
-understand function of mind, not describe its contents
-interested in individual differences (not similarities)
-aid the organism in adapting to its environment
Gestalt Psychology
-Max Wertheimer, 1912
-molar, phenomenological approach to study of psych
-perception=product of complex interactions
-study of what naturally appears in consciousness
Behaviorism
-John Watson
-thought subject matter of psych should be overt behavior
-external stimulation causes all behavior
-thought goal of psych should be to control behavior
Psychobiology
-Lashley, Hebb & Sperry, 1929
-explain psych phenomena in terms of their biology
-studied 2 hemispheres of the brain
Cognitive Psychology
-Ulric Neisser, 1967
-focus was memory, concept formation, attention, reasoning, problem solving, judgement and language
-studies mind and mental process
Humanistic Psychology
-Abraham Maslow, 1960
-humans not different from animals
-wanted to focus on more than just mental illness
-assumed people are mostly good
Karl Popper
believed that...
-science starts with problem not observation
-scientific theory must be refutable (falsibility)
-science= continuous process
Thomas Kuhn
believed that...
-science= discontinuous process (plateaus & revolutions)
-3 stages of scientific development (pre-paradigmatic stage- rival ideas until 1 wins, paradigmatic stage- science goes until 1 is replaced, revolutionary stage- new paradigm)
Paul Feyerabrand
believed that...
-scientific rules must be broken for scientific process
Friedrich Bessel
astronomer, believed that...
-brain is part of the body, but soul is different
-realized perception/characteristic from astronomers effected their observations
Hermann Von Helmholtz
materialist, believed that...
-bc it's not physical, 'life force' is not conductive to scientific analysis
-there is no soul
-energy is only transformed, never created or lost
-speed of nerve conduction, color vision, pitch encoding
Franz Gall
neuroanatomist, phrenologist believed that...
-mapped skull into 26 areas (each with different mental ability)
-bumps on skull= determine ones mental faculties
Ernst Weber
experimental psychologist, believed that...
-investigated touch w/2 point threshold
-work in kinesthesis (muscle sense) led to JND (just noticeable difference)
-Webers Law=1st quantitative law in psych
Gustav Fechner
believed that...
-developed method of limits, method of constant stimuli, method of adjustment
-relations between physical and mental events
Wilhelm Wundt
experimental psychologist, believed that...
-1st experimental psych lab in Leipzig, Germany 1879
-mental process of perceiving 2 stimuli (bell/pendulum)
-wanted to understand simple & complex conscious
Edward Titchener
structuralist, believed that...
-wanted to define elements of the mind
-what, how, why of mental life
Franz Brentano
phenomenologist #1, believed that...
-emphasize brain process not contents
-rationalist who saw the mind as active
Carl Stumpf
phenomenologist #2, believed that...
-argued to study meaningful experiences
-along with student Phungst, investigated Clever-Hans phenomenon
Edmund Husserl
phenomenologist #3, believed that...
-used introspection to study meanings/essences not events
-goal= create taxonomy of the mind
Oswald Kulpe
believed that...
-wanted higher mental processes to be studied experimentally
-led Wurzburg school, founded mental set (determining tendency)
-mental set induced by instruction or past experience
Hans Vaihinger
fictionalist, believed that...
-societal living requires giving meaning to our sensations
-inventing terms then acting as if they were true (gods, immortal)
Hermann Ebbinghaus
-developed ways to study learning/memory as they happened
-had volunteers memorize random sounds
Charles Darwin
evolutionary psychologist, believed that...
-natural struggle for survival (overabundance of offspring)
-natural events select who will survive & have kids
Francis Galton
father of eugenics movement
-liked to measure & classify stuff
-wanted selective breeding
-developed anthropometric laboratory to measure difference in people
James Cattell
believed that...
-developed mental tests & gave them to Columbia freshmen
-thought mental tests & academic success should correlate
-his grad student Wissler found that they did not
Alfred Binet
rationalist, individual psychologist, believed that...
-interested in how people are different
-goal= find kids with mental disabilities & provide them with mental orthopedics
Charles Spearman
believed that...
-emphasized the unitary nature of intelligence (genes)
-his ideas for intelligence were embraced by US
-studied relationship between family background & intelligence (Kallikak family)
Henry Goddard
believed that...
-mentally ill people should be segregated
-sterilization laws, testing @ Ellis Island led to more deportation
Edward Tolman
believed that...
-studied purposive & molar behavior
-saw purpose in behavior not purpose from behavior
-ex: rat in maze, cat in puzzle box, child hiding
Clark Hull
Darwinian, believed that...
-re-inforcement theory of learning led to major adaptations
-Theory: 1) reinforcement 2) habit-strength 3) reaction potential
Burrhus Skinner
positivist, believed that...
-related environmental events to behavioral events
-science should be descriptive & inductive
-2 types of behavior: respondent (environment) operant (influenced by consequences)
Max Wertheimer
gestalt psychologist, believed that...
-perceptions are different from sensations that comprise them
-with 2 research assistants (Koffka & Kohler) founded gestalt psych
Kurt Lewin
gestalt psychologist, believed that...
-motivation, personality & group dynamics
-behavior= complex dynamic forces acting on individuals
Franz Mesmer
magnetist, believed that...
-natural healist, "cured" 17 year old blind pianist Maria Paradies
-contagion efect (when people thought they'd be cured- they got cured), hypnotism
Jean Martin Charcot
believed that...
-correlated symptoms w/specific abnormalities in nervous system
-thought hysteria was a real disease
-developed hypnosis
Sigmund Freud
psychoanalysis, believed that...
-conflict b/w natural desires & being civilized
-cocaine binge, free association method, hypnosis=problematic
-stages of development (all very sexual)
Joseph Breuer
believed that...
-worked with Anna O (used hypnosis to fix hysteria) and it worked, but then him and his wife had to leave
-cathartic method (talking)
-transference & countertransference
Anna Freud
ego psychologist, believed that...
-took over for Sigmund & developed ego psych
-studied child rearing (conflict w/Klein)
Carl Jung
believed that...
-believed in creative life force (not sexual)
-persona (mask for public), shadow (from ancestors), anima (female part of male), animus (male part of female)
-dreams= underdeveloped psyche
Karl Lashley
psychobiologist, believed that...
-wanted to seek neurophysiological bases of conditional reflexes
-2 principles: mass action (loss of ability of learned behavior) equipotentiality (any part of brain can do functions associated)
Donald Hebb
believed that...
-neural interconnections develop w/experience
-rule: neurons that are active together become associated
-childhood learning= buildup gradually but adult learning= based on insight/creativity
Noam Chomsky
sociobiologist, believed that...
-language is too complex for behaviorism to explain
-human brain is genetically programmed to generate language
-child is born w/ brain structures that make language easy
Thomas Bouchard
believed that...
-argues against radical behaviorism
-studied twins
-degree of genetic relatedness relates to degree of similarity in intelligence & in certain personality characteristics
Robert Yerkes
believed that...
-changed Binet-Simon mental test to not involve age
-received points for correct questions
-army used his system
Lewis Terman
believed that...
-tested gifted kids- they became healthy, gifted adults
-revised Binet-Simon test to be more American
William James
functionalist, believed that...
-helped w/transition b/w European psychology & US
-if an idea works, it's valid (pragmatism)
Hugo Munsterberg
applied psychologist, believed that...
-behavior causes ideas
-taught at Harvard
Francis Sumner
believed that...
-first African American to get PhD in psychology
-made Howard Univ. a training center for African American psychologists
Edward Lee Thorndike
believed that...
-learning occurs gradually, independent of consciousness & the same for all mammals
-positive consequences strengthen association (negative consequences don't weaken association)
Granville Stanley Hall
believed that...
-created first US experimental psych lab
-founded APA
Margaret Floy Washburn
comparative psychologist, believed that...
-1st female doctorate in psych
-studied animal behavior under controlled conditions
John Watson
behaviorist, believed that...
-goal= prediction & control of behavior
-instincts/mental events= no role in human behavior
-thought is just implicit muscle movement
Ivan Pavlov
believed that...
-focus= conditioned/unconditioned stimuli that controls behavior & the physiological process they initiate
-all human behavior= reflexive
William McDougall
believed that...
-emphasized purposive & instinctive behavior
Rene Descartes
believed that...
-mind & body are separate but interacting ideas
-debate whether or not innate ideas exist
Radical Empiricism
the idea that any continuously reported human experience should be studied
Pragmatism
the idea that the criteria for studying anything should be based on its usefulness
Habits (instincts)
pattern of behavior formed by repetition
Neurophysiological explanation for habit forming
repetition entrenches the brain, opening pathways for energy
3 Components of Self
material- body, family, belongings
social- how other people view you
spiritual- subjective reality
Self esteem
success divided by pretensions
James Lange theory of Emotion
an event causes behavior (emotion)
Hugo Munsterberg
-disagreed with James- thought that behavior causes ideas
-first applied psychologist
-studied clinical psychology
Mary Whiton Calkins
-developed self psychology
-developed pair-associate technique to study influence of frequency, recency & vividness on memory
-couldn't go to Harvard (gender), turned down Radcliffe, worked at Wellesley
Granville Stanley Hall
-father of child/adolescent psychology
-founded American Journal of Psych
-1st president of American Psychological Association
-started child development movement, stimulated education
-studied end of lifespan
Recapitulation theory
-development mirrors evolution
(Granville Stanley Hall)
Francis Sumner
-first African American PhD in psychology
-wanted higher institutions to be segregated (funding?)
-developed training center for African American psychologists at Howard University
Kenneth Clark
-studied the developmental effects of segregation, prejudice & discrimination on children
John Dewey
-wrote 'Reflex Arc Concept of Psych'... formal start of functionalism
-wanted progressive education (student oriented) - learn by doing
Reflex Arc & 3 Elements
-neural pathway that mediates reflex action
-elements;
1) sensory process 2) brain process 3) motor response
...viewed as coordinated system directed towards a goal
James Angell
-mind & body cannot be separated
-wanted focus of functionalism to be mental operations
-needs of organisms (processes) help the organism survive (functions)
James Catell
-thought psychology should study all human behavior
C. Lloyd Morgan
-wanted to avoid anthropocentrism
Robert Woodworth
-interested in what/why people's behavior
George Romanes
-studied animal intelligence & emotion
-all evidence was anecdotal
-compared human thought process to non-human thought process
Anthropomorphized
-comparing human thought process to non-human thought process
Margaret Floy Washburn
-2nd female president of APA
-studied animals
Edward Thorndike
-1st experimental studies of animal learning
-designed puzzle box (trial/error w/cats)
Law of exercise
(Edward Thorndike)
-the more often as association is practiced, the stronger the association becomes
Theory of transfer
-the more similar 2 situations are, the more you can transfer the information between the 2
Associationism
-mental phenomena (learning) can be explained by laws of association
(1st major learning theory)
Hedonism
-good life consists of seeking pleasure and avoiding pain
(1st major learning theory)
Hippocrates
Father of Medicine, believed in natural causes of illnesses, The Nature of Man (earth, air, wind, fire)
Galen
wrote about structure/functions, brain ventricles, believed the body had divine design, was the physician who dominated medicine until the Rennaissance
Pythagoras
Mathematical relationships, #s
Socrates
rationalist, truth lies hidden in the mind, importance of self-knowledge
Aristotle
Founded lyceum, empiricist, inductive reasoning, memory, catharsis
Descartes
mind-body dualism, interactive dualism, hydraulics
John Locke
Educational philosophy, nurturist, fundamental human rights, reductionist, simple/complex properties, primary/secondary qualities
James Mill
1st Mill; argued for democracy, associationist, mental compounding
John Stuart Mill
2nd Mill; added mental chemistry, scientific process, women are =, ideas are weaker than impressions
Francois Magendie
Experiments with puppies, Bell-Magendie Law (dorsal = sensory, ventral = motor)
Hermann von Helmholtz
Thrichromatic theory of color vision, nurturist, speed of nerve impulse
Franz Joseph Gall
One of the founders of phrenology, scientist, determinist
Wilhelm Wundt
1879 first experimental lab, physiological psych, immediate/mediate, lower/higher mental processes, careful introspection
Edward Titchener
Structuralism, introspection
generalized mind
immediate experience only
studied with Wundt, only studied healthy minds
Hugo Munsterberg
Consciousness arises from muscular-sensations; rep as difficult, studied with Wundt
Gustav Fechner
Psychophysics; equation for mind-body relations (Fechner's Law)
Hermann Ebbinghaus
Studied memory and learning with nonsense syllables
Carl Stumpf
Tone psychology, nativistic explanation of depth perception
Max Wertheimer
Techistoscope (vertical white stripe)
Phi phenomenon (not reducible)
his "Experimental Studies" considered beginning of Gestalt Psych
advocated creativity as opposed to rote methods of instruction for children
Koffka
Considered one of the Triumvirate of Gestalt thinking: Kohler, Koffka, and Wertheimer
Wolfgang Kohler
insight learning (a-ha moment), studies of animals solving Umweg (detour) problems, Mentality of Apes
Kurt Lewin
Developed field theory, (B=f(P,E) ), a person is an energy field of psychological forces
investigated authoritarian/democratic leadership styles and did applied research on housewives
Phillipe Pinel
Moral treatment of the insane, director at the Bicetre Asylum, head of La Salpetriere
Dorothea Lynde Dix
Campaigned extensively for the rights for the insane, important force in American Psychiatry
Lightner Witmer
Founded first psychological clinic (tx of boy w/ spelling prblm)
formally proposed clinical psychology
Franz Anton Mesmer
early use of hypnosis for tx of hysteria (called animal magnetism, mesmerism, then hypnosis)
Jean-Martin Charcot
dev. competing school of hypnosis to Mesmer
Sigmund Freud
Orig. trained as neurophysiologist, then psychiatrist, then developmental psychoanalyst. First used hyposis, then free assoc., then dream interpretation
Carl Jung
Analytical Psychology, introversion/extraversion, personality consists of 7 different, interacting systems
Alfred Adler
Individual Psychology
consciousness center of personality
inferiority
BIRTH ORDER
Anna Freud
Freud's successor in psychoanalysis, elaborated on ego mechanisms (regression, etc), was a child analyst
Karen Horney
Psychoanalyst, but disagreed with Freud's approach to feminine psychology (no penis envy) and sexual instinct, identified 10 neurotic needs
Charles Darwin
HMS Beagle, Origin of Species, influenced by Malthus, natural selection & evolution
Francis Galton
Hereditary Genius - tried to show that abilities are inheritable
dev. measures of ability
developed correlation
proposed normal distributions and central tendency
James McKeen Cattell
Founded Psychological Corp (WAIS), edited "Science", founding APA member and its 4th president
William James
Principles of Psychology (foremost psychologist)
James-Lange theory of emotion
pragmatism
Gestalt Psych/functionalism
G. Stanley Hall
American Journal of Psychology
1st APA president
Developmental Psychology (adolescence)
eugenicist (Francis Sumner)
John Dewey
"Reflex Arc" - by looking at Stim/Resp alone you are missing bigger picture
Behavior occurs in context
Strong passion for education, thought everyone should get equal tx
James Rowland Angell
functionalism = study of mental ops
Mind & Body
Harvey A. Carr
Under him at U of Chicago, functionalism reached its peak
Robert Sessions Woodworth
S-R to S-O-R (state of organism)
Motivology
Studied formal discipline with Thorndike (criticized then-pop way of assessing IQ as culture)
Called for operational def's in Psychology
Edward Lee Thorndike
Comparative Psychology
S-R Law of effect
Proposed dif educational opp for children w/ dif abilities
Puzzle Box experiments
Alfred Binet
Binet-Simon scale - first test of intelligence in children
Tests according to age
Childrens abilities are Fluid, not static
Henry H. Goddard
Translated Binet-Simon scale into English
Kalikak family - inheritability of feeble-minded
Screened feeble-minded at Ellis Island
Lewis M. Terman
Translated and restandardized Binet-Simon to yield Stanford-Binet
Initiated long term, longitudinal study of genius children
Robert Mearns Yerkes
Army Alpha/Army Beta
George Romanes
Pioneer of comparative psychology
"Animal Intelligence"
C. Lloyd Morgan
Spencer-Bain principle (behavior is modified by its consequences)
Lamarckian view of evolution
Morgan's canon
Thorndike
his animal research particularly influenced behaviorism
Cat puzzle boxes
Ivan Pavlov
1904 Nobel prize for digestive processes in dogs
Conditioned response
Extinction/discrimination, etc
Dogs have personality (Sanguine, Melancholic, etc)
J.B. Watson
Rats and Mazes
Began behaviorism (advocated for psychology as an experimental, objective science)
Conditioning of a fear response in Little Albert
Mary Cover Jones - extinction in Peter
Behaviorism & Advertising
Edward Chace Tolman
Cognitive Mapping
Behavior in large units (molar vs. molecular beh)
Law of least effort
Influenced by Kohler's insight learning
Edwin Ray Guthrie
Contiguity, Contiguity learning
Fatiguing the response
Clark Leonard Hull
Researchs IQ testing
Researches hypnosis and suggestibility
Dev. complicated behavior system w/ many variables
B. F. Skinner
Sought to ID the reflex
Operant Conditioning (Organism operates on environ.)
