Terms in this set (98)
moral obligation of humans to act in ways that are good and proper
True/False: There isn't a need for more attention to police ethics than is commonly paid.
False, there is a need
True/False: Misconduct by minority of police officers occurs too frequently and creates suspicion, mistrust and uncertainty between police and the public
Have reform movements been able to reduce or eliminate corruption?
-No, they have largely failed to achieve their goals
Lexow Commission, 1894
-investigative group appointed by concerned citizens
-closed their hearings into police corruption and ineffectiveness in NYC
-corruption was systematic & persuasive due to malfeasance, misfeasance & nonfeasance
Frank Serpico, 1971
-brought forth police corruption in NYC
Knapp Commission's findings in NYC police departments
widespread corruption among officers of all ranks
Police dept issues in Philly, 1980's
more than 30 officers convicted of taking part in a scheme to extort money from drug dealers
Police dept issues in Miami, 1980's
-10% of police officers were jailed, fired or disciplined due to scheme where officers robbed and killed cocaine smugglers, then resold the drugs
True/False: LA County Sheriff's Dept discharges around 20 officers yearly, primarily as a result of misconduct.
Police dept issues in Illinois
-officers charged w/ conspiracy to possess/distribute cocaine & heroin
When does corruption occur, according to Lynch?
when an officer places his personal gain ahead of duty resulting in violation of police procedures, criminal law or both
3 elements of corrupt acts
1-forbidden by law, rule, regulation or ethical standard
2- misuse of officer's position
3-involve some material reward or gain
True/False: There is an official source of data on corruption..such as those provided by the UCR and National Crime Victimization Report.
True/False: Actual crimes that are indicative of corruption, such as bribery, are not labeled as such.
Police from state, county, local, campus and federal levels have many times done what?
been grouped together by researchers and have often skewed their analyses
True/False: Police misconduct data is relatively easy to obtain.
True/False: Distinguishing between various types of police can be difficult.
Since there are no public stats on police misconduct, what happens to this type of information left to be gathered by police admin?
They are reluctant to share it for fear of negative consequences from the press, local politicians and the community
-created by Knapp Commission
-officers engaging in minor acts of corrupt practices and accept wrongdoings of other officers
-created by Knapp Commission
-officers engaged in corrupt and unlawful practices during performance of their duties
Rotten apple theory
-there are a few corrupt officers in policing, while most officers are unaffected by corruption
True/False: most forms of corruption require some degree of organizational support (others within organization turn heads and refuse to confront corrupt officer)
What causes officers not to take action against corrupt officers?
The police subculture
Police code of silence
-"open secret" within fraternity
-existence is denied to those outside the group
-cops don't want to turn in other cops
Officers who are "straight" are regarded as what?
-stupid or failing to take advantage of corrupt activities that have come to be inherent in the job
True/False: Various reform movements/departmental programs have been attempted to reduce corruption.
Why does police corruption remain problematic?
-if citizens stopped offering bribes & free services and started reporting police corruption, it would be difficult for corrupt police officers to survive unscathed
Why would it appear that we want our police to be corrupt?
-gives us something to talk/write about
-gives people a sense that police aren't morally superior
-gives us a feeling of power over those who have a good deal of power
Types of misconduct
-Corruption of Authority
-Protection of Illegal Activities
What is the most widespread form of police misconduct?
-corruption of authority
Corruption of Authority
-variety of unauthorized material inducements or gratituities
-once police grasp this opportunity, they land themselves on a slippery slope of compromise/opportunism
Coleman (2004)'s 5 types of situations problematic for police...and in these situations gratituities should always be refused:
1) when a person offers a gratituity expects certain services only when a gratituity is offered
2) When gratituities are offered bc the recipient is a police officer
3) When gratituities are offered on a regular basis
4) When gratituities offered are disproportionate to services rendered
5) When the person offering the gratituity is not authorized to do so.
-obtaining goods, services or money for business referrals by police
When may officers recommend or suggest a certain product or service?
