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88 terms

botany unit

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chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
chlorophyll
green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
stroma
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
thylakoid
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.
light reactions
reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
calvin cycle
reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars
plant
multicellular autotroph in which the embryo develops within the female gametophyte
vascular tissue
Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
lignin
substance in vascular plants that makes cell walls rigid
cuticle
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.
stomata
the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
ovary
a structure containing egg cells; the base of a pistil in a flower
gametophyte
Haploid, or gamete-producing, phase of an organism
sporophyte
diploid, or spore-producing, phase of an organism
alternation of generations
A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants.
bryophyte
nonvascular plant; examples are mosses and their relatives
pteridophyte
member of a group of seedless vascular plants with lignin-hardened support tissues that includes ferns
gymnosperm
a plant that produces seeds that are not enclosed by a protective covering (sporophyte generation dominant)
pollen
tiny structures that contain the cells that will later become sperm cells
seed
embryo of a living plant that is encased in a protective covering and surrounded by a food supply
ovule
A structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the female gametophyte.
angiosperm
A flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary (sporophye generation dominant)
flower
specialized plant shoot that functions in reproduction; unique to angiosperms
stamen
The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and a filament.
carpel
The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.
endosperm
food-rich tissue that nourishes a seedling as it grows
fruit
ripened ovary of a flower
sepal
a leaflike structure that encloses the bud of a flower
petal
A modified leaf of a flowering plant; often the colorful parts of a flower that advertise it to insects and other pollinators.
anther
long stalk at the top of a flower's stamen where meiosis produces spores that develop into pollen
embryo sac
female gametophyte within the ovule of a flowering plant
style
narrow structure in a flower; has a sticky tip (the stigma) and leads to the ovary
stigma
sticky portion at the top of the style where pollen grains frequently land
pollination
the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants
pollen tube
Structure that grows from a pollen grain to an ovule, enabling a sperm to pass directly to an egg
cotyledon
a seed leaf that stores food
germination
early growth stage of a plant embryo
vegetative reproduction
Type of asexual reproduction in which new plants grow from vegetative parts such as roots, stems, and leaves
fibrous root
part of a root system in which roots branch to such an extent that no single root grows larger than the rest
taproot
primary root found in some plants that grows longer and thicker than other roots
stem
supporting structure that connects roots and leaves and carries water and nutrients between them
bud
plant structure containing undeveloped tissue that can produce new stems and leaves
blade
main part of a leaf
petiole
thin stalk by which a leaf blade is attached to a stem
dermal tissue
outer covering or "skin" of a plant
vascular tissue
Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
xylem
vascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant
phloem
vascular tissue that transports food from a plant's leaves to its roots and other parts
ground tissue
tissue between the dermal tissue and vascular tissue of a non-woody plant that functions in photosynthesis, storage, and support
cortex
mass of cells forming the ground tissue of a plant's root; also found in ground tissue of stems
meristem
structure that generates new dermal, vascular, and ground tissue in a plant
apical meristem
Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length.
primary growth
growth in plant length
root cap
A cone of cells at the tip of a plant root that protects the apical meristem.
secondary growth
growth in plant width
vascular cambium
A cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that adds layers of secondary vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem.
wood
secondary xylem that accumulates during the annual growing season of a plant
cork cambium
A cylinder of meristematic tissue in plants that produces cork cells to replace the epidermis during secondary growth
bark
tree structure that includes all tissues outside the vascular cambium, including phloem, the cork cambium, and cork
root hair
A tiny extension of a root epidermal cell, growing just behind the root tip and increasing surface area for absorption of water and minerals.
root pressure
force that helps push water up the xylem in a plant
endodermis
layer of cells that completely encloses vascular tissue
transpiration
loss of water from a plant through its leaves
tracheid
long cell with tapered ends that transports water in the xylem
vessel element
short, wide cell that transports water in the xylem of a plant
guard cell
pairs of cells that surround stomata and control their opening and closing
sieve-tube member
one of a chain of cells that forms a sieve tube, through which phloem sap flows in a plant
companion cell
cell found alongside a sieve tube in a plant that may provide resources to the sieve-tube members
pressure-flow mechanism
process by which phloem sap moves through a plant
plant kingdom characteristics
1. multicellular eukaryote 2. autotroph 3. embryo develops within female parent
charophytes
green algae that are the closest relatives of land plants
requirements for plant life on land
light, water, and reproduction
functions of roots
1. anchors plants 2. vascular tissue transports water and nutrients 3. absorbs oxygen
granam
Stack of thylakoids.
pistil
The female reproductive part of a flower
coevolution
process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other
what attracts pollinators
color, fragrance, uv nectar guides, food, mimicry, and wax
double fertilization
A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms, in which two sperm cells unite with two cells in the embryo sac to form the zygote and endosperm
germination requirements
1. water 2. cold period for some 3. intense heat from a fire for som 4. scarification
rhizomes
underground stems that anchor a fern and absorb water
artificial vegetative reproduction
cuttings, layering, grafting
tree rings
date lines that determine the age of a tree
carnivorous plants
plants that have adapted to poor soil conditions by digesting insects to provide needed nutrients
parasitic plants
absorb sugars and minerals from their living host plant
capillary action
molecules are more attracted to the surface than they are to themselves
leaf draw
adhesion and cohesion pull the water molecules upward
mycorrhizae
network of hyphae and plant roots that helps plants absorb water and minerals from soil
rhizoids
thread like structures that anchor non vascular plants to the ground (mosses and liverworts)