"Behavior of Organisms"
Schedules of Reinforcement
Walden Two (Skinner version of Utopia)
Baby tender
Teaching machines
Token Economy
His radical behaviorism forms the foundation of modern scientific psychology
Plato
Founded Academy, Forms, Allegory of the Cave, Nativist, interest in geometry
States that the might frame of the world would not exist without a mind to perceive it
Neo-Freudians and Ego Psychology
-believed the main premises of psychoanalysis, but modified the system
-major change- expanded the concept of the ego- no longer considered the server of the id, but independent (Ego psych)
-also placed less emphasis on the biological forces as influences on personality- more impact given to social and physiological forces
-less consideration given to infantile sexuality and the Oedipus complex
Anna Freud
(1895-1982) unwanted by father, unhappy childhood
-age 22, entered analysis with Freud, questioned by many, but no one else wanted to do it, question Freud's role as a father
-developed a psychoanalytic approach to therapy with children- used play materials and observed in home setting
-Introduction to the Technique of Child Analysis
-expanded the function of the ego beyond Freud's original views
-The Ego and the Mechanism of Defense
Object Relations Theory
-they believe that the personality is formed in infancy largely by the relationship with the mother
-mother is primary object, need to break free in order to have a strong sense of self and develop relations with other objects
Melanie Klein
(1882-1960) focused on the intense emotional bond between mother and child, first 6 months
-the connection is social and cognitive, not sexual
-the mother's breast is the first-part object for the child
-the part-object expands to include the whole mother over time
-child defines things as positive or negative depending on whether the objects have met and id instinct
Heniz Kohut
(1913-1981) -emphasized the nuclear self, which is the foundation for becoming an independent person
-typically the mother is the primary self-object
-mother should gratify children's physical and psychological needs
-done in part through mirroring
Carl Jung
(1875-1961) psychology vs. Freud
-did not believe in the Oedipus complex
-libido was a generalized life energy that included sex, creative life force
-not victims, we participate in the shaping of our lives
-not just first 5 years, change occurs throughout our whole life
-not productions of our past, shaped by our future
Jung's View of the Unconscious
personal unconscious- superficial, memories, impulses, wishes, faint perceptions that are unique to the individual and have been suppressed or forgotten
-complexes
collective unconscious- broader and deeper than the personal unconscious
-universal, evolutionary experiences of past generations
-archetypes- self, describing pieces of yourself,
shadow- dark side
anema- gender-opposite
self-balance
persona- mask we wear
Jung's Psychological Types
extroversion/ introversion
thinking: a conceptual process of evaluation/ feeling: a subjective process of evaluation
sensing: conscious perception of physical objects/ intuiting: unconscious perception
Alfred Adler
(1870-1937) individual psychology incorporates social and biological factors to explain personality development
-social interest- innate potential to cooperate with other people to achieve personal and societal goals develops in infancy through learning experiences
-focused on conscious determinants of behavior
-believed in the unity of personality
-feelings of inferiority and compensatory behaviors
-inferiority complex
-life style, creative self, fictional goals
-birth order
Karen Horney
(1885-1952) basic anxiety- lack of parental live fostered basic anxiety (personal)
-pervasive loneliness and helplessness; the cause of neurosis
-direct result of parental actions
Horney-Neurotic Needs
complaint personality: movement toward other people
detatched personality: movement away from people
aggressive personality: movement against people
Humanistic Psychology
emphasized: human strengths, positive aspirations, conscious experience, free will, the fulfillment of human potential, and a belief in the wholeness of human nature
-the development reflected the zietgeist of the 1960's in the US, a focus on personal fulfillment, human perfectability, hedonism, and emphasis on feelings over intellect
Abraham Maslow
(1908-1970) -oldest of 7 children, jewish from russia
-terrible parents
-hatred for mother was the driving force for humanism
-worked with Edward Thorndike
Self-Actualization
-innate tendency
-only 1% achieve it
-most that do are middle age or older and free of neurosis
-examples: Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, George Carver,
and Max Weirthemer
Hierarchy of Needs
-Biological and physiological needs
-safety needs
-belongingness and love needs
-esteem needs
-self-actualization
Carl Rogers
(1902-1987)- person-centered therapy
-self-actualization drive is innate, but helped or hindered by childhood experiences
-need for positive regard or self regard
-unconditional positive regards and conditions of worth= incongruence
-three attitudes of an effective therapist
-congruence- genuineness, honesty with the client
-empathy- the ability to feel what the client feels
-respect- acceptance, unconditional positive regard towards the client
Positive Psychology
officially began in 1998, Martin Seligman, speech on optimism and hope
-psychology should expand to include the best of human attributes and strengths, not just deficits
-the pleasant life-enjoyment
-the good life-engagement
-the meaningful life- affiliation
predictors of happiness not always effective
Development of Psychoanalysis
Freud said there had been three pivotal shocks to the collective human ego
Copernicus-polish astronomer, earth not center of the universe
Darwin-we are not a unique and separate species
Freud 1895- first book and formal beginning of psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis overlapped with several schools at the beginning (Wundt, structuralism, functionalism)
Psychoanalysis was distinct from others
-clinical settings
Influence on Psychoanalysis
1) philosophical thoughts on the unconscious mind
2) early ideas about psychopathology
3) evolutionary theory
Antecedent Influences
Theories of the unconscious mind
-Gottfried Leibnitz (1646-1716)- Monadology- monads perceived by awareness, unconscious mind = no awareness, conscious mind= monad, perceived
-Johann Herbart (1776-1841)- threshold of consciousness, compatible in conscious mind
-Gustav Fechner- mind like an iceberg, most of the mind is outside of our conscious
-discussion of the unconscious were part of the zeitgeist in the 1800s
-robert louis stevenson's novel Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde- doctor drinks mysterious potion, releases dark side
Juan Luis Vives
(1492-1540) - one of the first to urge that the mentally ill be treated humanely
Philippe Pinel
(1745-1826)- mental illnesses are natural and should be treated by methods of natural science
-scientific study of mental illness
Benjamin Rush
(1745-1813)- first psychiatrist to open formal practice in the US
19th century
-somatic and moral approach to mental illness
Emmanuel Church Healing Movement
-focused on psychic approach
-benefits of talk therapy
-Elwood Worcester- originator, Boston
-relied on the power of suggestion and the moral authority of the clergy
Hypnosis
-focused on the psychological causes of mental illness
-Franz Anton Mesmer- drank magnetized water, clutch magnetized iron bars, patients passed out, convulsions, trances
-James Braid- called trance like state neurohypnology, term hypnosis derived
-Jean Martin Charcot- neurological clinic, described symptoms of hysteria and hypnosis
-Pierre Janet- director of psych lab, hysteria was a physical problem, mental disorder cause by memory impairments, fixed ideas, and unconscious forces. somatic and psychic point of view
-two schools of thought around hypnosis, if you could be hypnotized you were hysterical
-memory becomes split, traumatic and non traumatic
Darwin's Influence
Sulloway, 1979, argued that Darin influenced Freud and paved the way for the psycho analytic revolution
-darwin discussed dreams, unconscious, importance of childhood development, biological drives of sex & hunger, and sexual arousal
-Freud weaved threads of many ideas together in a single coherent system
Life of Freud
Lived in Vienna, favored child, gifted
-researched eel genitals, used cocaine, addicted to cigars, cancer of the jaw, monster
-preferred sister-in-law over wife
-freud hated America, but made him famous
Sigmund Freud
(1856-1939) -lived with Charco, wanted to marry his daughter
-always go back to sex
-used hypnotic suggestion- childhood memories (sex w/ adults)
-free association- more thoughts, keep talking, slept and wrote letters, sat behind patient
-transference develops
-Studies on Hysteria- sex, cause of hysterical symptoms
-breuer gives up on Freud
Josef Breuer
-Anna O (habit of squinting, clock, lost ability to speak and use arm)
-hysterical complaints
-transference with Breuer (had relationship)
-cathartic method or talking cure
-lost ability to hear, no neurological problems
-hypnosis, able to speak
-she feel in love with Breuer, should have worked through love relationship
-she became a social worker
Seduction Theory
-all hysteria cases involved childhood sexual experiences
-real sex to imagined sexual experiences
Wilhelm Fliess
-men/ women, 25 day cycle
-used nose/ genitals to cure people
-obsessed with noses
-sexual shock- 2yrs old, encounter, messes you up
Freud's Self-analysis
-dream analysis is the royal road to the unconscious mind
-many sexual issues/ anger
-manifest content- what you actually dream about
-latent content- meaning of dream
wish fulfillment
-displacement
-Interpretation of dreams 1900- outlined the Oedipal complex for the first time
-the psychopathology of everyday life- Freudian slip real unacknowledged motives
-the idea of the unconscious mind was enthusiastically accepted in the U.S
System of Personality (Psychoanalysis)
instincts- the biological forces that motivate the personality life (sex, hunger, thirst) and death (hatred and aggression)
-libido- life instincts
-thanatos- death instinct
personality is a closed system
-
Levels of Personality
-conscious, preconscious, and unconscious
-id (allied with instincts; unconscious; most primitive and least acceptable; pleasure principle)- born only with the id
-ego (mediates the id and the external world; reason or rationality; reality principle)- gets energy from id(beast)
-Superego (morality, conscience; child assimilates rule of conduct) superego develops last
-id drive us
System of Personality
anxiety- a warning that Ego is being threatened
-objective-fear in real life, neurotic, moral- superego is going to punish unnecessarily
-defense mechanisms
Psychosexual stages
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Psychoanalysis and psychology
-psychoanalysis developed outside of academic psychology and was criticized by academics
-1920's defense mechanisms, dream content and the unconscious mind were being discussed seriously
-1930's and 1940's, psychoanalysis captured public attention in US
-1950's and 1960's, became of more interest to behaviorists
Freud's view of Religion
The future of an illusion
-all religion based on wish-fulfillment
-wish for protection
-stunts intellect
Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
-data collection was unsystematic and uncontrolled
-small, unrepresentative sample, largely single educated upper class women
-assumptions on women
Contributions of Psychoanalysis
study of the unconscious
-defense mechanisms
-id, ego, superego
Formal beginning of psychoanalysis
Began in 1895. Wasn't considered a science then, isn't considered one now. Arose adjacent to medicine. The subject matter is different than all of the other schools of thoughts- it looked at abnormal behavior instead of trying to explain regular behavior. Distinct from mainstream in that it wasn't a true science, arose from medicine and psychiatry, subject matter is abnormal behavior, primary method is clinical observation, and deals w/ the unconscious
Precursors to the idea of unconsciousness
Leibnitz's monadology
John Freidrich Herbart
Gustav Fechner
Philosophical speculation about unconscious psychological phenomena
Early ideas about psychopathology
Evolutionary theory
The Zeitgeist
Leibnitz monadology (1646-1716)
Monads- Individual elements of reality
Psychic
Each nomad was an unextended psychic entity, mental in nature, which nevertheless had some properties of physical matter

Mental events- activity of the manads
Different degrees of consciousenss
John Freidrich Herbart 1774-1841
Refined Leibits theory of unconscious. Ideas below the threshold=unconscious. Ideas must be compatible w/ ideas already in conscious. Ideas are forced out of conscious due to incompatibility w/ other conscious ideas. These ideas exist below the threshold. When ideas rise to consciousness they are apperceived
Gustave Fechner
1st person to propose the Leeberg theory. Much of the mind is unconscious concealed beneath the surface of the water
The early people in changing how mentally ill was treated in the U.S. and what changes were made
Juan Luis Vives (1492-1540)
Philippe Pinel (1745-1826)
Dorothea Dix (1802-1887)
Benjamin Rush
Emmanuel Church Healing movement
Chains started to become removed from patients
mental illness became a research topic
Idea that patients are machines that need to be fixed when broken; instruments were used to aid "repair" of patients
Juan Vives
Spanish Scholar. Was among the first to urge that mentally disturbed people be treated sensitively and humanely. Called for sensitive and caring treatment. Language and geographic obstacles restricted his sympathetic views from going outside of Spain
Philippe Pinel
Mental illness ia a biological phenomenon to be treated sensitive methods. Freed patients from chaos. Maintained precise case histories. Maintaiend careful records of cure rates. Number of cured patients increased.
Dorothea Dix (1802-87)
Leading reformer of U.S. insane asylums Actively worked to establish Pinel's reoforms all over U.S. Self described advocate of the mentally ill. Nurse history, battled depression, worked within the government system
Benjamin Rush
1st practicing psychiatrist in U.S. Started 1st psychiatric hospital. Mechanistic forms of treatment. Hypothesis: some irrational symptoms due to excess or deficit of blood; solution: drain or infuse w/ blood. Treatments include revolving chair shock treatment and 1st tranquilizing technique
Emmanual Church Healing movement
Fostered the drift to the psychic approach in U.S. Advocated psychotherapy. Increase salience of psychological causes of mental illnesses to both general public and therapeutic community
Freud (1856-1939)
Moved to Vienna when 4yrs old b/c father was a merchant and went where the money was. Father was 20yrs older than mother. He was a strict authoritarian who was both loved and feared by Freud. His mother was protective and loving. Freud was emotionally attached to her. She was enormously proud of him. As a young student he showed signs of intellectual ability. Accordingly given special treatment and privileges. He entered high school a year early, performed brilliantly and graduated at 17. 1873 he began studying medicine at university of Vienna. His goal was research not practice. took 8 yrs to get his degree b/c he insisted on taking courses outside of medical curriculum. Dissected more than 400 male eels to determine the structure of their testicles and his findings were inconclusive. Then he moved onto physiology and studied the spinal cord of fish. He experimented w/ cocaine. Freud wanted to stay on at the University but he was too poor. Took his medical exams for medical private practice. Earned MD and started clinical neurology practice. Engaged to Martha Bernays. Postponed the wedding date several times due to money issues
Joseph Breur (1842-1935)
Famous for his stud of respiration and of the functioning of the semicircular canals in the ears, befriended the young freud and was father figure. Offered Freud advice and lent him money. Discussed patient cases w/ Freud, including Anna O.
Anna O
One of Breuers patients. Her case is crucial to development of psychoanalysis. 21 yrs old. Intelligent and attractive. Wide range of hysterical symptoms- paralysis, memory loss, mental deterioration, nausea, disturbances in vision and speech. First manifested while nursing her dying father w/ who,e she was very close. Treatment plan: Started w/ hypnosis. Talked about symptoms connect w/ specific experiences, symptoms abated. Had daily sessions w/ Breur for 1 yr. Repulsive acts were recalled by hypnosis. Breuer's wife became Jealous and he had to terminate their sessions.
Bertha Papenheim
Anna O's real name. Was not cured by Breur. She was institutionalized. Spend hours under portrait of father talking bout visiting his grave. Addicted to the morphine prescribed to her by Breuer for facial pain. Somehow overcame emotional problems. She became a social worker, feminist, and proponent of education for women. Published short stories and women's rights play. Was honored on the German postage stamp.
Freud's theories
Oedipus complex- fear of father and sexual attraction to mother
Dream analysis- a psychotherapeutic technique involving interpreting dreams to uncover unconscious dreams to uncover unconscious conflicts. Dreams could contain clues to the underlying cause of a disturbance. They most likely result from something in the patients unconscious mind
Psychoanalysis treatment method- adopted Breur's methods of hypnosis and catharsis to treat patients. Grew dissatisfied and abandoned it. Developed free association
Psychoanalysis- Freud found that the free association method didn't always operate freely. Sooner or later patients reached a point in their recollections where they were unable or unwilling to continue
Free association
A psychotherapeutic technique in which the patient says whatever comes to mind. Goals of psychoanalysis is to bring repressed memories into consciousness awareness. Repressed memories are the source of abnormal behavior. The experiences recalled are predetermined. The natural of the conflict forces the material out to be articulated to therapist. Its roots are in early childhood. Much of it concerned sexual matters
Freud's sex life
Held negative attitude toward sex. Experiences sexual difficulties. At times refrained from sex b/c he disliked the available birth control methods, condoms and coitus interruptus. Freud blamed his wife for ending their sex life for being to firtle. Said that sex was a dangerous animal. Saw the act as degrading and gave up sex at the age of 41
Personality theory
Mental life consists of 2 parts: The conscious and the unconscious. Libido is the psychic energy that drives a person toward pleasurable thoughts and behaviors. The tip of the iceberg=conscious. The part below= unconscious.
Id
Ego
Superego
Id
Unconscious. Most primitieve and lest accessible part of personality. Sex and aggression instinct. Seeks instant gratification
Ego
Serves as the mediator b/w id and the circumstances of the external world to facilitate their interaction. The rational aspect of personality responsible for controlling instinct. Reality principle
Superego
The moral aspect of personality derived from internalizing parental and societal values and standards Behaviors that are wrong and bring punishment become part of the child's conscience. Behaviors that are acceptable to parents or social groups and that bring rewards become part of the ego-deal- behavior determined by self control
Anxiety
functions as a warning that the go is being threatened
psychosexual personality development
Oral stage (birth-2nd yr)
Anal stage
Phallic stage (age 4)
Latency stage (5-12)
Orale stage
stimulation of mouth, sucking, biting swallowing. Inadequate satisfaction become rally fixated. Adult behaviors- excessive optimism, sarcasm, smoking, kissing, eating.
Anal stage
toilet training. Adult behaviors- dirty wasteful, extravagant, anal retentive adult- excessively, clean, compulsive
Phallic stage
Oedipus complex
Latency stage
Onset of puberty
3 major groups of subsequent theorists
Neo-freudians
Orthodox Freudians
Neo- freudians
Elaborated on Freud:
Anna Freud
Melanie Klein Heinz Kohut
Orthodox freudian who became dissenters
Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney
Freud's understudies
Anna Freud
The youngest of Freud's 6 children; not welcomed. Was the least preferred daughter, lonely and unhappy childhood. Became her fathers favorite.
Humanistic psychology
Emphasis on the positive rather than negative in human traits and goals.
Conscious experience
Belief in free will
Confidence in unity of human personality
Focus of Anna Freud's work
Expanded the role of the ego making it more independent of the id. In The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense she clarified the defense mechanisms as they operate to protect the ego from anxiety.. The standard list of Freudian defense mechanism was her work. She gave the mechanisms more precise definition and contributed examples from her analysis of children
Eugenics
The use of selective breeding to increase the general intelligence of the population.
Leta Hollingworth
Rejected the belief, popular at the time, that women achieved less than males do because they are intellectually inferior to males; instead the explanation emphasized differences in social opportunity. This theorist focused on improving the education of both subnormal and gifted students.
Social Darwinism
Spencer's contention that, if given freedom to compete in society, the ablest individuals will succeed and the weaker ones will fail, and this is as it should be.
Behavior Therapy
The use of learning principles to treat emotional or behavioral disorders.
Cognitive Map
According to Tolman, the mental representation of the environment.
B.F. Skinner
A behaviorist who believed that psychology should study the functional relationship between environmental events, such as reinforcement contingencies, and behavior
Act Psychology
Type of psychology that emphasizes the study of intact mental acts, such as perceiving and judging, instead of the division of consciousness into elements.
Gestalt Psychology
The type of psychology that studies whole, intact segments of behavior and cognitive experience. Uses the German word meaning "configurations," "pattern" or "whole."
Law of Prägnanz
Because of the tendencies of the force fields that occur in the brain, mental events will always tend to be organized, simple, and regular. According to this, cognitive experience will always reflect the essence of one's experience instead of its disorganized, fragmented aspects.