-employment of a product, professional/commercial service such as: (attorney, ambulance, towing, mortician...ect) as long as it is not for personal or monetary gain and doesn't violate dept. policy
-officers taking money/valuables/personal services from offenders they caught during a crime
-commonly associated with drug dealers, pimps & motorists
-referred to as "the fix"
-police taking no enforcement action when they are required to do so in exchange for money
Examples of bribery
-accepting money to not distribute a ticket
-misdirecting an investigation to ensure a favorable outcome for the defendant
-officers stealing money/valuables when guarding a crime scene, or from unconscious, inebriated or dead people
Protection of Illegal Activities
-most egregious of all misconduct
-police taking money or valuables in exchange for their protection of criminal activities
Findings of police chief survey by Hyatt in the SE region of the US
-Kickbacks: 50% of chiefs said they would suspend officers involved
-Opportunistic Threats: 60% of officers had regulations for this issue
-35% officers willing to
pursue criminal charges
-Shakedowns: 60% of respondents had regulations
-37% police would
initiate crim. charges
-Bribes: 39% of depts had regulations
-30% cheifs believe in criminal prosecution
Two commissions formed to investigate police corruption:
-created by former LA mayor Tom Bradley in 1991 in response to several high-profile media accounts of misconduct by LAPD members
-created by former NYC mayor Rudolph Giuliani in 1994 & NY supreme court justice Milton Mollen
-investigated allegations of misconduct, effectiveness of anticorruption mechanisms
-offer recommendations for improvement
3 Key findings of Christopher commission:
-small # of police officers engaged in acts involving excessive force
-police admin knew of these issues but took no measures to solve the problem
-a new policy needed to be adopted to hold officers/those in charge accountable for future acts of malfeasance
6 Key findings of Mollen commission:
-corruption occurred primarily crime-ridden precincts by minorities
-leadership structure of dept. showed no sense of commitment to rule out corrupt practices
-strong police subculture frowning on honest officers who reported wrongdoings
-internal mechanisms responsible for investigating misconduct were ineffective-focused on whistle blowers not perpetrators
-dept. believed identifying corruption would cause admin to retaliate
-recommended a permanent external panel to monitor internal anticorruption measures/conduct investigations
True/False: Many are no longer skeptical that any fundamental changes occurred within the LAPD.
Have the mayor and police admin adopted the recommendations of the Mollen Commission?
True/False: the major findings & recommendations of the Christopher/Mollen commissions reveal more similarities/differences.
Christopher/Mollen commission similarities:
-inability to police themselves
-reluctance to seriously confront this issue or encourage independent oversight
-subcultures that discourage honest officers to report wrongdoings
-leadership structures that don't promote/support anti-corruption
Causes of Police misconduct
-refers to reluctance of honest officers to report misconduct committed by their peers
-result/influence of police subculture
-taking inappropriate action or intentionally giving incorrect information
-any intentional act based on illegality or disregard of the Law Enforcement Code of Ethics or dept policy
-taking hostile or aggressive action against others
-reluctance of most officers to report wrongdoings
True/False: Supervisors don't hesitate to report the illegal acts of coworkers.
Gallup News poll 2011 regarding evidence of poor relationship between police and public findings:
-whites rated honesty as very high (13%) or high (46%)
-Blacks"" (5%) (34%)
-61% white and 43% black reported having a great deal of confidence in the police
US General Accounting Office (GAO) study in 1998 found what conclusions on drug-related corruption:
-it differs from other forms of police misconduct
-officers involved more likely to be actively involved in a variety of crimes (stealing drugs/money, selling drugs, lying under oath)
-power/justice found to be additional motives
-seizure of large amounts of illicit drugs/cash is frequently the downfall of many officers
-pattern of small groups of officers consistently helping one another commit crimes
-culture surrounding this corruption characterized by code of silence/loyalty to group
-younger officers more susceptible
Management/admin issues relating to drug-related corruption:
-no commitment from dept to promote integrity and ineffective investigative methods to combat corruption
Physical/emotional abuse includes:
Foley(2000) interview of 200 NYPD officers found:
-77% would likely commit some of the crimes presented
-3 crimes most significant in officers' decisions to prejure themselves: selling narcotics, rape, assault.
-officers seeking promotion more likely to prejure themselves
-"" overtime ""
-past performance is a predictor of continued acts of prejury
-uniformed officers 2x as likely to commit prejury as compared to detectives
-officers warned to stop their behavior or lie on reports are unlikely to change
How do police officers divide the world?
into Us vs. Them
What do officers do to those who are perceived as outsiders?
-use racial slurs
True/False: members of minority groups report psychological/emotional abuse is a routine part of their police encounters.
Complaints of harassment/disrespectful treatment are widespread among what racial groups?
-young black men
True/False: Findings imply that harassment/psychological brutality and physical brutality aren't continuing to occur in police encounters with certain citizens.
Excessive use of force
-when officers overextend their legal authority by using force to effect an arrest or coerce info from individuals
Study by Johnson in 1998 in FL, IL, Missouri, PA & WA found what?
