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Chapter 5 Vocab

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cell cycle
pattern of growth, DNA replication, and cell division that occurs in a eukaryotic cell
mitosis
process by which a cell divides its nucleus and contents
cytokinesis
process by which the cell cytoplasm divides
chromosome
long, continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes and regulatory info
histone
protein that organizes chromosome and around which DNA wraps
chromatin
loose combo of DNA and proteins that is present during interphase
chromatid
one half of a duplicated chromosome
centromere
part of condensed chromosome that looks pinched
telomere
repeating nucleotide at the ends of DNA molecules that do not form genes and help prevent the loss of genes
prophase
1st phase of mitosis
metaphase
2nd phase of mitosis
anaphase
3rd phase of mitosis
telophase
last phase of mitosis
growth factor
broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division
apoptosis
programmed cell death
cancer
common name for a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division
benign
having no dangerous effect on health
mailgnant
cancerous tumor in which cells break away and spread to other parts of the body
metastasize
to spread by transferring a disease-causing agent from the site of the disease to other parts of the body
carcinogen
substance that causes cancer
asexual reproduction
process by which offspring are produced from a single-parent
binary fission
asexual reproduction in which a single-called organisn divides into 2 equal parts
tissue
group of cells that work together to preform a single function
organ
group of different types of tissue that work together to preform a specific function or related function
organ system
two or more organs that work in a coordinated way to carry out similar functions
cell differentiation
process by which unspecialized cells develop into mature form and function
stem cell
cell that can divide for long periods of time while remaining undifferentiated