Principle of Closure
The tendency to perceive incomplete objects as complete.
Principle of Contemporaneity
Lewin's contention that only present facts can influence present thinking and behavior. Past experiences can be influential only if a person is presently aware of them.
Principle of Continuity
The tendency to experience stimuli that follow some predictable pattern as a perceptual unit.
Principle of Inclusiveness
The tendency to perceive only the larger figure when a smaller figure is embedded in a larger figure.
Principle of Proximity
The tendency to perceptually group together stimuli that are physically close.
Principle of Similarity
The tendency to perceive as units stimuli that are physically similar to one another.
Max Wertheimer
Founded the school of Gestalt psychology with the 1912 paper on the phi phenomenon.
Contagion Effect
The tendency for people to be more susceptible to suggestion when in a group then when alone.
Dorthea Dix
This reformer caused several states (and foreign countries) to reform their facilities for treating mental illness by making them more available to those needing them and more humane in their treatment.
Emil Kraeplin
Published a list of categories of mental illness in 1883. Until recent times, many clinicians used this list to diagnosis mental illness. Today the DSM serves the same purpose. This person was also a pioneer in the field known today as psychopharmacology.
Lightner Whitmer
Considered to be the founder of clinical psychology.
Alfred Adler
An early follower of Freud who left the Freud camp and created a theory of personality, which emphasized the conscious mind and the individually creation of w worldview, guiding fictions, and a lifestyle in order to overcome feelings of inferiority and to seek perfection.
Ego Psychology
Psychology that emphasized the autonomous functions of the ego and minimizes the conflicts among the ego, id, and superego.
Carl Jung
An early follower of Freud who eventually broke with him because of Freud's emphasis on sexual motivation. This theorist developed a theory which emphasized the collective unconscious and self-actualization.
Melanie Klein
An early child analyst whose theory emphasized the importance of the mother-child relationship and the development of the superego during the oral stage of development. By using play therapy, this theorist believed that child analysis could begin as early as two years of age. These ideas concerning the psychology of children were often in conflict with those of Anna Frued.
Describe Spencer's social Darwinism and explain why it was so popular in the United States
It is the contention that if given freedom to compete in society, the ablest individuals will succeed and the weaker ones will fail and this is how it should be. It was so popular in the United States because it was compatible with US capitalism and individualism
Summarize Leta Stetter Hollingworth's contributions to psychology
She attempted to specify optimal educational experiences for the gifted. She found that many individuals classified as defective were actually manifesting social and personality adjustment problems. She corrected the mistreatment of gifted children. She also changed beliefs about women like the belief that women were intellectually inferior to men.
What is neobehaviorism?
Agreed with older forms of behaviorism that overt behavior should be psychology's subject matter but disagreed that theoretical speculation concerning abstract entities must be avoided. Such speculation was accepted provided that the theoretical terms employed are operationally defined and lead to testable predictions about overt behavior.
Summarize Skinner's argument against the use of theory in psychology
Skinner was against the use of theories, he believed there was a lot of energy that went into the research involved in developing them and it was a waste of time because most theories' research is discarded. For Skinner one didn't need a theory to guide their research, he would try something and if it was leading to a dead end he'd stop, if something was coming out of the research he'd persist.
What is the law of Pägnanz? Describe the importance of this law in Gestalt psychology
According to the Law of Pägnanz, cognitive experience will always reflect the essence of one's experience instead of its disorganized, fragmented aspects. It is important because it shows that Gestalt psychology is not as basic as it appears to be.
Summarize the impact that Gestalt psychology has had on contemporary psychology
It has influenced every aspect of modern psychology and redirected the mainstream. It was also key to contemporary cognitive psychology.
What is mental illness? Include the criteria that have been through history to define mental illness
The condition that is said to exist when a person's emotions, thoughts, or behavior, deviate substantially from what is considered to be normal at a certain time and place in history. Words used throughout history: mad, lunatic, maniac, insane. Criteria that was used to define mental illness: harmful behavior, unrealistic thoughts and perceptions, inappropriate emotions, unpredictable behavior.
Why does Szasz refer to mental illness as a myth? Why does he feel that labeling someone as mentally ill may be doing him/her a disservice?
In his influential book, The Myth of Mental Illness, Szasz contends that what has been labeled mental illness reflects problems in living or nonconformity but not true illness. The diagnosis of mental illness reflects a social, political, or moral judgment, not a medical one. To label mental illness implies that a person is nor responsible for solving those problems and that a circumstance that is out of their control. Diagnosing a person as having a mental illness may encourage that the individual act in ways dictated by the diagnosis.
Define and give examples of objective, neurotic, and moral anxiety
Objective anxiety is caused by a physical danger, neurotic anxiety is caused by the feeling that one is going to be overwhelmed by his/her id, and moral anxiety is caused by violating one or more values internalized in the superego.
Did Horney agree Freud's contention that anatomy is destiny? Explain
Horney initially agreed with Freud's contention that anatomy is destiny (that one's major personality traits are determined by gender), but in her version it is males who envy female anatomy rather than the other way around. In the end her position was that personality traits are determined more by cultural than biological traits.
How did Horney and Freud differ in their explanations of the origins of psychological problems? On the prognosis for personality change? On the belief in people's ability to solve their own psychological problems?
Horney believed society was the cause of psychological problems and she was more optimist than Freud that people's personality can change and that they can solve their own psychological problems.
Know the most important concept that Sechenov introduced to psychology
Inhibition
Unconditioned reflex (response)
an unlearned reflex
Unconditioned stimulus
a stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response (UR)
Conditioned stimulus
a previously biologically neutral stimulus that, through experience, comes to elicit a certain response (CR)
Conditioned reflex (response)
a learned reflex
experimental neurosis
The neurotic behavior that Pavlov created in some of his laboratory animals by bringing excitatory and inhibitory tendencies into conflict
What method did Bechterev believe should be used in studying humans?
Focused on the relationship between environmental stimulation and behavior, a complete objective study of human behavior (Reflexology)
According to Watson, what was the goal of psychology
Prediction and control
What was the purpose of the study conducted by Watson and Rayner with Little Albert?
To demonstrate how emotion could be displaced to stimuli other than those that had originally elicited the emotions
What two positions were combined to form neobehaviorism?
behaviorism and logical positivism
Know about vicarious trial and error as discussed by Tolman
In the early stages of hypothesis formation, the animal may pause at the choice points as if to "ponder" the alternatives.
According to Hull, what was habit strength?
sHr (habit strength) refers to the strength of the association between a stimulus and a response
Operant conditioning
According to Skinner, how you change behavior.
Gestalt psychology formed as a protest against what?
Wundt (Voluntarism), Titchener (Structuralism) and Watson (Behaviorism) who are very reductionist (elemenistic)
What is the Law of Pragnanz?
There is a tendency for whatever is perceived to take the best form possible
General overriding principle for Gestalt perception
All other laws come under this one
Know the importance of the experiment conducted by the Gestalt psychologists about transposition
The Gestalt version of training, which states that a principle that works in solving a problem will tend to be applied to the solution of similar problems
What is life space according to Lewin?
Consists of all influences acting on him or her at a given time
Zeigarnik effect
the tendency to remember uncompleted tasks longer than completed ones
What is trephination?
In order to expel evil spirits drilled holes in the head so they could escape.
What did Dorthea Dix accomplish?
Improved the plight of the mentally ill in the US and Europe
Pinel, Rush, and Dix all attempted one thing. What was it?
Urged and Campaigned for the humane treatment of the mentally disturbed
Know about Witmer's contributions.
Father of clinical and school psychology, Founded first psychological clinic,First to use the term clinical psychology, Founded the first clinical journal ,The Psychological Clinic,Clinicians should receive rigorous training in scientific methodology leading to the Ph.D.
Who introduced the term hypnosis and made it more acceptable
Braid
What did Charcot say about hysteria?
that patients were suffering real discomfort and needed to be treated with hypnosis
What was Freud's most unique contribution to psychology?
Expansion of psychology's domain and Psychoanalysis
What was the Oedipal complex?
Attribute seduction fantasies to infantile incentuous desires directed at the parent of the opposite sex, Son wants to kill his father and have sex with his mother
What is identification with the aggressor according to Anna Freud?
Occurs when a person adopts the values and mannerisms of a feared person as his or her own
For Jung what was the deepest and most powerful component of personality?
Collective unconscious
Jung's most unique concept
the deepest and most powerful components of the personality which contains the cumulative experiences of humans throughout their entire evolutionary past
Introversion
(oriented toward ideas),
Extroversion
(oriented toward people)
According to Adler, human start life with certain feelings, what are they?
Feeling of inferiority
What is the inferiority complex?
Overwhelmed by feelings of inferiority
Horney disagrees with Freud and place more emphasis on what?
Major focus on culture and society
Why did Horney feel women often feel inferior to men?
Culture makes women inferior, not biology
What is Dasein?
Referred to the fact that the person and the world were inseparable "being-in- the - world"
What was necessary for living an authentic life according to Heidegger?
Coming to grips with the facts that "I must someday die"
What was May's position on the scientific study of humans?
Opposed to employing methods of the physical sciences to study humans
Know what was unique about Roger's approach to psychotherapy
Unconditional Positive regard, and it eliminated the needs for diagnosis, a search for the causes of disturbances, and any type of labeling of disorders
Alfred Adler
1870-1937; Field: neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; Contributions: basic mistakes, style of life, inferiority/superiority complexes, childhood influences personality formation; Studies: Birth Order
Vladimir Bechterev
Like Pavlov, looked upon all human behavior as reflexive. However, he studied skeletal reflexes rather than the glandular reflexes that Pavlov studied
James Braid
surgeon; coined term "hypnosis"; required subjects to fix their gaze on an object and focus on an idea
Jean-Martin Charcot
French neurologist from whom Freud learned that physical disorders could have a psychological origin and that hysteria must, therefore, be taken seriously as a disease.
Dorothea Dix
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
Sigmund Freud
austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis
Anna Freud
1895-1982; Field: psychoanalysis; Contributions: focused on child psychoanalysis, fully developed defense mechanisms, emphasized importance of the ego and its constant struggle
Karen Horney
1885-1952; Field: neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; Contributions: criticized Freud, stated that personality is molded by current fears and impulses, rather than being determined solely by childhood experiences and instincts, neurotic trends
Clark Hull
1884-1952; Field: motivation; Contributions: maintains that the goal of all motivated behavior is the reduction or alleviation of a drive state, mechanism through which reinforcement operates
Pierre Janet
student of Charcot; laid foundation for analytical psychology; studied autonomous behavior (possession, hysteria, etc); theorized split personality disorder
Carl Jung
1875-1961; Field: neo-Freudian, analytic psychology; Contributions: people had conscious and unconscious awareness; archetypes; collective unconscious; libido is all types of energy, not just sexual; Studies: dream studies/interpretation
Wolfgang Kohler
A Gestalt psychologist who became known for his experiments with chimpanzees and insight in problem solving. He believed that by perceiving the whole situation, chimps were able to create novel solutions to problems (rather than just by trial and error). Through insight, chimps were able to use props in order to retrieve rewards.
Emil Kraepelin
German psychiatrist responsible for creating the first truly comprehensive classification system of psychological disorders
Kurt Lewin
Gestalt Psychologist. A German refugee who escaped Nazi oppression. Designed an experiment to investigate the effects of different leadership styles on group functions. He wanted to find out if people were more productive under autocratic, laizssez-faire or democratic leadership styles. This is the study when he had children do activities under the 3 conditions. The democratic style proved to be the most productive as was expected.
Created the ideas of "life space", the field theory and action research.
Abraham Maslow
Humanistic psychologist who proposed the hierarchy of needs, with self-sctualization as the ultimate psychological need
Rollo May
Free will, believed our personalities reflect the ways we cope with the struggles to find meaning of life, also understood negative was part of it and came up with existentialism
William McDougall
Believed psychology should study mental processes and behavior together. Put an emphasis on the importance of goal seeking behavior.
Franz Mesmer
Austrian physician who conducted early investigations into hypnosis as a medical treatment
Ivan Pavlov
Russian physiologist who first described the basic learning process of associating stimuli that is now called classical conditioning
Philippe Pinel
French physician/psychiatrist who was a superintendent of Bicetre Hospital in Paris who urged and worked for the humane treatment of the mentally ill; wrote Medico-philosophical Treatment on Mental Alienation
Carl Rogers
1902-1987; Field: humanistic; Contributions: founded person-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person
Benjamin Rush
- 'father of american psychiatry'
- attempted to classify mental illness and theorized as to their causes and cures
Ivan Sechenov
Objective psychology: Sought to explain all human behavior through stimuli and physiological mechanism
B. F. Skinner
pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that everything we do is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments. he is famous for use of his operant conditioning aparatus which he used to study schedules of reinforcement on pidgeons and rats.
Edward Tolman
american psychologist who used the terms cognitive map and latent learning to describe experimental findings that strongly suggested the cognitive factors play a role in animal learning
William Tuke
English Quaker who established the York retreat, where mental patients lived in humane surroundings
John B. Watson
1878-1958; Field: behaviorism; Contributions: generalization-inductive reasoning, emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; Studies: Little Albert
Max Wertheimer
First to advance the Gestalt viewpoint, thought it was a mistake to break psychological experiences down into smaller pieces to analyze.
Lightner Witmer
American psychologist who established the first psychological clinic in the United States, focusing on problems of mentally deficient children
Voluntarism
# name Wundt gave to his approach in psych. - Emphasizes will, and the fact that we have choice and theres a purpose behind what we do
Wundt
founded first psych lab dedicated to psych. Research - called his lab the"institute for experimental psych."
Wundt
started the first journal devoted exclusively to psych, ""philosophical studies/psychological studies""
Wundt
method of choice was introspection
Wundt
There were two elements of thought that he utilized:
-Sensation
-Feeling
*all sensations are accompanied by feeling*
Tri Dementional Theory of Feeling --Wundt
# Look at something if its:
--Pleasant or Unpleasant
--Excitement or Calm
--Strain or Relaxation
**what is there more of??
Tichener
though that psych was experimental psych. - everything that preceeded his vision of psych was not psych at all
Tichener
created his own group- "Experimentalists"
-you had to be male to be a member
-Margeret Washbourn was first women to be accepted
Tichener
Agreed with Wundt that psych. should study immediate experiences
---counsciousness and the mind were two of the immediate experiences he worked with
Consciousness --tichener
# was the subtotal of mental experience at any given moment
Mind --tichener
# was the cumulated experiences of a lifetime
Tichener
he was looking at structure of the mind - named his part of psychology "Structuralism" (how is the mind put together?if you observe something then can you observe the structure in the mind?)
Tichener
did not accept Wundts tri dementional theory - felt there was only one dimension which was pleasant vs. unpleasant.
Tichener
at times he felt introspeciton wasnt totally reliable - because of this he came up with a new "school" called functionalism
Functionalism -Tichener
# concerned with the "what for" of the mind instead of the "what is" of the mind
Ebbinghouse
biggest contribution was in the field of memory - his first work was "unmemory and investigation of experimental psych.
Ebbinghouse
because of him, it was the first time that the process of learning and memory had been studied as they occurred rather than after they occurred.
**nonsense syllabell**
Retention Curve -Ebbinghouse
# how able is the person to remember
Ebbinghouse
Two ways of studying:
1.Mass learning - cramming
2.Space learning - spaced out
Coca Cola Case
-adding caffine to soda
-case was thrown out
-no detrimental effects to caffine
-Harry Hollingworth designed a rigorous examination of the effect of caffine on motor and mental functions (1911)
-FDA claimed it was poisonous and habit forming
-no harmful effects or significant declines in performance were performed
-demonstrated that sound experimental research could be funded by a corporation and the results not be biased
-also demonstrated that psychologists could have successful and financially rewarding careers in applied psychology without challenging their professional intergrity
Toward a Practical Psychology
-American psych influenced more by Darwin, Galton, and Spencer rather than Wundt
-American culture bent towards the practical
-began to study what the mind does rather than what it is
-psych moved into schools, factories, advertising agencies, courthouses, child guidance clinics, and mental health services
-industrial revolution
Growth of American Psychology
-began in Germany, but grew slowly
-the rapid growth in America resulted in shift of leadership to America with in 20yrs of when it began
-psychology had its public debut at chicago's world fair
-1880 -0 labs -> 1990 41 labs
-0 psych journals -> 1895 3 psych journals
-0 psych programs ->1900 40 programs
Economic Influences on Applied Psychology
-large number of Americans with doctoral degrees who needed to look beyond the university for employment
-application to education was key (around 1910) in applied psychology
James Cattell
(1860-1944)
-Born in Easton, PA
-BA from Lafayette
-studied under Wundt, lab assistant
-Ph.D, Leipzig (1886)
-studied under Hall at Hopkins
-taught at Bryn Mawr and University of PA
-Father offered 21- $1000 -> to avoid spirits, tobacco, drugs
-tired everything for the 1st time
-lost scholarship
-father said they were wealthy, paid only $300-> stayed 3 yrs
-England-> Galton-> loved individual differences, stats, and heugenics
James Cattell Columbia University
-left Lightner Witmer in charge, who became the father of clinical psychology
-Columbia had the highest # of Ph.D's
-1884-1948- 365 Ph.D's
-college profs should not live close to college moved 40 miles
-columbia tried to fire him 3 times
-charged with disloyalty to the U.S
-sued, won 40,000 dollars
-bitter, angry, died
James Cattell Contributions
-edited 6 journals
-co-founded Psychological review
-focused on individual differences
-coined "mental test"
-first American psychologist to promote mental testing
-organized Psychological Corporation for test publication
-rank method of testing
-30 tests for feebly minded
-measured physical capacities and intellectual
-never have a #associated with you intellectual level
-"orthopedics" increase will, attention, and discipline
-died at 54 yrs old
Psychological Testing
-Alfred Binet
-developed the first truly psychological test of mental ability
-began modern intelligence testing
-Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon developed the first test in 1904
-the concept of "mental age" (intellectual level)
-William Stern introduced the term mental age and intelligence quotient
-IQ=Mental Age/ Chronological Age (X 100)
-regretted developing #
Alfred Binet
-scared of people
-mother artist, successful
-read Darwin, Galton
-worked w/ Charco
-developed treatment of women's Hysteria
-magnets -> cure fear of snakes, not effective, ashamed Binet
-"tell me what you want, I'll tell you what you'll find"
-tested daughters (Piaget)
-used intellectual items
-published book on daughters
-studied childhood fears, ink blots, individual differences
Henry Goddard
-brought Binet's test to U.S
-undefeated football coach at USC
-Kallikak family
-testing immigrants at Ellis Island
-taught at West Chester, quaker
-invented the term "moron"
-public schools in NJ, hardly above retarded
-believed that intelligence affected morality
-sterilize uninltelligent immoral women
-heritability of feeble mindedness
-sterilization passed in Indiana, California, Washington
-1920-1930, 12000 sterilized against will
-60,000-70,000 total
-Oregon closed 1983, last person 1981
-deaf, blind, epileptics, deformed, native americans, african americans (institutions and prisons)
-1913- 350% deported by Goddard's testing
-1914 570%
-North Western Europeans are the only bright people
Buck vs. Bell
Supreme court made it constitutional for eugenics
Lewis Terman
-developed the Standford Binet in 1916 and adopted IQ measure
-bought rights for $1
-put (X100) into equation
-followed lives of genesis
Robert Verks
-APA president
-group testing of intelligence to test soldiers in WWI
-pulls psychologists to help gov.
