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under what internal conditions does air tend to flow into the lungs

when thoracic volume increases and pressure decreases

under what internal conditions does air tend to flow out of the lungs? explain.

when thoracic volume decreases and pressure increases; gases move in the direction that tends to equalize pressure inside and outside the "container"

what would happen if an opening were made into the chest cavity, as with a puncture wound?

the partial vaccum in the pleural space and the lung on the affected side collapses

how is a collapsed lung treated medically?

air is withdrawn (chest tube) and the chest is closed

what respiratory sounds are heard during both inspiration and expiration?


what respiratory sound is heard primarily during inspiration?


where are the vesicular sounds heard the best?

over most of the lung area

what is the volume of air present in the lungs after a forceful expiration?

Residual volume (RV), approximately 1100ml

what is the volume of air that can be forcibly expired after a normal expiration?

expiratory reserve volume (ERV), approximately 1200ml

volume of air that is breathed in and out during a normal respiration?

tital volume (TV), approximately 500ml

what is the volume of air that can be forcibly inspired after a normal inspiration?

inspiratory reserve (IRV), approximately 2700-2800ml

what is the volume of air corresponding to TV+IRV+ERV

vital capacity (VC), approximately 4800ml

which respiratory ailments can respiratory volume tests be used to detect

chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which are often associated

what happens during chronic bronchitis

the volume of air that can be inhaled decreases due to excessive mucus production

what happens during chronic emphysema

the amount of air that can be exhaled is decreased

what are the neural control centers of respiratory rhythm?

medulla oblongata and pons

what effect does contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles have on the thoracic volume?

thoracic volume increases. the diaphragm moves inferiorly, increasing the superior-inferior dimension; the ribs swing up and out, increasing the lateral and anterior/posterior dimensions

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