-50% of all complaints of police focused on verbal conduct/demeanor of the officers
-1/4 of complaints involved nonviolent illegal conduct
-"" excessive force issues
NIJ study highlights:
-7500 cases studied, police used physical force <20% of the time
-2% of cases involved use of weapons/chemical agents
-use of force usually occurs when suspect is resisting arrest
-physical injuries are usually minor (bruises)
True/False: No matter how one interprets the data, evidence seems to suggest cases involving severe beatings w/ fists, feet & batons aren't typical of the use of force by police.
Alpert/Dunham (2010) study found what regarding use of force?
-they result mostly from defensive efforts by suspects trying to resist physical control
-tasers being used too frequently/long may result in serious harm
Studies regarding domestic violence & police officers:
-40% of officer families experience DV
-10% of general population experiences DV
Why are domestic abuse victims of police officers vulnerable?
-person abusing them has a gun available
-they know how to manipulate the system to avoid penalty
True/False: A federal law was passed in 1996 prohibiting individuals/police from owning/using firearms if they've been convicted of a misdemeanor domestic violence offense.
True/False: 1999 survey of the nations 100 largest police depts revealed only 6 cities acted against officers due to the Domestic Violence Gun Ban.
True/False: Police in modern democracies such as the US don't possess a virtual monopoly on the legitimate use of force over citizens.
What is the core of the police role?
the capacity to use force
What is the police officer's most important tool?
The police have the capacity to use force using what?
True/False: There is a perception that UOF incidents don' occur in minority communities of all sizes across the country
Referring to management/administrative issues..what is the most relevant phrase/cliche?
"The buck stops here"
True/False: The problem lies with the "few rotten apples" that many chiefs espouse as the problem.
What causes the "rotten apples "in police depts?
-rotten leadership structures/policies promoting strict accountability for all members engaging in misconduct
What causes even more corruption and misconduct in police depts?
-administrative action short of holding all members strictly accountable for their misdeeds
What did former Chicago Police Superintendent Terry Hillard do after concluding a 2-year joint internal affairs investigation?
-officers involved in corruption/misconduct were arrested at their homes, w/o affording them the usual advance notice
What admin issues led to corrupt practices?
Officers assigned to police in zero-tolerance areas usually work in what kind of specialized units?
-quota-type pressure is generally the work environment
The pressure to make arrests leads to what?
What is one technique used by management to detect misconduct?
the use of field associates
-officers trained to obtain info on misconduct while performing normal police functions
-info is relayed to management w/o other officers knowing who the informants are
-creates atmosphere of suspicion among officers
Internal affairs units typically perform the following duties:
-receive/investigate complaints regarding misconduct
-investigate indicators of misconduct
-prosecution of officers appearing to be responsible for misconduct
-collect intelligence on misconduct & share w/ police admin
-keep complainants/victims of police misconduct informed of dept actions related to their cases
True/False: Selective recruitment is another strategy employed to reduce misconduct.
How may the allure of corruption be somewhat reduced?
-if dept/subculture foster anti-corruption attitude
-promote based on merit
-pay relatively well
Klockars, Ivkovish, Haverfeld (2005) applied a new approach:
focusing on the measure of integrity of police officers, not corruption
Klockars, Ivkovish, Haverfeld's 4 dimensions of organizational integrity:
1-communication of all organizational rules
2-professional investigation of and disciplinary action taken for rule violations
3-intolerance of officer silence concerning rule violations
4-managing outside influences (public perception/expectations of officers)
Ivkovic & Shelley (2008) study on 1,055 police from Bosnia/Czech Republic:
-officer's opinions about police malfeasance associated w/ disciplinary actions & willingness to report wrongdoings were similar to those in the US
-most significant finding: disciplinary culture of the 2 countries affected the views of the officers more than any other variable
US Dept. of Justice report in 2001"Principles for Promoting Police Integrity..." offers recommendations for curbing police misconduct: (13)
2-Reports of misconduct
3-Avenues for Reporting Misconduct
5-Assistance From Other Arms of the CJ System
6-Effective Investigative Methodologies
7-Accountability & Effective Management
8-Supervision & Leadership
9-Public Info, Feedback & Civilian Input
12-Resolution of Misconduct Investigations
True/False: officers who view their agency as fair in managerial practices are less likely to adhere to the code of silence or believe that police corruption in pursuit of a noble cause is justified.
True/False: Perceptions of organizational justice are associated w/ higher levels of engagement in several forms of police misconduct
False, it's associated with lower levels of engagement