62 terms

Blood

Information about blood, blood cells, and regulation of blood consituents
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Erythrocytes
More commonly called red blood cells.
Leukocytes
Also called white blood cells
Thrombocytes
More commonly called platelets
45%
Average value of an adult's hematocrit
Glycolysis
Series of reactions that produce ATP in the cytosol. Waste products are pyruvic acid
Oxidative phosphorylation
Series of reactions that occur in the mitochondria creating ATP. Waste products are water and carbon dioxide.
2 molecules
Number of ATP molecules produced during glycolysis
32-34 ATP
Number of ATP produced during oxidative phophorylation
Oxygen
Gas carried in blood by the hemoglobin protein
Serum albumin
Protein that maintains osmotic/oncotic pressure in the blood.
Immunogamma globulin
Serum protein that functions as an anti-body
mitochondria
energy producing organelle that is lacking in mature erythrocytes
Reticulocyte
Immature red blood cell released into the blood stream
Erythropoeisis
Process of red blood cell manufacture
Erythropoeitin
Hormone released by renal cells that induces red blood cell maturation
Hypoxia
Induces the release of erythropoeitin by renal cells
Red
Color of bone marrow that produces red blood cells
Vitamin B12
B complex vitamin needed to make red blood cells
Folic acid
A raw material needed to make red blood cells and stored in the liver.
Stem cells
Undifferentiated cell capable of becoming one of many cell types; can be defined as pleuripotent, multipotent or totipotent
Hemoglobin
Oxygen carrying protein found in abundance within red blood cells
Iron
Coordinates binding of oxygen molecule within the heme group
Spleen
Organ that primarily destroys old and damaged red blood cells
Biliveridin
Greenish colored substance formed after iron is stripped away from the heme group
Bilirubin
Yellow colored substance formed after red blood cell destruction
Transferrin
Iron transporting protein
Bile
Fat emulsiying agent formed in the liver from bilirubin
Jaundice
Color of a person with increased bilirubin levels
Sickle cell anemia
a genetic disorder in which erythroctyes take on an abnormal curved or "sickle" shape; common in persons of African descent
Polycythemia
Disorder characterized by increased number of red blood cells
Anemia
a deficiency of red blood cells
Diapedisis
The process by which white blood cells squeeze between the cells in a vessel wall to enter the tissue spaces outside the blood vessel
Chemotaxis
Movement that is directed by chemical gradients, such as nutrients or toxins. (Seen in white blood cells)
Neutrophil
Most abundant white blood cell; functions as a bacterial phagocyte
Eosinophil
White blood cell that increases during parasitic worm infection
Anti-histamine
Substance released by granules within an eosinophil
Basophil
Least abundant white blood cell. Secretes heparin and histamine.
Heparin
Anti-coagulant released by basophil. Prevents prothrombin conversion into thrombin.
MAST cell
A name for a basophil found in connective tissue
Lymphocytes
Second most abundant white blood cell type
B cells
Type of lymphocyte that produces antibodies
T8 cells
Lymphocyte that commonly attacks cells infected with viruses or show tumorigenic propensity
T4 cells
More commonly called the helper cells
monocyte
Large white blood cell that acts a macrophage
hemostasis
series of steps that prevents blood loss
Vasospasm
Constriction of blood vessels caused by pain.
Platelet plug
Formed because of sticky nature of platelets. Plugs the hole in blood vessels
Coagulation
Series of reactions that convert fibrinogen into fibrin
Calcium
Positively charged ion needed for final common pathway of coagulation
Vitamin K
Raw material needed to create prothrombin
Warfarin
Anti-coagulant that prevents vitamin K conversion into prothrombin
ABO
Blood typing classification system
Type O
Person has no antigens on surface of RBC and antibodies against A and B
Type A
Person has type A antigen on surface of RBC and antibodies against B
O negative
Universal blood donor
AB positive
Universal blood recpient
RH factor
RBC antigen that may or not be present. If present, person is said to be Rh positive
Erythroblastosis fetalis
Results from incompatiability between and Rh negative mom and Rh positive fetus
Bacterial infection
Characterized by a leukocyte count with increased percentage of neutrophils
CBC
complete blood cell count
CBC with diff
complete blood cell count with differentiation of leukocytes
Hematocrit
Percentage of formed elements in whole blood