-Army, alpha (readers), beta (non readers) test
-data produced when war was over
-Americans = morons
-put testing on the map
Women in Psych Testing
Anne Anastasi- leading expert on psych testing
-developed cervical cancer, could have had long career
Lightner Witmer
(1867-1956)
-born in PA
-BA at UN
-wanted to be a lawyer
-becomes assistant to Cattell
-goes to German and gets Ph.d with Wundt
-student with Kulpe and Tichener
-1892- APA formed
-2nd youngest charter member
-1896 opened world's 1st psychology clinic
-did not believe in therapy
-assessed and treated learning and behavioral problems in school children
-anticipated the need for a HeadStart program to improve the environment for children
-father of clinical psychology
and 1st clinical psychologist
Clinical Psychology
-influences, Clifford Beers book on mental health treatment
-Hugo Munsterberg's book on psychotherapy
-Sigmund Freud psychoanalysis
-clinical psychology grew slowly until WWII
-needed to help those coming back from war
-today clinical psych is the largest of applied psych areas
-more than 1/3 of all psych grad students
-70% of APA members are practitioners
Walter Dill Scott
(1869-1955)
-sold blackberries and metal
-wanted to become missionary in China, but became Wundt's student
-wife carried a PH.d in literature
-Applied Psychology to: Impact of Advertising, Business, Personnel Selection, Motivation
-wrote book on personal finance
-evaluated 3 million soldiers in WWI
-used psych testing
-people are influenced by emotions
-came up with Law of Suggestibility
-must engage people in their senses
-woman more than men
-clip coupons, commitment to sales, rebates
-ignored by academics
Hawthorne Studies
-social and psychological aspects of the workplace were much more important that the physical
-6 women, lighting and other effects
-Hawthorn effect- change your work ethic because you know you are being studied
First Women (Industrial Psych)
-Lillian Gilbreth- wrote first book, used different name, on stamp
-Anna Berliner- Wundt's student, psych in Japan
-today more than 1/2 of Ph.D industrial psych are women
Hugo Munsterberg
(1863-1916)
-mother/ father died before age 20
-liked music, poetry, art, literature
-worked with Wundt
-Ph.D and M.D
-can't be consciously aware of will
-theory of emotions
-became friends with James
-created lab that rivaled Wundts
-James convinced Hugo to run lab at Harvard
-left America, didn't like it, returned 3 yrs later and died there
-knew famous people
-fought strongly against prohibition
-WWI accused as German spy
-most hated man in America-died of stroke in front of class
-founder of applied psychology
-famous book On the Witness Stand
-police should not use strong force interrogation
-tell lies, blood pressure increases, polygraph
-men were more likely to make correct judgments when in jury
-woman decrease effectiveness when on jury
Hugo Munsterberg (Clinical Psychology)
-mental illness was a behavioral maladjustment, not a result of the unconscious
-psychosis was the result of a deterioration of the nervous system and could not be treated
-can't tell how boring a job is by looking at it
-ringers
-people are more unproductive when talking w/ coworkers (cubicle)
-Promoted industrial psych
Applied Psych in U.S
-After WWI applied psychologist made psych popular with general public
-negative attitude by academic psychologist
-APA required publication of experimental studies for membership
-clamor for solutions to real-word problems made applied psych a "national mania"
-WWII, American psych had grown dramatically and most significantly in applied areas
-scienctists started APS -> 1988
Herbert Spencer
(1820-1903)
-wore earmuffs, opium to sleep
-1st evolutionist-> developed social darwinism
-applied darwinism to society
-gov. helps losers and prevents people from developing morals
"let nature take its course"
-company that's the best should be
-all organisms learn the same way: association
-became fundamental to behaviorism
Spencer-Brain Principle
-responses that result in satisfaction/pleasant feeling persist
-responses that result in painful feeling do not persist
William James
(1842-1910)
-wealthy bostonian, brother Henry author, father educated them over the world
-wanted to be a painter, father threatened to kill himself
-studied chemistry at Harvard-med school, developed relationship with Bio prof.
-went to Brazil to disprove Darwin
-depressed, spent 2 yrs in Germany
-accepted evolution
-"Amercanitis"- neurathenia
-married father's choice
-taught first psych course at Harvard in 1875
-wrote Principles of Psychology, terrible writer, psych is not a science
-1st lab in America, metronome, whirling frogs
James' Ideas About Psychology
James' Pragmatism- a theory or method is useful if it works
-free will-first act to believe in free will
-more concerned about making psychology useful than in explaining things
-coined the term streams of consciousness
-cannot break down consciousness or will break it
-loses value
-stream that is continually flowing
-it is personal, not shared characteristics
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
-physical response precedes the emotion
-we are afraid because we run
-opposed to Cannon-Bard Theory- emotions and physical response occur at the same time
James (Emperical Me or Self)
material self- everything ,sterial that a person could call his or her own, body, family, and property
social self- the self known by others
spiritual self- a person's state of consciousness
James (Habits and Instincts)
-saw all living creatures as "bundles of habits"
-life is a fly wheel of habits
-did believe that they were not "blind and invariable" but rather modifiable by experience
-habits are formed as an activity is repeated which result in changes in neural pathways to, from, and with the brain to become more entrenched
James' Contributions
1) Incorporated evolutionary theory in psychology
2) stressed what is useful and functional
3)he expanded the methods of psychology
1st person to use self-esteem-> SA/T (successful attempts/ trying)
Mary Whiton Calkins
(1863-1930)
-William James' student
-daughter of pastor- educated
-conservative, exception to hard work, didn't marry
-one-on-one teaching, men walked out of the same class
-good PH.D defense-> Harvard refused
-opened 1st psych lab at Welsley
-goes back to Harvard- Munsterburger
-paired-associate technique/ learning paradigm in memory research word more important than color
-self-psychology-> how selves interact
-first woman president of APA
Variability Hypothesis
-men show a wider range and/or variation of physical and mental development than women
-women too close of clusters
-intellectual development disrupts maternal desires
Helen Bradford Thompson
(1874-1947)
-Ph.D from U of Chicago in 1900
-psych director of Holy Oak College
-pushed for child labor laws
-mothers could not hold professorship
-first experimental test of Darwin's notion of men being intellectually superior to women
-no significant differences in emotional functioning or intellectual abilities
-women-> better at fine motor skills, memory, and association
men-> better at ingenuity
Leta Stetter Hollingsworth
(1886-1939)
-lived with grandparents after mother dies
-made a pact to get Ph.D
-got job as assistant researcher against Coke
-went to Columbia w/ Thorndike
-measured infants and variability
-more men are diagnosed as mentally retarded
-teens more men- older more equal
-identify more men because they have higher expectations
-differences are cultural
-questioned innate instinct for motherhood- social and cultural attitudes
-gifted program
-educated Carl Rogers
Granville Stanley Hall
(1844-1924)
-most influential American Psych
-committed to Darwin
-MA-farm- interested in animal
-Mayflower
-parents shaped approach- father bought out of civil war
-enrolled at Theological Seminary-> went to Church,police stations, and zoos
-1st sermon-prays not to go to Hell
-Germany-studied Theology and Philosophy, drank
-tried to become pastor- 10 weeks
-Received the first American doctoral degree in psych
-Wundt's student, worked w/ Helmholtz's
-gives speech at Harvard-> hired at Johns Hoptkins
-taught T.W. Wilson-> president
-began first working psych lab in U.S
-learn "education" in Germany
-president of Clark University-> only grad students
-wife and daughter died from space heater
-went back to God-> wrote book
-70% profs left
-66% of students left
-invited Freud to America
-graduated Sumner
-1st president and and organizer of APA elected twice
-wrote Adolescence (1904) and Senescence: The Last Half of Him (1922)
-need to study children
-80% did not know what a bee hive was
-Angels tend to the sun at night
-research on the older people
-human life is reliving evolution
Recapitualtion Theory
-children are beasts, can't educate females with men
-psychological processes appear as they did in evolution of species
-he was convinced that the normal growth of the mind involved a series of evolutionary stages
-obsessed with sex
John Dewey
(1859-1952)
-born in Vernmont, poor, father was a grocer->super nice
-scholarship for Johns Hoptkins, scholarship pulled
-wrote first American psych book
-U. Michagen 10 yrs. Professor
-not a great teacher, lectured to hat and children
-"Wrote The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology"
-attacked the notion of reflex arc
-complete circle, perception of stimulus changed by SR
-breaking things down, losing things, streams of behavior
-psych has to be about the function of behavior -> is to create survival
-life can't be reduced to SR (or behavior)
-focused on immigrants-> service learning
-best way of learning is by doing (against route-memory)
-kicked out of Chicago -> New York
-organizes 1st teacher's union
-fought for woman's voting rights
-children called by 1st name
-him and wife totally nude in house w/ kids
-most likable
James Rowland Angell
(1869-1949)
-MA in psych
-PH.D under Wundt-> never completed because of German
-doctoral work at U of Halle
-student- Watson
-wrote intro to psych textbook
-president of APA
-worked at Chicago for 25 yrs
-functionalism beat structuralism
- speech on nature of functionalism
-first to advocate for rats
-study rats biologically
-president of U of Chicago
Three Major Themes of Functionalism
Angell
1) Functional psychology is the psychology of mental operations
2) Consciousness mediates between the needs of the organism and the demands of the environment
3) is concerned w/ mind-body relations to the relationships of the organism to the environment
Harvey Carr
(1873-1954)
-Angell's student
-went to Colorado-> Chicago
-worked w/ Watson -> introduced animal psychology
-taught Math in Texas
-took over lab that Watson left
-became chair in 1919
-led functionalist school after structuralism defeated
-Famous for: 1) Motivation hungry
2) Environment create
3) Satisfying response
-psych should be focused on memory imagination
and will
-pushed psych past introspection to objective behavior
-encouraged U. of Chicago
-led functionalism toward behaviorism
Functionalism at Columbia University
-Robert Sessions Woodworth
-James McKeen Cattell
-E.L Thorndike
Robert Sessions Woodworth
-born in MA, father minister, read William James' textbook
-goes to Harvard to study psych
-goes to England
-retired from teaching, but students begged to come back
-Dynamic Psychology- the influence of casual factors and motivations on feelings and behavior
-why = drive- helps determine what people will do
-#1 goal of psych-to discover motivation
Criticisms of Functionalism
-term not clearly defined
-Tichener argued that Functionalism is not psychology because it deviated from introspective analysis of the mind into elements (structuralist approach)
-too focused on practical concerns; pure vs. applied science
Contributions of Functionalism
-increased research on animal behavior
-incorporated studies of infants, children, woman, and people, w/ mental disabilities
-included both introspection approach and data from observable events or behavior
-focused on applied psych
Functionalism
-wants to know how the mind functions, or is used by an organism to adapt to it's environment
-what do mental processes accomplish?
-James Angell, Industrial revolution
Charles Darwin
Jenny (orangutan) : temper tantrums, whined, complained
-visitor brought mirror an harmonica, recognized herself
-grandfather had driver who was very large to test floors, 14 children (theory of evolution), composer of erotic poetry
-famous families
-5th of 6 children, raised by two older sisters
-troublemaker, loved collecting things
-Pastor- enjoyed beetle collection
-Henslow gives 5yr world opportunity- traveling gentlemen company
-Darwin's uncle paid for him to go on Beagle
-originally believed in Creation, then thought it was false
-married 1st cousin Emma Wedgewood
-hypochondriasis
-took 20 yrs to publish Origin of Species
-favorite daughter died (God doesn't exist)
-Charles Yell and Hooker knew about book
-had others read for him
Alfred Rusesel Wallace
-lost all species he had collected
-fever- develops Theory of Evolution
-sends manuscript to Darwin
-both mens work presented together
Mathus
-population of earth vs. food.
-originator of evolution
Thomas Henry Huxley
-Biologist who strongly supported evolution
-debated Bishop Samuel (Soapy Wilberforce) -grandparents not apes
-known as Darwin's "bulldog"
-Scopes Trial (1925)- teaching evolution in the schools
Friteroy (Captain)
-sorry that Darwin got on Beagle
-slit his throat while shaving
Darwin's Theory
-struggle of survival
- adaptive feature
-Natural selection
Darwin's Connection to Psychology
-strong continuity of emotions between animals and humans
-explanation of emotions as remnant of movement that once served a function in earlier stages of evolution
-developmental psychology- observed his son
-animal psychology- comparative psychology
-study of individual difference-tests and measurements
-focus on function of behavior
-evolutionary psychology
Negative Impact of Darwin
-Heckel's representation of superior european race
1)Racism- racial stratification as steps between primate and modern humans (europeans)
2) Sexism- women intellectually inferior to men (Social Darwinism)
3) Cultural Differences being viewed as heritable instincts
Francis Galton
(1822-1911)
-Father- founding father of the Quakers
-Brilliant
-tested medications- took Croton Oil-powerful laxitative- ending testing
-wrote book on travel, advocated the end of ethnocentrism
-loved counting, fingerprints can catch criminals
-highs and lows
-world beauty map
-prayer studies
-10 coins tossed 1000 times
-measure chest size of every scottish soldier avg. 39.38 inches, largest 48, smallest 33
-discovered normal bell curve, mean, median, scatterplot, regression to the mean
-friend- Charles Pearson- correlation coefficient
-teach rabbits traits
-wrote Hereditary Genius (1869)
-individual greatness follows hereditary line, 1 person out of 4000 can do
-followed families and sons
-no control group
-looked at 977 famous scientists
-bright people must have the best senses
-built IQ test for senses
-whistle
-tested 9000 people, copy of physical traits
Eugenics
(Galton)
-(well born) or well bread
-humans are like animals
-(Twin Studies)- gov. paid people to have bright children
-U.S. took this on->Nazi
-downplayed environmental factors
-nature vs. nurture
Candolle's Conclusions
-temperate climates nurtured more scientists than hot climates
-countries that spoke german, french, or english, nurtured more scientists
-the lack of a dogmatic and authoritarian religion nurtured more scientists
-teachers that promote spirit of free inquiry nurtured more scientists
-countries that have a relatively high standard of living that offered more libraries, universities, and laboratories with people with sufficient free to use them
Galton's Controbutions
-originator of mental test
-first word association test
-39% of associating from childhood
-43%-46% from adulthood
-What did you have for breakfast test?
-woman and children- vivid imaginations of breakfast
-intelligent people have ability to imagine
-Adolph Quetelet- used statistics and the normal curve to help Galton explain intelligence
-James Cattell coined the term mental test
-the concept of correlation
Animal Psychology
-Darwin's writing opened the door to the study of animals in a different way
-feelings, imaginations, dreams
-worms- sexual lust, caring
-attempts were made to discover evidence of animal intelligence after On the Origin of Species was published
George John Romanes
-shocking dunce by parents
-impressed with Darwin, became protege
-formalized and systematized the study of animal intelligence (suggested by Darwin)
-first books of comparative psychology- animal intelligence and mental evolution in animals
-developed what he called the ladder of mental functioning
-cats are the brightest, jellyfish the lowest
-took reports from people about animals
"if we observe on ant or a bee exhibiting sympathy or rage, we must believe they are in a psychological state of sympathy or rage."
Conway Lloyd Morgan
-scorpions-tried to get them to kill themselves
-recognized weakness in Romanes' methodology
-proposed the law of parismony (Lloyd-Canon)
-1st person to systematically study animals
-Toby-fox-terrier- wanted to go outside, used trial and error to discover a way out
Alfred Binet
FRENCH PSYCHOLOGIST WHO DEVELOPED THE 1ST INTELLIGENCE TEST IN THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY.
Paul Broca
(1861) identified that left frontal lobe of brain is responsible for language. Further study indicates that language processing takes place in the left hemispere.
Mary Whiton Calkins
first woman president of APA; discovered the recency effect: recall is especially accurate for the final items in a series of stimuli; trained by James; created the first memory lab
James Cattell
American who turned his attention toward differences in reaction time among people. Coined the term "mental tests"
Kenneth and Mamie Clark
Researchers whose work was used in the Brown v. Board of Education case that overturned segregation in schools.
Gustav Fechner
german physicist that coined term psychophysics
David Ferrier
Scottish neurologist 1881
Repeated same experiment with monkeys, showed that the removal of the same region of the cerebrum causes paralysis of the muscles
Marie-Jean Flourens
(1794-1867);discredited phrenology, technique of lesioning or removing parts of the cortex to study impact on behavior
Gustav Fritsch & Edward Hitzig
performed many [LOCALIZATION] studies with the motor cortexes of dogs. used electrical shocks on different areas of brains and mapped out the reactions on the body
Franz Gall
neuroanatomist, physiologist and pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain
Francis Galton
psychologist who examined the heredity vs. environment aspect of psychology
Henry Goddard
a prominent American psychologist and eugenicist in the early 20th century. He is known especially for his 1912 work The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness, which he himself came to regard as deeply flawed, and for being the first to translate the Binet intelligence test into English in 1908 and distributing an estimated 22,000 copies of the translated test across the United States; he also introduced the term "moron" into the field.
Stanley Hall
American psychologist who established first research lab and founded the American Psychological Association.
