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Chapter 7 Respiratory System Extra Credit Words

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anoxia
the absence or nearly complete absence of oxygen from the body's gases, blood, or tissues
anthracosis
the form of pneumoconios caused by coal dust in the lungs; also known as black lung disease
antitussive
administered to prevent or relieve coughing (cough medicine)
aphonia
the loss of the ability of the larynx to produce normal speech sounds
apnea
the absence of spontaneous respiration
asbestosis
the form of pneumoconios caused by asbestos particles in the lungs
asphyxia
the condition that occurs when the body cannot get the air it needs to function
asphyxiation
any interruption of normal breathing resulting in asphyxia; also known as suffocation
aspiration pneumonia
can occur when a foreign substance, such as vomit, is inhaled into the lungs
asthma
a chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing
atelectasis
a condition in which the lung fails to expand completely due to shallow breathing or because the air passages are blocked
bradypnea
an abnormally slow rate of respiration usually of less than 10 breaths per minute
bronchodilator
a medication that expands the opening of the passages into the lungs
bronchorrhea
an excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi
bronchoscopy
the visual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope
bronchospasm
a contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles that tighten and squeeze the airway shut
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
a pattern of alternating periods of hypopnea or apnea, followed by hyperpnea
croup
an acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and a barking cough
cystic fibrosis
a genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus
diphtheria
an acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract
dysphonia
any change in vocal quality, including hoarseness, weakness, or the cracking of a boy's voice during puberty
dyspnea
difficult or labored breathing; also known as shortness of breath
emphysema
the progressive loss of lung function that is commonly attributed to long-term smoking
empyema
an accumulation of pus or infected fluid in the pleural cavity
endotracheal intubation
the passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway
epistaxis
bleeding from the nose that is usually caused by an injury, excessive use of blood thinners, or bleeding disorders; also known as a nosebleed
hemoptysis
coughing up of blood or bloodstained sputum
hemothorax
an accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity
hypercapnia
the abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood
hyperpnea
an increase in the depth and rate of the respiratory movements
hypopnea
shallow or slow respiration
hypoxemia
a condition of having below-normal oxygen level in the blood
hypoxia
the condition of having below-normal oxygen levels in the body tissues and cells; less severe than anoxia
laryngectomy
the surgical removal of the larynx
laryngitis
an inflammation of the larynx
laryngoplegia
paralysis of the larynx
laryngoscopy
the visual examination of the larynx using a laryngoscope
mediastinum
the cavity located between the lungs that contains the heart, aorta, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, and thymus gland
nebulizer
pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a vapor, which is then inhaled by the patient via a face mask or mouthpiece
otolaryngologist
a physician with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the ears, nose, throat, and related structures of the head and neck; also known as an ENT
pertussis
a contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract
pharyngitis
an inflammation of the pharynx
pharyngoplasty
the surgical repair of the pharynx
pharyngotomy
a surgical incision of the pharynx
pleurisy
an inflammation of the pleura that produces sharp chest pain with each breath
pleurodynia
pain in the pleura or in the side that occurs in relation to breathing movements
pneumoconiosis
an abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs that usually develops after years of environmental or occupational contact
pneumonectomy
the surgical removal of all or part of a lung
polysomnography
the diagnostic measurement of physiological activity during sleep; also known as a sleep apnea study
pulmonologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the lungs and associated tissues
pulse oximeter
an external monitor placed on the patient's finger or earlobe to measure the oxygen saturation level in the blood
pyothorax
the presence of pus in the pleural cavity between the layers of the pleural membrane
sinusitis
an inflammation of the sinuses
tachypnea
an abnormally rapid rate of respiration usually or more than 20 breaths per minute
thoracentesis
the surgical puncture of the chest wall with a needle to obtain fluid from the pleural cavity
thoracostomy
the surgical creation of an opening into the chest cavity to establish drainage of empyema
tracheostomy
the surgical creation of an opening into the trachea and insertion of a tube to facilitate the passage of air or the removal of secretions
tracheotomy
an emergency procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea to gain access to the airway below a blockage
tuberculosis
an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, usually attacks the lungs
pneumothorax
abnormal presence of air in the pleural cavity resulting in the collapse of the lung