John Harlow
Doctor that worked with Gage
Herman Von Helmholtz
Theorist who both aided in the development of the trichromatic theory of color perception and Place theory of pitch perception.
William James
1st american born psychologist.consiousness was adaptive. functionalism. 1890 wrote first textbook on psychology.
Jean Lamarck
French naturalist who proposed that evolution resulted from the inheritance of acquired characteristics (1744-1829)
Francois Magendie
French Physiologist (1783-1855). Sensory vs. motor neurons in spinal cord.
Thomas Malthus
English clergyman and economist, 1766-1834, wrote AN ESSAY ON THE PRINCIPLE OF POPULATION, inspired both Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace in their seperate discoveries of the principle of natural selection, argued that human population size increases exponentially while food supplies remain relatively stable. Catastrophes check pop. growth and advocates smaller families
Morgan's Cannon
"In no case may we interpret an action as the outcome of the exercise of a higher mental faculty, if it can be interpreted as the exercise of one which stands lower in the psychological scale"
Johannes Muller
german physiologist, doctrine of specific nerve energies
Hugo Munsterberg
Popular books (On the Witness Stand) and magazine articles as well as academic texts
-developed applied fields such as psychotherapy, forensic psychology, and industrial psychology
Charles Spearman
1863-1945; Field: intelligence; Contributions: specific mental talents were highly correlated, general "g" factor for intelligence
Herbert Spencer
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies. Coined the term, Survival of the Fittest
Johann Spurzheim
a student of Gall who spread the influence of phrenology
William Stern
german psychologist. IQ= intelligence quotient, mental age (binet's)/chronological age x 100
Lewis Terman
revised Binet's IQ test and established norms for American children; tested group of young geniuses and followed in a longitudinal study that lasted beyond his own lifetime to show that high IQ does not necessarily lead to wonderful things in life
Edward Thorndike
was the first psychologist to systematically investigate animal learning and how voluntary behaviors are indluenced by their consequences. He expecially focused on whether animals use reasoning to solve problems. He put cats in a "puzzle box"
Ernst Weber
- Psychologist at Leipzig.
- Introduced Just Noticeable Differences as the unit of measure (ratio of weight)
Wilhelm Wundt
German physiologist who founded psychology as a formal science; opened first psychology research lab in 1879; Used Introspection and Volunteerism
Robert Yerkes
harvard psychologist in early 20th century, famous for ignoring environment to argue for heredity
Created the Army's testing program during WWI
Psychophysics
the branch of psychology concerned with quantitative relations between physical stimuli and their psychological effects
Voluntarism
Wundt's first "school" of psychology, which sought to understand the concept of will as it reflected in attention and volition. Interested in the study of active processing
Elements of Thought
According to Titchner, were, Sensations, Images, and Affection
Nonsense Syllables
Stimuli used by Ebbinghaus to study memory; typically composed of a consonant-vowel-consonant sequence. Used to present material not previously encountered
Alfred Russell Wallace
Independently reached the same conclusion as Darwin about evolution (natural selection). Like Darwin, he looked at groups of animals and found them to be closely related yet different.
Reciprocal Antagonism
According to Munsterberg, reinforce behavior opposite of Symptom
Recapulation Theory
According to Hall, every child's development repeats the life history of the human race
Adaptive Act
According to Carr, a motive(need) that acts as a stimulus for the organism to engage in the behavior, an environment, a behavior that satisfies the motive or need
Thorndikes view on education
intelligence is highly heritable, and belied education should be catered to student's natural intellectual ability
Functionalism
A system of psychology concerned with the mind as it is used in an organism's adaptation to its environment.
Functionalism
A school of psychology based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure.
Bessell
First reaction time study, personal equation, the observer influences the observation.
Binet
FRENCH PSYCHOLOGIST WHO DEVELOPED THE 1ST INTELLIGENCE TEST IN THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY.
Broca
= French anatomist who identified the part of the brain primarily associated with producing spoken language
Calkins
does pioneering research on memory and creates an influential version of self-psychology. In 1905 becomes the first female president of the APA.
Cattell
uses the term mental test in 1890 and is a key figure in the school of functionalism and in the development of applied psy
Clark and Clark
,Researchers whose work was used to in the Brown v. Board of Education case that overturned segregation in schools.
Fechner
By noting that for sensations to rise arithmetically, the magnitude of the physical stimulus must rise geometrically, creates the field of psychophysics. Also creates the field of experimental esthetics.
Ferrier
Studied brain functioning through electrical stimulation and developed a map of the brain.
Flourens
demonstrated error of phrenology, argued against localization of functioning.
Fritsch & Hitzig
First to study electrical stimulation of the cortex, and located the motor strip
Gall
claims that the extent to which one possesses carious faculties can be determined by examining the bumps and depressions on the skull. his colleague spurzheim called it phrenology.
Galton
published Hereditary Genius; an Inquiry into its laws and consequences; in it he argues that intelligence is largely inherited and therefore eugenics should be practiced. His intense interest in individual differences inspired him to create a number of methodologies that have become standard in psychology; EX, questionnaires, word associations, twin studies, and the correlational technique.
Goddard
Translates the Binet-Simon scale into English, but unlike Binet concludes that intelligence is largely inherited and feeble-minded should be discouraged from reproducing.
Hall
founds the APA in 1892 and serves as its first president. Makes significant contributions to developmental psych but opposes the coeducation of adolescents and young adults. Invites Freud and Jung to Clark uni in 1909. Founds the American Journal of Psych 1887.
Harlow
Doctor that worked with Gage
Helmholtz
Promotes positivist medicine, measures the rate of nerve conduction, and makes significant contributions to an understanding of color vision, hearing, and perception in general.
James
Publishes The Principles of Psych in 1890. This text is often cited as marking the beginning of the school of functionalism.
Lamarck
French naturalist who proposed that evolution resulted from the inheritance of acquired characteristics
Magendie
cutting the dorsal(posterior) section of spinal roots results in loss of sensation while cutting the ventral(anterior) root results in loss of movement
Malthus
Submitted Essay on the Principle of Population
Morgan
Argues that in explaining animal behavior one should not postulate faculties beyond those that are required to explain the behavior in question
Muller
formulates the doctrines of specific nerve energies and adequate stimulation
Munsterberg
replaces James as the director of Harvard Psych lab in 1892. makes significant contributions to such applied areas as clinical, forensic, and industrial psych.
Spearman
Does pioneer work on the statistical technique later called factor analysis. Argues that intelligence consists of two factors- specific abilities(s) and general intelligence(g)- and that g is mostly inherited.
Spencer
Erroneously generalizes Darwinian principles to societies, thus creating social Darwinism.
Spurzheim
Student of Gall, who used the term and did much to popularize Phrenology.
Stern
Introduces the term mental age(determined by performance of the Binet-Simon) and suggests mental ages to be divided by chronological age, yielding the intelligence quotient (IQ).
Terman
Significantly modifies the Binet-Simon, thus creating the Stanford-Binet that was used to identify gifted children for further study. The first results of his study was published as Genetic Studies of Genius in 1926, and the study continues to the present.
Thorndike
A transitional figure between functionalism and behaviorism. Experimentally studies trial-and-error learning and attempts to explain that learning without reference to consciousness. Along with Woodworth, tests the claims of the mental muscle approach to education and finds them to be incorrect.,
Weber
Observes that just noticeable differences in variable stimuli correspond to a constant fraction of a standard stimulus.
Wundt
founds voluntarism, psych's first school. This school was very much in the rationalistic tradition with its emphasis on will and purpose. Founds the journal Philosiphical Studies in 1881. Established Psych as a lab science and first lab in 1879.
Yerkes
Is largely responsible for creating the Army testing program during WWI and for supporting the argument that many of the nation's ill are caused by people of low intelligence, thus agreeing with Goddard and Terman.
self esteem (according to william James)
ratio of things attempted to things achieved
reciprocal antagonism
reinforce behavior opposite of symptom
Dewey
founded functionalism
pragmatism
any theory, belief, thought, or behavior must be judged by its consequences
psychophysics
systematic study of the relationship between physical and psychosocial events
elements of thought (according to titchner)
Sensations, images, and affections
Stern
introduced the term IQ
functionalism
opposistion to the sterile search for the elements of consciousness
functionalism
attempted to understand the function of the mind rather than describe it
functionalism
wanted psych to be a practical science
functionalism
represented th biological tradition rather than the physiological
functionalism
urged the broadening of psych to include research on animals, children, and abnormal humans
functionalism
interested in the study of mental process and behavior led to the interest in motivation
functionalism
accepted both mental processes and behavior as legit subject matter of psych
functionalism
more interested in what made organisms different
why phrenology failed
assumption that the shape of the skull accurately reflects the underlying brain was false
why phrenology failed
gall's choice of psych units to describe different personality traits was a faculty approach. Concepts too broad
why phrenology failed
gall employed reckless methods of testing his hypothesis, any pos(+) evidence was accepted unquestionably and neg(-) evidence was explained away
galton
first to scientifically study nature vs. nurture
galton
first to conduct a scientific survey
galton
first to use a word association test
galton
first to study imagery
galton
first to attempt to develop the intelligence test
galton
first to use twins to study the effects of heredity vs environment
galton
laid the foundation for the correlation coefficient
galton
first to talk about regression to the mean
Neuroses, Alienists, and Psychiatry
Burton's (1621) taxonomy
Early Terminology
-neuroses (damage to the nervous system)
-neurasthenia (nervous exhaustion)
-alienists (physicians who diagnosed and treated mental illnesses)
Speculation of causes
-hereditary (Social Darwinists, genetic causes)
-chemical (speculated on chemical)
-social (interactions that became problematic)
The reform of asylums
"Moral management"- religious perspective"
18th century asylum
Reforms
-Philippe Pinel at La Bicetre and Saltpertiere in France
-Vincenzio Chiarugi in Florence, Italy- director of large public hospital in Florence
-Benjamin Rush and Dorothea Dix in United States- leading social reformer of the time Dorothea-increased public awareness)
-William Tuke's York Retreat in England- was a Quaker-he listened to individuals- kept in conditions worse than hard criminals
Treatment: Magnetism, Mesmerism, and Hypnosis
Electrical stimulation treatments
Magnetic forces
-Franz Anton Mesmer: Mesmerism or suggestion?
Hypnosis as a treatment
-James Braid attacks mesmerism
-Jean Martin Charcot; susceptibility as a sign of mental illness
-Pierre Janet: Hypnosis uncovers unconscious (dissociated) memories
The significance of psychoanalysis
Psychology of the unconscious vs. psychology of the unconscious mind-the last "school"
Wundt et al. vs. Freud et al.
Focus on normal, human, adult mind vs. focus on abnormal mind, primal impulses, unacknowledged
-using introspection, experimental science vs. using clinical probing of the unconscious
-impact on fields of sensation/perception, cognitive, social, developmental, animal psychology vs. impact on fields of personality, motivation, psychopathology, developmental, social psych
Freud and Scientific Psychology
Psychoanalysis largely ignored or rejected be academic psychology
Freud's goal > a science like any other, but no welcome for experimental verification
-patients' talk as scientific data
-analytic session as valid method: "couch introspection"
-only the psychoanalyzed could criticize it > perceptions of it as a cult
The founding of psychoanalysis
Freud relies less on hypnosis; more on association
Seduction theory (1896); recanted/revised in-1897
"The Interpretation of Dreams": distinction of manifest and latent content; wish fulfillment
Freud's psychoanalytic theory
Sigmund Freud
Unconscious thoughts and processes
Childhood experiences
Conflict among desires and with society
Focus on sex and aggression
Psychodynamic perspectives components of personality
Id: "Pleasure principle": primitve urges and desires
Ego: "Reality Princriple": reason, logical decision-making
Superego: morality: conscience and moral ideals
Conscious
contact with outside world
Preconscious
material just beneath the surface of awareness
Unconscious
difficult to retrieve material; well below the surface of awareness
Anna Freud
Neo-Freudian
-Child analysis
-Ego psychology (defense mechanisms)
Melanie Klein
was an Austrian-born British psychoanalyst who devised novel therapeutic techniques for children that had a significant impact on child psychology and contemporary psychoanalysis. She was a leading innovator in theorizing object relations theory.
Karen Horney
Her theories questioned some traditional Freudian views, particularly his theory of sexuality, as well as the instinct orientation of psychoanalysis and its genetic psychology. As such, she is often classified as Neo-Freudian.

Horney looked at neurosis in a different light from other psychoanalysts of the time.[3] Her expansive interest in the subject led her to compile a detailed theory of neurosis, with data from her patients. Horney believed neurosis to be a continuous process—with neuroses commonly occurring sporadically in one's lifetime. This was in contrast to the opinions of her contemporaries who believed neurosis was, like more severe mental conditions, a negative malfunction of the mind in response to external stimuli, such as bereavement, divorce or negative experiences during childhood and adolescence.
John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth
Attachment Theory
Erik Erikson
was a Danish-German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development of human beings. He may be most famous for coining the phrase identity crisis.

Erikson's greatest innovation was to postulate not five stages of development, as Sigmund Freud had done with his psychosexual stages, but eight. Erik Erikson believed that every human being goes through a certain number of stages to reach his or her full development, theorizing eight stages, that a human being goes through from birth to death.
Alfred Adler
In collaboration with Sigmund Freud and a small group of Freud's colleagues, Adler was among the co-founders of the psychoanalytic movement as a core member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. He was the first major figure to break away from psychoanalysis to form an independent school of psychotherapy and personality theory. This was after Freud declared Adler's ideas as too contrary, leading to an ultimatum to all members of the Society (which Freud had shepherded) to drop Adler or be expelled, disavowing the right to dissent (Makari, 2008).

Adler emphasized the importance of equality in preventing various forms of psychopathology, and espoused the development of social interest and democratic family structures for raising children. His most famous concept is the inferiority complex which speaks to the problem of self-esteem and its negative effects on human health (e.g. sometimes producing a paradoxical superiority striving).
Carl Jung
Libido directed: introversion vs. extroversion
-Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Personality Systems
-ego
-personal unconscious
-collective unconscious
(Archetypes and individuation)
Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives
Pros
Insights regarding (the unconscious, the role of internal conflict, the importance of early childhood experiences, the use of defensive mechanisms)
Cons
vagueness, inadequate empirical base, sexist views
The fate of psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis and science
-Contested since the beginning
Hypotheses vague, difficult to test
Karl Popper "a pseudoscience"; falsifiability principle
Little data to support Freud's claims of success
Pscyhoanalysis and Society
-immense "impact on 20th century thought"
-"made available the thought of the unacknowledged motive as an all-pervasive presence, so that each of us is encouraged to try and look behind the overt..to respond to that hidden reality"
Principles of Functionalism
Focus: mental operations
Method: introspection and objective methods
Principle problem: adaptation of the organism (different way of looking at reflexive responses)
Research focus: learning and adaptation
Biological orientation
Practical applications
Founders of Functionalism
The Chicago School
John Dewey (University of Chicago)
John Dewey: what he did
Reflexology: "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology" (1896)
-fluid relationship S-R
-Adaptive nature of reflex
-Education: child is an active learner
-attack on atomism (See S-R relationship)
-monism
-applied focus
-First American Text in psychology in 1886
James Rowland Angell
-1st formal statement of Functionalism-1906, APA Presidential Address
-mental operations: the why and the how
-not study of mental elements
-consciousness is utilitarian:survival, a mediation between the organism and the environment
-study relationship mind and body
Harvey Carr
Hall > Cattell > Dewey > Angell > Carr
-Function of mental activity is to acquire, retain, organize and evaluate experience and then determine what actions to take
-nature of the adaptive act (motivating stimulus, preparatory stage, response stage that changes the stimulus situation)
-learning as problem-solving
-perception: process, adjustment
Achievements of Functionalism
Liberated psychology-buried structuralism
-expanded applications of psychology
-what happened to functionalism
-What is psychology today? (learning, testing, perception, psychotherapy)
Criticisms of Functionalism
-no clear-cut definition of the School until very late
-too applied? Not rigorous enough for basic science
Sigmund Freud
Believed psychological problems associated with hysteria must be buried deep in the unconscious mind
id
part of the unconscious mind
reservoir
contains our instincts
primary process
the early id stage of development. It is a process of increasing cognitive functioning (involving learning and memory) that serves the purpose of satisfying the id's intinctual needs
secondary process
occurs during the ego stage of development, when the ego is learning how to intereact with the real world; involves the development of perceptual and motor skills. It also serves the purpose of satisying the id's instinctual needs
fantasy principle
does not distinguish between fantasy and reality. Both the id and superego follow this principle, and hence they cannot distinguish thoughts from actions
reality principle
as followed by the ego, does distinguish between fantasy and reality and does know the difference between thoughts and actions
superego
deal with the problem of right and wrong and yes and no
ego-ideal
a list of morally correct behaviors
conscience
a list of morally wrong behaviors
psychodynamics
freud created this; emphasizes the interplay of instinctual energies between the various parts of the personality
libido
sex instinct
the stages of psychosexual development
oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital
oral stage
infants are born into this stage; the libido drives them to stimulate their mouths by biting, sucking, and taking something into their mouth
anal stage
toilet training years; takes pleasure from stimulating the anus with defecation; when the urge comes, the id wants immediate gratification
anal retentive personality
organized, neat, punctual for appointments, and stingy with money
phallic stage
ages 4 to 6; libido switches its focus to genitals; children begin to understand the difference between sexes, gender roles and identity; libido urges to stimulate the gentials through masturbation
oedipus complex
boys develop this; sexually desire their mothers and fear their fathers; they fear if the father knew about this they would castrate them for retaliation
castration anxiety
fear of losing one's genitals
penis envy
girls develop this; they are aware males have a penis and they do not, they realize their mother lacks a penis as they, and believe their mother castrated them so they can be alike
electra complex
girls develop anger toward their mother for penis envy
latent stage
middle childhood years; libido shuts down
genital stage
desire to stimulate the genitals by sexual intercourse; we remain in this stage
ego
forms the conscious mind and operates according to the reality principle
reaction formation
training was too strict and authoritarian
anal expulsive personality
develop a lack of self-discipline; late and unorganized
The Zeitgeist
The United States, end of the 19th century
-pragmatism-..."people valued what worked"
-popularizing of psychology; education
-universities help psychology flourish
-proliferation of laboratories and applied-new Ph.D.'s need jobs
-climate was right for new psychology
functionalism
became incorporated into every aspect of psychology- lay foundation for several lines of research-applied
William James
At Harvard
-The principles of psychology (1890)
-subject matter- psychology yet a biological science; stream of consciousness
William James- function of consciousness and pragmatism
functionalism and changing view of the role of psychology- "the kind of psychology which could cure a case of melancholy,, or charm a chronic insane delusion away ought certainly to be preferred to the most seraphic insight into the nature of the soul
James-Psychologist's fallacy
individual differences- lost sight of important differences when looking for universals
Reactions to James' principles
it is literature, it is beautiful, but it is not psychology (Wundt)
A second rate philosopher (James about Wundt)
James at Harvard
Strong emphasis on pragmatism
-organized the Metaphysical society- the philosophical view known as pragmatism
James's psychology
saw consciousness as a stream that could not be broken into parts
emphasized selectively and functionality of consciousness
James-Lange theory of emotion: Emotion is our experience of physiological arousal and behavior
Similarities and function of emotions
"I feel afraid because I tremble" (James-Lange Theory of Emotions)

I see the dinosaur, I run, I feel fear
James and the Paranormal
Theory of Dissociation and Clinical Psychology
Psychotherapy's origins in psychical research (also, physiological, neurological)
Empirical evidence for and understanding of
-trance states, automatic writing, hypnosis
-dreams, visions, hallucinations, mental imagery
Scientific psychology and psychic research
Backlash from the psychology community why? Criticized for supporting something with no scientific
-undermining credibility of psychology
* talks about reliability; good with scientific method (Second group would be bias)
Mary Whiton Calkins
surmounted obstacles
-first woman to be president of the APA
-denied doctorate of Harvard
-passionate about self-psychology
The Triple Penalty
-cultural barriers
-physiological incapability
-psychological incapability
-discrimimation
Leta Hollingworth
married to APA president
-first to challenge dogma of inferiority
-disproved the variability hypothesis- women are actually more variable than men- pointed out illusory correlation
Francis Sumner
1st African American to earn PhD
Interests in Applied Psychology
-shortage of academic jobs for new psychology PhDs
-public and professional demand for psychological services
-flight from teaching overload (Still present today)
-growth of state universities in the west
Hugo Munsterberg
Popular books (On the Witness Stand) and magazine articles as well as academic texts
-developed applied fields such as psychotherapy, forensic psychology, and industrial psychology
At Yale-George Trumbull Ladd and Edward Wheeler Scripture
Ladd- philosophical justification for the new psychology
Scripture- director of laboratory (1892)
-Separate psychology from philosophy
"If it can't be measured then it can't be any good"
-forced to resign
At Johns Hopkins-G. Stanley Hall
1st American Psychologist-NOT TITCHENER
-student of James
-First American student of Wundt
-1st to get PhD in Psychology (Harvard, 1878)
-first "real" lab in US, 1883
First journal of psychology (American Journal of Psychology, 1887 and "APA Style")
-Founded APA and was the first president
-First and only to bring Freud to America
Hall and Freud
Hall, an advocated of psychoanalysis (until 1911)
20th anniversary of founding of Clark University; conference on Psychology; Pedagogy and School of Hygiene Sept. 6-11, 1909
James McKeen Cattell
-first student to earn a doctorate under Wundt's supervision
-founded "psychological science"; owner and publisher of "Science"; edited many important journals
-organized the Psychological Corporation to promote applied psycholoy
-His famous students: Thorndike, William Woodworth, Margaret Floy Washburn
-interested in child development in the US
-Assessment services and instruments
Cattell's interests
Mental tests: include two point threshold, JNDs, reaction time, etc., similar to Galton
-Hallmark:sensorimotor
-normal distribution concept
-accepted at the time
Other of Wundt's Students in America
Lightner Witmer
Harry Kirk Wolfe
Walter Dill Scott
Lightner Witmer
1896-Founded first psychological clinic at UPenn-founded of Clinical Psychology
-founded the first clinical journal:The psychological Clinic, 1907
-Defined the existence and agenda of clinical psychology
-1908- established a residential school for care/treatment of retarded and troubled children
-first program to train clinical pscyhologists
Walter Dill Scott
First professor of applied psychology--advertising, Northwestern, 1915
-"law of suggestibility"- told people "buy this, buy that"
-Chaired the Committee on Classification of Personnel of the War Department--rating scale for selecting officers
-founded first psychology consulting company
-lecture hall, academic robes
Harry Kirke Wolfe
Instituted psych lab, U. Nebraska, Lincoln (1889)
Educational assessment
Research educational psychology
James Mark Baldwin
A "Wundt-McCosh" Progeny
-people were invited to submit their biography
-only studied a year with Wundt
-Felt call to spread word of psychology
What are the three components of the Freud Legend Myth?
too revolutionary, too controversial, victim of anti-semitism
Who is the first patient to be treated for psychoanalysis and who treats the person?
Anna O, Breuer
According to Fleiss, what is the most important part of the body?
The nose
Who invented hynosis?
Charcot
What is seduction hypothesis?
the cause of hysteria in adulthood is sexual abuse in childhood
what is the seduction hypothesis really saying?
that reality is the cause of a psychological disorder
The seduction hypothesis is rejected and then claims that _______ leads to __________
psychological process leads to psychological disorder
What is the root of the problem? and what is the other problem?
psychological process are the root of the problem and fantasy is the problem
According to Freud, why did Emma Eckstein almost die during nose surgery?
It was her fault (classic blaming the victime
according to freud, what is sexual abuse?
Fantasy, people wish they were abused
This pre-Socratic used dissection to trace the optic nerve to the brain.
Alcmaeon
He was an early neuroscientist who dissected brains and sense organs in an effort to explain psychological processes. His provocative idea was that we see, hear, taste, and feel more with our brains than sense organs.
Alcmaeon
In 1851 he wrote to JS Mill: 'There is nothing I wish more than to unite psychology and physiology that physiologists may be made to appreciate the true ends and drift their researches into the nervous system.'
Bain
His importance lies in his synthesis of material borrowed from others, e.g. his associationism derived from Hartley and the Mills and his physiology drawn from the sensorimotor physiology of J. Muller.
Bain
He attempted to unite psychology and physiology in his two volumes, 'The Senses and the Intellect' (1855) and 'The Emotions and the Will' (1859).
Bain
He suggested the existence of afferent & efferent (input & output) nerves at the base of the spinal column, but did not demonstrate this experimentally.
Bell
This utilitarianist's axiom was 'The greatest happiness for the greatest number.'
Bentham
He said that pain and pleasure not only govern what we do, but what we ought to do.
Bentham
His 'felicific calculus' was an attempt to measure units of pleasure and pain so they could predict behavior or help make decisions.
Bentham
He discovered that all astronomers differed in the speed with which they reported transits. To correct this, he constructed "personal equations" so that the differences among astronomers could be canceled out in astronomical calculations.
Bessell
He named Puysegur's techniques 'hypnosis' and is considered the first hypnotherapist.
Braid
This priest and professor promoted a Thomistic faculty-psychology and empiricism.
Brentano
This Viennese clinical neurologist stumbled upon the 'talking cure' while treating patient Anna O. (Hint: IT'S NOT FREUD)
Breuer
In France, he gathered impressive data in the 1840s to indicate that 'hysteria' is NOT solely a women's mental disorder.
Briquet
His discovery that damage in the left frontal lobe affects speech disorder can be considered confirmation of Gall's faculty psychology (although the area differed from Gall's predictions).
Broca
He proposed that the nerve cell is a biological battery. It stores a charge of energy that must be released periodically, and must flow through proper neurological channels or neuropathologies result. Certain neurotoxins or other processes may block the release of the cell's energy.
Brucke
This neurologist was Freud's supervisor at the University of Vienna.
Brucke
He believed, like Vico and Herder, that societies are grown, not made, and that scientific planning can kill a culture. He said 'thinking some social practice is irrational is like thinking a tree is irrational'.
Burke
He pulled away from the extreme sensationist psychology of his time, advocating the necessity for psychology of a central control process, or as he called it, 'the ego.'
Cabanis
His emphasis on physiological psychology was ahead of his time. His stage-theory developmental psychology prefigured Erikson. His proposed sub-departments of psychology sound like those in our academic psychology departments of today. Yet he was rejected by the whims of history.
Cabanis
Unlike his influential contemporary Condillac, he believed the most important thing is the acquisition of knowledge; the avenues by which this knowledge enters are of spurious importance.
Cabanis
He proposed three layers to the unconscious: 1. The General Absolute Unconscious (totally inaccessible to consciousness) 2. The Partial Absolute Unconscious (drives growth and organ function, indirectly influences emotions) 3. The Relative (or Secondary) Unconscious (feelings, perceptions, and representations we once had and which have now become unconscious).
Carus
This man and Paris are to psychiatry what Wundt and Leipzig are to psychology.
Charcot
This popular director of the Saltpetriere mental hospital straddled the legacy of the old romantic psychiatrists and the new physicalistic psychiatry.
Charcot
This appreciator of romantic psychiatry as well as Mesmer recognized that personal charisma is the secret of healing.
Charcot
He said people have a 'universal duty of questioning all that we believe' and that 'it is wrong always and everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence.'
Clifford
This Englishman carried on popularizing phrenology in America after Spurzheim died.
Combe
He promoted science as a replacement for religion.
Comte
He described human history as passing through three stages and ending in a final, perfect stage of government: 1. Theoretical Stage 2. Metaphysical stage 3. Scientific Stage.
Comte
He disdained psychology as it was then defined. Psuche-logos referred to an unseen construct (the soul). A genuine positive science of individuals - one that discarded all references to the unseen - would have to be neuropsychological.
Comte
His insistence that social science be 'useful' differed from the German tradition, where psychology was seen as a pure (not applied) science.
Comte
He could not accept Lamarck's innate drive to perfection, believing instead that the cause of selection must reside outside the organism.
Darwin
This pre-Benthamian proposed a simple, quanitifiable theory of human motivation: hedonism. People are solely moved by pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain.
Democritus
His 'mental chronometry' was later taken up by Wundt.
Donders
This Dutch psychologist saw that the time between a stimulus and its response could be used to objectively quantify the speed of mental processes.
Donders
His experiments involved 'Simple Reaction Time', e.g. the turning on of a small light bulb above a response key, and 'Compound Reaction Time' e.g. two lights and two keys.
Donders
This student of J. Muller proposed a thought experiment in which neural input from eyes and ears be switched, causing the 'seeing' of sound and the 'hearing' of light.
DuBois-Reymond
Fechner, G.E. Muller, and this memory expert at Berlin all supported a Herbartian mentalistic psychology, but only as a rigorous quantitative science.
Ebbinghaus
This lover of quantitative procedures initiated a long tradition of rote-memory and associative memory research involving nonsense syllables. He studied such associative learning issues as 'proactive and retroactive inhibition' and 'the serial position' effect.
Ebbinghaus
He took Alcmaeon's ideas further and is considered a forerunner of radical empiricism. He believed the senses are ducts of understanding through which information travels to the brain. There is truth in appearances; we do not need 'reason' for perception.
Empedocles
This student of Pinel's broke with his teacher to join the looming Romanticist movement. He argued effectively that mind/brain emotion systems are the root causes of the mental disorders.
Esquirol
This romantic mentalist was obsessed with the relation of the mind to the body. He devised a formula supported by laboratory experiments that the external world and our perceptions of it are different.
Fechner
This pre-Wundtian came to be praised as the 'founder of experimental psychology'.
Fechner
This eccentric former student of J. Muller attacked the psychophysical question with great gusto in the mid-19th century.
Fechner
His deriving of the formula S = k log R is an example of 'the geometric spirit' in the 19th century.
Fechner
The English translation of his 1860 book, 'Psychophysics' is a heavily edited one that carefully removes his romanticist-mentalist leanings.
Fechner
He proposed the 'split brain operation'-- severing the corpus callosum-- as a way to study mind-body dualism, theorizing that this would create two minds in one head!
Fechner
His ideas about mental energy, 'topographical' concept of mind, and pleasure-unpleasure directly inspired Freud. But because he died in 1887 he was spared a friendship and/or subsequent falling out with Freud.
Fechner
This son of Protestant minister sometimes published under the pseudonym 'Dr. Mises'.
Fechner
He believed that all living things have a form of consciousness, including plants.
Fechner
He was the primary reader and mentor of the drafts of Freud's 'Psychology for Neurologists.' He was a sexologist with some strange ideas (e.g. sense of smell in sex).
Fliess
His term 'mass action' refers to a holistic vs. reductionist theory of brain function.
Flourens
He was Gall's leading critic. His dissections revealed no faculties of the brain.
Flourens
He ridiculed phrenology on the basis of his own research that the cerebral hemispheres act as a unit, containing no specialized organs for specific mental faculties.
Flourens
In 1870 he and Hitzig announced that the electrical excitation of the cerebrum can elicit movement and that different parts of the brain, when stimulated, seem to regulate different movements (further substantiating Gall's localization claims).
Fritsch
He was known in part for his obsessive personality, fanaticism for precise data gathering and measurement, and military style of treatment of his students.
G.E. Muller
Unlike previous faculty psychologists, he proposed faculties were located in actual, physical regions of the brain. He is sometimes called the founder of cognitive neuroscience.
Gall
His interest in the physiology of the brain was partly in reaction against French empiricism and associationism - especially Condillac's sensationism.
Gall
His challenge was to correlate specific behavior functions with particular regions of the brain. He found anatomical studies of the brain too crude and didn't enjoy killing animals, so he adopted a different methodology which led to phrenology.
Gall
This noted excorcist was said by Mesmer to have 'animal magnetism' and just not realize it.
Gassner
This friend of Schopenhauer's is today remembered more for his poetry than his romantic perception theory.
Goethe
His color theory was decidely anti-Newtonian.
Goethe
This faith healer toured England in the mid 1600s. So what's he doing in a unit about the 1800s? Who knows? Just learn his name!
Greatraks
This first university based psychiatrist (Leipzig, 1860s) influentially taught and promoted materialistic approaches for psychiatry.
Griesinger
This protopsychologist and Newtonian associationist wanted a physiological basis of associationism. Ahead of his time, he used Netwon's theory of 'nervous vibrations' to explain how simple sensations are copied in the brain and added together to create complex intellectual ideas.
Hartley
He believed that pleasure and pain accompany sensations, thus affecting thought and action (thus providing the basis for James Mill's later fusion of his associationism with utilitarianism)
Hartley
In his book 'Observations of Man' he developed associationism as a psychological doctrine, proposing a comprehensive associationistic account of human mind and behavior.
Hartley
'If the mind copies a sensation this constitutes a simple idea of sensation, which may then be combined via association to form complex intellectual ideas.' This Humeian-sounding theory belonged to:
Hartley
His book, 'Philosophy of the Unconscious,' was published in Berlin in 1869 when Freud was 13. It is filled with collected observations of slips, perceptions, associations, reactions, and social phenomena all illustrating the presence of unconscious forces.
Hartmann
This romantic psychiatrist based his explanaiton of mental illness on 'sin' but he really just meant guilt. His patients were troubled by an over-active conscience, which he called the Uber-Uns (translated Super Ego!).
Heinroth
This supervisor of Wundt used fancy Jules Verne-ish brass instruments for measuring psychological phenomena.
Helmholtz
He codified the law of conservation of energy (energy can neither be created nor destroyed). He Used reaction-time measures to answer the question of the speed of nerve conduction. His theory and research supported materialism but he could not accept aggressive materialism; nor could he accept spiritualism or vitalism.
Helmholtz
He believed that all we know for certain are our ideas or images of the world gathered by experience. He struck a pragmatic note by acknowledging that we cannot know whether our ideas are true, but this does not matter as long as they lead to effective action in the real world.
Helmholtz
His theory of 'Unconscious Inference' proposed that visual perception and other cognitive functions are learned (as Berkeley suggested), but are learned without awareness. If this is true of perception and language, then ideas and meanings are learned unconsciously too.
Helmholtz
He provided the vocabulary and the concepts that were used, debated, and transformed into many of the psychological models of that time.
Herbart
He wrote 'Psychologie als Wissenschaft' in 1824.
Herbart
Prior to Freud or the Romantic Psychiatrists, he developed the concept of 'repression' (Verdrängen) which led him to theorize about unconscious processes.
Herbart
He proposed that learning occurs via 1) assimilation of new information to an old mental schema, and 2) accommodation (change) of old mental schema.
Herbart
His ideas formed the backbone for much of central European, psychology, psychiatry, education, child development, and linguistics in the 19th century.
Herbart
In his view, perceptions, thoughts, images, memories, etc. must pass through 'thresholds of consciousness.' This concept makes the border between awareness and non-awareness more fuzzy than in earlier models.
Herbart
He proposed the term Vorstellungen ('presentations') for the phenomena of experiences and images coming into consciousness.
Herbart
This influential early 19th century theorist directly opposed faculty psychology - he believed there are no separate faculties or compartments in the mind/brain, only consciousness taking different forms like perceptions, memory, thinking, etc.
Herbart
In his view, elements of consciousness fall into patterns or schemas. They are held together by types of associations which involve blending, fusion, mixing, asborptions, repressions, assimilations, and accommodations.
Herbart
Wundt took issue with this influential theorist because there was no volition or will in his theory of mind.
Herbart
Captured by the 'geometric spirit', he completed a full mathematical description of the contents of consciousness. It was purely 'descriptive mathematics' but it influenced many others.
Herbart
In his theory of mind, stronger mental states have the power to drive weaker states out of consciousness. The 'apperception mass' is the surrounding context of a central mental state, and its context will partly determine its fate and characteristics.
Herbart
He said, 'We live in a world we ourselves create.'
Herder
In 1870 he and Fritsch announced that the electrical excitation of the cerebrum can elicit movement and that different parts of the brain, when stimulated, seem to regulate different movements (further substantiating Gall's localization claims).
Hitzig
He used evolution to batter the Bible, miracles, spiritualism, and religion in general. He was known as 'Darwin's Bulldog'.
Huxley
In his book 'Man's Place in Nature,' he related mankind to the living apes, lower animals, and fossil ancestors, showing that we did indeed evolve from lower forms of life, that no creation was needed. Science then became not just the destroyer of illusions, but also a new metaphysics offering a new kind of salvation through science itself.
Huxley
This author and aggressive proponent of evolutionary theory would have agreed with Comte that science can be a religion unto itself.
Huxley
His 'doctrine of the specific energy of nerves' states that sensations are determined by the location in the cortex that is stimulated, not the sense organs from which they derive.
J. Muller
This physiologist's belief-- that the role of the brain is to associate incoming sensory information with appropriate motor responses-- was a direct inspiration to Bain.
J. Muller
The auditory nerves don't transmit sound, the optic nerve does not transmit light and colors, the olfactory nerve from the nasal cavity doesn't transmit smells, etc. All those nerves transmit the same neural impulses.' This groundbreaking theory was put forward by:
J. Muller
Classic (Aristotelian) associationism and naïve realism prevailed in the hands of this theorist. He advocated 'systematic introspection' as a research technique.
James Mill
He fused associationism and utilitarianism together to explain the motivation and mechanics of behavior. His associationism is a simple 'tinker toy' theory of mind.
James Mill
The mind is a passive, blank slate that is receptive to simple sensations, out of which complex sensations or ideas are built via associationistic links between atomic units.' This simplistic associationism was put forward by:
James Mill
Combined with utilitarian hedonism, his associationism provided a mechanistic picture of the mind not under voluntary control. He believed the Will to be an illusion-- reasoning is actually governed by the laws of association.
James Mill
A significant thrust of his theory was political reform: If humans are blank slates at birth, education may be used to mold the mind.
James Mill
He was perhaps the first to develop in depth the concept of 'pathogenic memories' with successful attempts to reveal unconscious contents and to recover lost memories as a therapeutic process. Breuer used his techniques in developing the 'talking cure'.
Janet
This Wisconsinian devised the structure of the modern psychological research article: 'problem, method, results, and conclusion'.
Jastrow
He was an early adherent of Benthanism before having a nervous breakdown. After this experience he began to find Bentham's theories sterile and narrow, and endorsed romantic growth over the human as machine.
John Stuart Mill
In his book, 'On Liberty' he saw people as living things whose autonomy and growth should be nurtured.
John Stuart Mill
He was influenced by the romantic concept of 'coalescence' - i.e., active imagination may synthesize atomic elements into a creation that is more than the sum of its parts. But he did not fully accept the voluntaristic implications of this idea.
John Stuart Mill
His outline of a program for psychological science as a new discipline unto itself, not reducible to neurology, was a great influence on Wundt.
John Stuart Mill
He opposed Hume's picture of consciousness (the chaotic flux of sensations), arguing that the brain/mind evolved to create experiences from stimuli and innate universals allow humans to structure these experiences in common ways.
Kant
He would say the mind imposes order on the world, not the other way around.
Kant
He conceived the 'Ego' as the 'central self', a more powerful, creative version of Leibniz' 'focal attention'. It creates meaning as it scans sections of the 'map in the dark room' and synthesizes them.
Kant
In the 1890s he gathered the largest body of data on mental illnesses that history had yet seen, involving thousands of systematically studied mental patients.
Kraepelin
This sexologist influenced Freud but was called a 'donkey' after he pronounced Freud's seduction theory of hysteria a 'scientific fairytale'.
Krafft-Ebing
Vitalism plays an important role in his pre-Darwin evolutionary theory. Organic matter is fundamentally different than inorganic, and living things possess an innate drive toward self-perfection. This is accomplished via the 'engine of change'.
Lamarck
He believed living things self-perfect via the 'engine of change', and that each species 'preserves' these acquired characteristics by somehow passing them on to its offspring. (Modern genetics has since destroyed the romantic-vitalist vision of nature... there is no strive for perfection.)
Lamarck
He said, 'Science is penetrating everywhere, and slowly changing man's conception of the world and of man's destiny.'
Lewes
This leading German philosophical psychologist was Germany's equivalent of Bain or Taine. He proposed an empiricist view of consciousness, saying along with Berkeley that depth perception is learned, not innate, and experience is compounded out of simple ideas.
Lotze
This German equivalent of Bain & Taine insisted that although physiology offered a valid approach to the material aspects of mind and behavior, both human beings and animals possess divinely given souls. He rejected materialism in favor of Cartesian dualism.
Lotze
He refined Comte's vision into a sophisticated and influential philosophy of science. As an 'antirealist' he believed theories are practical but can never claim to be 'Truth'.
Mach
He discovered the afferent & efferent nerves whose possibility Bell had suggested earlier, demonstrating their existence via experiments on living animals.
Magendie
This future star of high school science textbooks provided the genetic framework Darwin needed in order to get around Lamarckian vitalism. Too little, too late, unfortunately. He was ignored until well after his death.
Mendel
This proponent of 'animal magnetism' drew criticism for his cult-leader flair, which involved robes and scepters.
Mesmer
He believed that concern for workers' happiness would result in more trainable and productive workers. However, his experiments at a cotton mill called New Lanark-- involving a museum, a music hall, and a ballroom-- were considered a failure.
Owen
This opportunist, politician, and propagandist famously liberated the abused mentally ill-- but also invented the straitjacket.
Pinel
He was a defender of Hartley's Newtonian associationism.
Priestley
This chemist was the co-discoverer of oxygen.
Priestley
He concluded Mesmer's 'animal magnetism' was a manipulation of naturally-occurring mental states. He developed what would later be called hypnotism by James Braid, a less mystical version of Mesmer's techniques.
Puysegur
This founder of the Common Sense movement opposed Hume's 'metaphysical lunacy'.
Reid
He believed that perception is direct, there is no Cartesian Theater stage of representation. 'Appearances are truth.'
Reid
He was an anti-mechanist: 'The mind is not a machine shop'. Moral faculties were primary in his faculty psychology.
Reid
He coined the word 'psychiatry', wrote of emotional mechanism and unconscious forces, and experimented with various therapies.
Reil
He said, 'To exist is to feel' and 'The first impulses of the heart are always right.'
Rousseau
His observation of the 'Noble Savages' caused him to disagree with Hobbes on the role of government-- people seem to get along just fine without it, thank you.
Rousseau
This romantic inspirer of revolutions was a friend of Condillac's and similarly empiricist
Rousseau
This Freud friend was a literary man, considered the Henry James of his part of the world.
Schnitzler
He was the philosopher of the unconscious 'Will.' He directly influenced Romantic Psychiatry.
Schopenhauer
He depicted the human passions as welling up from an animal force (sexually driven) living unconsciously and innately within us. He named that force 'The Will.'
Schopenhauer
He lost a 'ratings war' with Hegel by holding his lectures at the same time.
Schopenhauer
This influential 'star' of the romantic movement defended his friend Goethe's color theory.
Schopenhauer
Well before Freud, he claimed that man is an irrational being guided by internal forces.
Schopenhauer
He said, 'In the heart of every man there lives a wild beast.'
Schopenhauer
This Russian positivist was a proponent of mechanistic reflexology - the explanation of all psychological processes in mechanical terms.
Sechenov
A proponent of metaphysical evolutionary theory, he coined the phrase 'survival of the fittest' before Darwin and applied it to humans and society.
Spencer
He popularized phrenology in a way Gall may not have intended.
Spurzheim
This associationist member of the Scottish School was more open to Hume than Reid. He abandoned the term 'common sense'.
Stewart
His book, 'Principles of Mental Philosophy' was very popular, helping the Scottish School catch on in America.
Stewart
He is considered the last notable French philosophical psychologist. His book, 'On Intelligence' was published in 1875. He presented an associative psychology similar to Bain's, arguing that all ideas, no matter how abstract, can be reduced to a collection of sensations associated with each idea's name.
Taine
Following Leibniz, he proposed that conscious sensations are simple aggregates of weaker, more fleeting sensations that are only marginally conscious at best. He also maintained a dual-aspect psychophysical parallelism, holding that every event in consciousness has a corresponding neural event.
Taine
This Cornell professor embraced the radical sensory empiricism that began in England with David Hume.
Titchener
He was influenced by the rise of modern chemistry, which he took as a model in his efforts to establish the system of 'sensory elements of the mind'.
Titchener
He names his sensory-introspectionist approach 'structuralism.' In this approach all of consciousness is reduced to constituent sensory elements.
Titchener
This teacher of Thomas Reid aimed to do for morals what Newton had done for nature.
Turnbull
He said, 'The criterion and rule of truth is to have made it.'
Vico
This stylish journalist's two-volume 'Principles of Psychology' (1890) was hailed as great literary achievement. Although he lapsed into spiritism in early 20th century, his stature held him above criticism.
W. James
The generous Darwin agreed to publish his paper on the same day as this young naturalist, making the two of them co-discoverers of natural selection. (Freud should have taken intellectual etiquette lessons from Darwin!)
Wallace
He is considered a co-founder of experimental psychology.
Weber
He pioneered the basic method of asking subjects to distinguish stimuli differences.
Weber
Voluntarism' -- the study of central control processes -- was the primary core of his psychological system.
Wundt
He opposed Herbart's mechanistic interpretations of psychological processes, leading a massive effort to reorient 'Voelkerpsychologie' (cultural psychology) and linguistics from early 19th century Herbartian versions.
Wundt
He found emotion to be a base or source of all psychological processes, not a side effect or aftereffect as in Herbart's system.
Wundt
His clever but simple 'complications experiment' demonstrated that a voluntary decision process affects the content of a perceptual experience.
Wundt
He established the 'mental-chronometry' research program.
Wundt
Most of the first generation of Ph.D.'s in psychology came from his department in the 1880s and 1890s.
Wundt
His career is summarized in three broad stages: 1) The study of selective attention, self-control and decision-making, 2) The study of emotion, and 3) Psycholinguistics.
Wundt
His constructivist theory (or 'creative synthesis') is a version of holism. Emergent qualities (new qualities) arise in conscious experience. 'The brain generates consciousness.'
Wundt
This influential southern German opposed mind-body dualism, instead advocating 'parallelism'.
Wundt
His explanatory principles were based on volition and purposivism (a radical form of what is now called constructivism). He was concerned with fluctuations of consciousness-- especially as they come under processes of self control.
Wundt
His research was based on the 'actuality principle' -- the idea that consciousness is a natural process and an immediate reality, not a mystical unknown. Alterations in consciousness (e.g., asleep vs. awake) could be observed and measured in the lab.
Wundt
He believed consciousness is not to be described physicalistically-- it is not a stage where actors retire and come back on; it is a constant flow whose stream is ever changing, described by constant construction and regeneration.
Wundt
He believed there are no psychological qualities in physics (no red or green)-- all are created by the cortex of the individual. These are not the sum of elemental forces but rather a rapid creative synthesis. However, these qualities may be studied!
Wundt
His lab work showed the limitations on mental capacities, spans, timing of temporal flow, the nature of selective attention, and short term memory.
Wundt
His first and foremost principle was 'creative synthesis': configuration of immediate experience cannot be derived bottom-up from a collection of elements. Furthermore, creative synthesis is under control by a central process.
Wundt
His 'six characteristics of consciousness' were: 1) Creative synthesis, 2) Psychological relativity, 3) Psychological contrast, 4) Heterogeneity of ends, 5) Mental growth, and 6) Development toward opposites.
Wundt
This Harvard protobehaviorist argued for an anti- Wundtian theory in which all contents of consciousness were reduced to sensations.
Munsterberg
He introduced experimental psychology to the US public via lots of shiny gadgets at the 1893 World's Fair.
Munsterberg
Only association and perseveration tendencies together can fully account for the nature of human thinking.' This theory was put forward by:
G.E. Muller
His experiments with the 'memory drum' were gruelling, tedious affairs involving 'hits' and 'repetitions'. His wife famously underwent hundreds of these experiments. If she were a New School student she would have met her research participation requirement many times over.
G.E. Muller
Although seldom permitting himself speculations that smacked of the philosophical (despite his great talent for such), he saw a link between perseveration and madness: in the mentally ill the same presentations would always return and unable to change. But he also saw a link between perseveration and genius: a perseverating individual would be one who was independent, ambition, restless, and perfectionist (like himself!).
G.E. Muller
He lost his religious faith during his education. The philosopher Sidgwick encouraged him to search scientifically for evidence of immortality. Together, they founded the Society for Psychical Research. Their journal later published his findings.
Myers
He encouraged Myers to search scientifically for evidence of immortality. He and Myers formed the Society for Psychical Research.
Sidgwick
This Freud patient submitted herself to nasal surgery by Fliess. When the surgery was botched and she suffered from nasal bleeding afterward, Freud said it was 'due to wishes'.
Eckstein
Considered a 'neo-romanticist' philosopher, along with Nietzsche.
Dilthey
Considered a 'neo-romanticist' philosopher, along with Dilthey.
Nietzsche
In 1851 he wrote to JS Mill: "There is nothing I wish more than to unite psychology and physiology that physiologists may be made to appreciate the true ends and drift their researches into the nervous system."
Bain
His importance lies in his synthesis of material borrowed from others, e.g. his associationism derived from Hartley and the Mills and his physiology drawn from the sensorimotor physiology of J. Muller
Bain
He suggested the existence of afferent & efferent (input & output) nerves at the base of the spinal column
Bell
He is the father of utilitiarianism: 'The greatest happiness for the greatest number.'
Bentham
He said that pain and pleasure not only govern what we do, but what we ought to do. A 'felicific calculus' can measure the units of pleasure and pain so that happiness-maximizing choices can be made.
Bentham
His "felicific calculus" was an attempt to measure units of pleasure and pain so they could put into an equation to predict behavior or make decisions.
Bentham
He named Puysegur's techniques 'hypnosis' and is considered the first hypnotherapist.
Braid
This priest and professor promotes a Thomistic faculty-psychology and empiricism
Brentano
This Viennese clinical neurologist stumbled upon the 'talking cure' while treating patient Anna O. Hint: IT'S NOT FREUD
Breuer
In France, he gathered impressive data in the 1840s to indicate that "hysteria" is NOT solely a women's mental disorder.
Briquet
His discovery that damage in the left frontal lobe affects speech disorder can be considered somewhat of a confirmation of Gall's faculty psychology (although the area differed from Gall's predictions).
Broca
He proposed that the nerve cell is a biological battery. It stores a charge of energy that must be released periodically, and must flow through proper neurological channels or neuropathologies result. Certain neurotoxins or other processes may block the release of the cell's energy.
Brucke
This neurologist was Freud's supervisor at the University of Vienna.
Brucke
He believed, like Vico and Herder, that societies are grown, not made, and that scientific planning can kill a culture. He said that 'thinking some social practice is irrational is like thinking a tree is irrational'.
Burke
He pulled away from the extreme sensationist psychology of his time, advocating the necessity for psychology of a central control process, or as he calls it 'the ego.'
Cabanis
His emphasis on physiological psychology was ahead of his time. His stage-theory developmental psychology prefigures Erikson. His proposed sub-departments of psychology sound like those in our academic psychology departments of today. Yet he ends up rejected by the whims of history.
Cabanis
Unlike his influential contemporary Condillac, he believed the most important thing is the acquisition of knowledge-- the avenues by which this knowledge enters are of spurious importance.
Cabanis
He proposed three layers to the unconscious: 1. The General Absolute Unconscious (totally inaccessible to consciousness) 2. The Partial Absolute Unconscious (drives growth and organ function, indirectly influences emotions) 3. The Relative (or Secondary) Unconscious (feelings, perceptions, and representations we once had and which have now become unconscious).
Carus
This man and Paris are to psychiatry what Wundt and Leipzig are to psychology.
Charcot
This popular director of the Saltpetriere mental hospital straddled the legacy of the old romantic psychiatrists and the new physicalistic psychiatry.
Charcot
This appreciator of romantic psychiatry as well as Mesmer recognized that personal charisma is the secret of healing. Two of his students are Janet and Freud.
Charcot
He said people have a "universal duty of questioning all that we believe" and that "it is wrong always and everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence"
Clifford
He promoted science as a replacement for religion.
Comte
This student of J. Muller proposed a thought experiment in which neural input from eyes and ears be switched, causing the 'seeing' of sound and the 'hearing' of light.
DuBois-Reymond
Fechner, G.E. Muller, and this memory expert at Berlin all supported a Herbartian mentalistic psychology, but only as a rigorous quantitative science.
Ebbinghaus
This lover of careful quantitative procedures initiated a long tradition of rote-memory and associative memory research involving nonsense syllables. He studied such associative learning issues as "proactive and retroactive inhibition" and "the serial position" effect.
Ebbinghaus
This student of Pinel's broke with his teacher to join the looming Romanticist movement. He argued effectively that mind/brain emotion systems are the root causes of the mental disorders.
Esquirol
This romantic mentalist was obsessed with the relation of the mind to the body. He devised a formula supported by laboratory experiments that the external world and our perceptions of it are different.
Fechner
This pre-Wundtian came to be praised by many as 'founder of experimental psychology'.
Fechner
This eccentric former student of J. Muller attacked the psychophysical question with great gusto in the mid-19th century.
Fechner
His deriving of the formula S = k log R is an example of 'the geometric spirit' in the 19th century.
Fechner
The English translation of his 1860 book, 'Psychophysics" is a heavily edited one that carefully removes his romanticist - mentalist leanings.
Fechner
He proposed the 'split brain operation'-- severing the corpus callosum-- as a way to study mind-body dualism, theorizing that this would create two minds in one head!
Fechner
His ideas about mental energy, 'topographical' concept of mind, and pleasure-unpleasure directly inspired Freud. But because he died in 1887 he was spared a friendship and/or subsequent falling out with Freud.
Fechner
He was the primary reader and mentor of the drafts of Freud's "Psychology for Neurologists." He was a sexologist with some strange ideas (e.g. sense of smell in sex).
Fliess
His term 'mass action' refers to a holistic vs. reductionist theory of brain function.
Flourens
He was Gall's leading critic. His dissections revealed no faculties of the brain.
Flourens
In 1870 he and Hitzig announced that the electrical excitation of the cerebrum can elicit movement and that different parts of the brain, when stimulated, seem to regulate different movements (further substantiating Gall's localization claims).
Fritsch
He was known in part for his obsessive personality, fanaticism for precise data gathering and measurement, and military style of treatment of his students.
G.E. Muller
Unlike previous faculty psychologists, he proposed faculties were located in actual, physical regions of the brain. He is sometimes called the founder of cognitive neuroscience.
Gall
This noted excorcist was said by Mesmer to have 'animal magnetism' and just not realize it.
Gassner
This early romanticist sensory psychologist is known more for his poetry than his perception theory... wrongly so, perhaps.
Goethe
This poet & perception theorist's color theory is decidely anti-Newtonian.
Goethe
This faith healer toured England in the mid 1600s. So what's he doing in a section about the 1800s?
Greatraks
This first university based psychiatrist (Leipzig, 1860s) influentially taught and promoted materialistic approaches for psychiatry.
Griesinger
This protopsychologist and Newtonian associationist wanted a physiological basis of associationism. A bit ahead of his time, he used Netwon's theory of 'nervous vibrations' to explain how simple sensations are copied in the brain and added together to create complex intellectual ideas.
Hartley
He believed that pleasure and pain accompany sensations, thus affecting thought and action (thus providing the basis for James Mill's later fusion of his associationism with utilitarianism)
Hartley
His book, 'Philosophy of the Unconscious,' was published in Berlin in 1869 when Freud was 13. It is filled with collected observations of slips, perceptions, associations, reactions, and social phenomena all illustrating the presence of unconscious forces.
Hartmann
This romantic psychiatrist based his explanaiton of mental illness on 'sin' but he really just meant guilt. His patients were troubled by an over-active conscience, which he called the uber-uns (translated Super Ego!)
Heinroth
This supervisor of Wundt made fabulous instruments for measuring psychological phenomena.
Helmholtz
He codified the law of conservation of energy (energy can neither be created nor destroyed). He Used reaction-time measures to answer the question of the speed of nerve conduction. His theory and research supported materialism but he could not accept aggressive materialism; nor could he accept spiritualism or vitalism.
Helmholtz
He provided the vocabulary and the concepts that were used, debated, and transformed into many of the psychological models of that time.
Herbart
He wrote 'Psychologie als Wissenschaft' in 1824.
Herbart
Prior to Freud or the Romantic Psychiatrists, he developed the concept of "repression" (Verdrängen) which led him to theorize about unconscious processes.
Herbart
He proposed that learning occurs via 1) assimilation of new information to an old mental schema, and (2) accommodation (change) of old mental schema.
Herbart
His ideas formed the backbone for much of central European, psychology, psychiatry, education, child development, and linguistics in the 19th century.
Herbart
In his view, perceptions, thoughts, images, memories, etc. must pass through "thresholds of consciousness." This concept makes the border between awareness and non-awareness more fuzzy than in earlier models.
Herbart
He proposed the term Vorstellungen ("presentations") for the phenomena of experiences and images coming into consciousness.
Herbart
This influential early 19th century theorist directly opposed faculty psychology - he believed there are no separate faculties or compartments in the mind/brain, only consciousness which takes different forms like perceptions, memory, thinking, etc.
Herbart
In his view, elements of consciousness fall into patterns or schemas. They are held together by types of associations which involve blending, fusion, mixing, asborptions, repressions, assimilations, and accommodations.
Herbart
Wundt took issue with this influential theorist because there was no volition or will in his theory of mind.
Herbart
Captured by the "geometric spirit", he completed a full mathematical description of the contents of consciousness. It was purely "descriptive mathematics" but it influenced many others.
Herbart
In 1870 he and Fritsch announced that the electrical excitation of the cerebrum can elicit movement and that different parts of the brain, when stimulated, seem to regulate different movements (further substantiating Gall's localization claims).
Hitzig
He used evolution to batter the Bible, miracles, spiritualism, and religion in general. He was also known as "Darwin's Bulldog"
Huxley
In his book 'In Man's Place in Nature,' he related mankind to the living apes, lower animals, and fossil ancestors, showing that we did indeed evolve from lower forms of life, that no creation was needed. Science then became not just the destroyer of illusions, but also a new metaphysics offering a new kind of salvation through science itself.
Huxley
His "doctrine of the specific energy of nerves" states that sensations are determined by the location in the cortex that is stimulated, not the sense organs from which they derive.
J. Muller
This physiologist's belief that the role of the brain is to associate incoming sensory information with appropriate motor responses was a direct inspiration to Bain
J. Muller
Classic (Aristotelian) associationism and naïve realism prevailed in the hands of this theorist. He advocated "systematic introspection" as a research technique.
James Mill
He was perhaps the first to develop in depth the concept of "pathogenic memories" with successful attempts to reveal unconscious contents and to recover lost memories as a therapeutic process. Breuer used his techniques in developing the 'talking cure'.
Janet
This Wisconsinian devised the structure of the modern psychological research article: "problem, method, results, and conclusion"
Jastrow
His outline of a program for psychological science as a new discipline unto itself, not reducible to neurology, is a great influence on Wundt.
John Stuart Mill
He opposed Hume's picture of consciousness (the chaotic flux of sensations), arguing that the brain/mind evolved to create experiences from stimuli; innate universals allow humans to structure these experiences in common ways. Processing is 'top down' - the mind imposes order on the world.
Kant
He conceived the 'Ego' as the 'central self', a more powerful, creative version of Leibniz' 'focal attention'. It creates meaning as it scans sections of the 'map in the dark room' and synthesizes them.
Kant
In the 1890s he gathered the largest body of data on mental illnesses that history had yet seen, involving thousands of systematically studied mental patients.
Kraepelin
This sexologist influenced Freud but was called a 'donkey' after he pronounced Freud's seduction theory of hysteria a 'scientific fairytale'.
Krafft-Ebing
Vitalism plays an important role in his pre-Darwin evolutionary theory. Organic matter is fundamentally different than inorganic, and living things possess an innate drive toward self-perfection. This is accomplished via the 'engine of change'.
Lamarck
He believed living things self-perfect via the 'engine of change', and that each species 'preserves' these acquired characteristics by somehow passing them on to its offspring. Modern genetics has since destroyed the romantic-vitalist vision of nature (there is no strive for perfection).
Lamarck
He said, 'Science is penetrating everywhere, and slowly changing man's conception of the world and of man's destiny'
Lewes
This leading German philosophical psychologist was Germany's equivalent of Bain or Taine. He proposed an empiricist view of consciousness, saying along with Berkeley that depth perception is learned, not innate, and experience is compounded out of simple ideas.
Lotze
This 'German Bain' (or Taine) insisted that although physiology offered a valid approach to the material aspects of mind and behavior, both human beings and animals possess divinely given souls. He rejected materialism in favor of Cartesian dualism.
Lotze
He refined Comte's vision into a sophisticated and influential philosophy of science. As an 'antirealist' he believed theories are practical but can never claim to be 'Truth'.
Mach
He 'discovered' the afferent & efferent nerves whose possibility Bell had suggested the possibility of earlier, demonstrating via experiments on living animals.
Magendie
This future star of high school science textbooks provided the genetic framework Darwin needed in order to get around Lamarckian vitalism. Too little, too late, unfortunately. He was ignored until well after his death.
Mendel
This proponent of 'animal magnetism' clashed with the scientific community, although they conceded that something was happening
Mesmer
This opportunist, politician, and propagandist famously liberated the abused mentally ill-- but also invented the straight jacket.
Pinel
He was a defender of Hartley's Newtonian associationism.
Priestley
He concluded Mesmer's 'animal magnetism' was a manipulation of naturally-occurring mental states. He created what would later be called hypnotism by James Braid, a less mystical version of Mesmer's techniques.
Puysegur
This founder of the Common Sense movement opposed Hume's 'metaphysical lunacy'.
Reid
He believed that perception is direct, there is no Cartesian Theater stage of representation. He was an anti-mechanist: 'The mind is not a machine shop'. He also said 'Appearances are truth' and believed that moral faculties are primary in faculty psychology.
Reid
He coined the word 'psychiatry', wrote of emotional mechanism and unconscious forces, and experimented with various therapies.
Reil
He said, 'To exist is to feel' and 'The first impulses of the heart are always right.'
Rousseau
This Freud friend was a literary man, considered the Henry James of his region.
Schnitzler
He is the philosopher of the unconscious 'Will.' He directly influenced Romantic Psychiatry.
Schopenhauer
He depicts the human passions as welling up from an animal force (sexually driven) living unconsciously and innately within us. He names that force "The Will."
Schopenhauer
He lost a 'ratings war' with Hegel by holding his lectures at the same time.
Schopenhauer
This influential 'star' of the romantic movement defended his friend Goethe's color theory
Schopenhauer
This Russian positivist was a proponent of mechanistic reflexology - the explanation of all psychological processes in mechanical terms.
Sechenov
A proponent of metaphysical evolutionary theory, he coined the phrase 'survival of the fittest' before Darwin and applied it to humans and society.
Spencer
He popularized phrenology in a way Gall may not have intended
Spurzheim
This associationist member of the Scottish School was more open to Hume than Reid. He abandoned the term 'common sense'.
Stewart
His book, 'Principles of Mental Philosophy' was very popular, helping the Scottish School catch on in America.
Stewart
He is considered the last notable French philosophical psychologist. His book, 'On Intelligence' was published in 1875. He presented an associative psychology similar to Bain's, arguing that all ideas, no matter how abstract, can be reduced to a collection of sensations associated with each idea's name.
Taine
Following Leibniz, he proposed that conscious sensations are simple aggregates of weaker, more fleeting sensations that are only marginally conscious at best. He also maintained a dual-aspect psychophysical parallelism, holding that every event in consciousness has a corresponding neural event.
Taine
This Cornell professor embraced the radical sensory empiricism that began in England with David Hume.
Titchener
He was influenced by the rise of modern chemistry, which he took as a model in his efforts to establish the system of 'sensory elements of the mind'.
Titchener
He names his sensory-introspectionist approach "structuralism." In this approach all of consciousness is reduced to constituent sensory elements.
Titchener
This stylish journalist's two-volume 'Principles of Psychology' (1890) was hailed as great literary achievement. Although lapsed into spiritism in early 20th century, his stature held him above criticism.
W. James
He is considered a co-founder of experimental psychology.
Weber
Voluntarism' -- the study of central control processes -- is the primary core of his psychological system.
Wundt
He opposed Herbart's mechanistic interpretations of psychological processes, leading a massive effort to reorient "Voelkerpsychologie" (cultural psychology) and linguistics from early 19th century Herbartian versions.
Wundt
This Herbart opponent finds emotion to be a base or source of all psychological processes, not a side effect or aftereffect as in Herbart's system.
Wundt
His clever but simple 'complications experiment" demonstrates that a voluntary decision process affects the content of a perceptual experience.
Wundt
He established the "mental-chronometry" research program.
Wundt
Most of the first generation of Ph.D.'s in psychology came from his department in the 1880s and 1890s.
Wundt
His career is summarized in three broad stages: 1) The study of Selective Attention, Self-control and Decision Making, 2) The study of Emotion, and 3) Psycholinguistics.
Wundt
His constructivist theory (or "creative synthesis") is a version of holism. Emergent qualities (new qualities) arise in conscious experience. "The brain generates consciousness."
Wundt
This influential Southern German opposed Mind-Body dualism, and instead advocated "Parallelism"
Wundt
His explanatory principles were based on volition and purposivism (a radical form of what is now called constructivism); his set of explanations centered on fluctuations of consciousness-- especially as they come under processes of self control.
Wundt
His research was based on the 'actuality principle' -- the idea that consciousness is a natural process and an immediate reality, not mystical. Alterations in consciousness (e.g., sleep vs. wake) could be observed and measured in the lab.
Wundt
He believed consciousness is not to be described physicalistically-- it is not a stage where actors retire and come back on; it is a constant flow whose stream is ever changing, described by constant construction and regeneration.
Wundt
He believed there are no psychological qualities in physics (no red or green)-- all are created by the cortex of the individual. These are not the sum of elemental forces but rather a rapid creative synthesis. However, these qualities may be studied!
Wundt
His lab work showed the limitations on mental capacities, spans, timing of temporal flow, nature of selective attention, and short term memory.
Wundt
His first and foremost principle was 'creative synthesis': configuration of immediate experience cannot be derived bottom-up from a collection of elements. Furthermore, creative synthesis is under control by a central process.
Wundt
His 'six characteristics of consciousness' were: 1) Creative synthesis, 2) Psychological relativity, 3) Psychological contrast, 4) Heterogeneity of ends, 5) Mental growth, and 6) Development toward opposites.
Wundt
Who created the first psychology lab in women's college?
Mary Calkins
What is the paired associate technique?
Study the influence of frequency, recency and vividness on memory
What type of psychology was Calkins interested in and what did it result in the creation of?
Self psychology,personality theory with the concept of self.
Who was the first woman to receive a PhD in Psychology
Margaret Washburn
Who was elected the second president of APA
Margaret Washburn
What was Washburn interested in?
animal consciousness
Who was the first African American to recieve a PhD
Francis Sumner
How did Sumner change Howard?
He made it become a major center for the training of African American psychologists
What did Dewey say about the relationship between Stimulus and Response
Stimulus and Response are not seperate they form an interrelated sequence of events
What did Dewey say about behavior?
There is a stream of behavior that leads to a goal of survival
What is the most important aspect?
purposiveness
What is instumentalism?
Philosophical teaching
Who is Beagle Voyage?
studied physiogonomy
what were the two lines of thinking?
interest/appreciation in variability and characteristics of species-functions
why does darwin delay?
starts off accepting conventional wisdom regarding specied, hypochondriac and procrastinator, zeitgest
what is Lyells principles of geology?
theories of environmental/geological change and uniformitarianism
what is uniformitarianism?
Change is the norm, natural forces constantly at work over a huge span of time
Did Lyoll agree that the earth is 6,000 years old?
No he said the earth must be older
who lives/who dies does is not entirely random....meaning?
Natural selection
what is artificial selection?
Human produced change
Who developed Phrenology?
Franz Joseph Gall
What is phrenology?
analysis of bumps and depressions on ones skull
According to the two point threshold theory?
the more receptors the finner the discrimination
What is Webers Law?
JND's correspond to constant fraction of a standard stimulus
Why isnt Weber more known?
1. Boring's analysis of Wundt's scholarship, Misunderstanding of Wundt's Psychology, Confusion between Wundt
where is the birthplace of psychology?
Lipzig
What was the importance of the dedicated psychology lab
first time for PhD in psychology, founds first experimental journal
what is nomathetics?
general case, general laws and principles
How does Wundt think??
How does consciousness work
what is idiographic?
individual cases
what does passive process depend on? (passive mind)
nature of stimulus itself, anatomical differences and past experiences
what is apperception?
active, controlled processed by which attention is focused. this is your will to do something
what 6 words describe the study of psychology?
sensation, perception, attention, reaction time, feeling or emotion
what is will?
ability to direct our attention
what is creative synthesis?
rules, laws govern mental life
what are the two goals of psychology?
Identify basic elements of conscious and laws of mental lif
what are the basic elements of conscious?
sensations and feelings
what are elements of mental life?
perception, apperception creative synthesis
Who is the british empiricist?
titchner
what was titchner interested in?
in the new science of consciousness
what types of questions did titchner ask?
what is the structure of consciousness and what are the basic elements of consciousness
what is psychological data?
sensations
what is physical data?
perceptions, objects
what is the stimulus error?
naming object of perception 40,000 elements of consciousness
Leta Hollingworth
challenged the belief that women are intellectually inferior to men
Cause of hysteria, according to Freud
a repressed traumatic experience
Content of dreams
manifest and latent
dream work
disguise of the wish
dream analysis processes
condensation and displacement
Theory of Instincts
instincts are biological needs governed by the pleasure principle
Two basic instinct categories
eros and thanatos
Freud's early theory of personality
consciousness, preconscious, unconscious
Freud's later structural theory
id, ego, superego
id
instincts and needs governed by the pleasure principle and entirely unconscious
ego
develops from id and works to coordinate need fulfillment but is governed by the reality principle
superego
moral agent of personality
Three types of anxiety
objective, neurotic, moral
Ego Defense Mechanisms
repression, displacement, sublimation, identification, projection, rationalization, reaction formation
Psychosexual stages of development
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Five Psychodynamic Techniques
free association, dream analysis, transference, interpretation, resistance
Jung's two points of disagreement with Freud
unconscious and libido
transcendent function
dialogical process between conscious and unconscious
Jung's goal of analysis
to unlock unconscious
Jung's constructive method
mediating dialogue between conscious and unconscious
Jung's Imaginal Psychology
creative formulation and understanding
Jung's Seven Archetypes
persona, hero, anima, animus, shadow, self, mother
Jung's two mother complexes of the son
homosexuality and don juanism
Jung's four mother complexes of the daughter
hypertrophy of the eros, resistance to mother, identity with mother, hypertrophy of the maternal element
Jung's teleology
beliefs about the future determine the choices we make in the present
Jung's synchronicity
meaningful coincidences that give purpose and determine a change of action or attitude in one's life
Jung's individuation
harmonious blending of all aspect of one's mind
Adler's disagreement with Freud
humans are free to choose their own destiny
2 worldviews, according to Adler
dangerous and friendly
2 lifestyles, according to Adler
world-rejecting and world-embracing
Adler's neurotic disposition
excuses are made to safeguard the self
Five Parts of Adlerian Therapy
relationship formation, lifestyle analysis and assessment, insight, reorientation
Adler's five basic mistakes
overgeneralizations, false goals of security, minimizing one's worth, misperceptions of life, false values
Adler's two therapy techniques
paradoxical and empty chair
Horney's disagreement with Freud
mental illness caused by social problems not intrapsychic conflict
Horney's cause of hostility
indifferent, inconsistent, or hateful parents
Horney's cause of basic anxiety
basic needs are not being met and the child cannot aggress his or her parents
Horney's three personality types
compliant, hostile, detached
Five concepts of Gestalt Therapy
the holistic principle, homeostasis, the hunger instinct, the reality principle, contact boundary
Four stages of the hunger instinct
prenatal, predental, incisor, molar
contact boundary
surface interaction between the individual and environment
growth occurs through...
awareness of needs
neurosis
growth disorder
guilt
vagueness of contact boundary with others
Principle of the Now
Gestalt game where only the prestent tense is allowed
I and thou
Gestalt game where you must address the problem person instead of saying "him" or "her"
The I principle
Gestalt game where you must use "I" instead of "it" when talking about the body
Awareness Continuum
Gestalt game where you must talk about "how" and "what" instead of "why"
Reversals
Gestalt game where you play the opposite of the behavior
Ellis' A-B-C model
Activating experience, Belief system, Consequences