How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

215 terms

Medical Terminology - Chapter 10

Medical Terminology for Health Professionals (Ehrlich/Schroeder) - Chapter 10
STUDY
PLAY
central nervous system (CNS) 287
includes the brain and spinal cord
axon 288
a process that extends away from the cell body and conducts impulses away from the nerve cell
types of neurons 288
afferent, connecting, efferent - ACE
ascending nerve tracts 288
carry nerve impulses toward the brain
afferent neurons 288
emerge from sensory organs and skin to carry impulses from sensory organs toward brain and spinal cord - sensory neurons
arachnoid membrane 291
the second layer of the meninges and is located between the dura mater and the pia mater
cerebral hemispheres 292
the cerebrum is divided into these two parts
cerebellum 292
the second-largest part of the brain, located at the back of the head below the posterior portion of the cerebrum
cerebral 292
pertaining to the cerebrum or to the brain
cerebrum 292
the largest and uppermost portion of the brain, consisting of four lobes
cerebral lobes 292
each cerebral hemisphere is subdivided to create pairs of lobes; each lobe is named for the bone of the cranium that covers it
anesthetist 296
a medical professional who specializes in administering anesthesia, but is not a physician
anesthesiologist 296
a physician who specializes in administering anesthetic agents before and during surgery
autonomic nervous system 296
controls the involuntary actions of the body
cephalalgia 297
pain in the head; also known as a headache
amnesia 298
a memory disturbance characterized by a total or partial inability to recall past experiences
Alzheimer's disease 298
disorder associated with degenerative changes in the brain structure that lead to progressive memory loss, impaired cognition, and personality changes
brain tumor 299
an abnormal growth located inside the skull
cerebrovascular accident 300
damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted; also known as a stroke
aphasia 301
the loss of the ability to speak, write, and/or comprehend the written or spoken word
causalgia 303
persistent, severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve
Bell's palsy 303
temporary paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve that causes drooping only on the affected side of the face
cerebral palsy 303
a congenital condition characterized by poor muscle control, spasticity, speech defects, and other neurologic deficiencies
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) 303
a degenerative disease in which patients become progressively weaker until they are completely paralyzed; also known as Lou Gehrig's disease
anticonvulsant 304
administered to prevent seizures such as those associated with epilepsy
amobarbital 304
a barbiturate used as a sedative and hypnotic
barbiturates 304
a class of drugs whose major action is a calming or depressed effect on the central nervous system
anesthesia 304
the absence of normal sensation, especially sensitivity to pain, that is induced by the administration of an anesthetic
anesthetic 304
the medication used to induce anesthesia
carotid ultrasonography 304
an ultrasound study of the carotid artery to detect plaque buildup in the artery to predict or diagnose an ischemic stroke
anxiety disorders 305
mental conditions characterized by anxiety or fear that is out of proportion to the real danger in a situation
arachnophobia 306
an excessive fear of spiders
agoraphobia 306
an excessive fear of situations in which having a panic attack seems likely and/or dangerous or embarrassing
attention deficit disorder (ADD) 306
characterized by a short attention span and impulsive behavior that is inappropriate for the child's developmental age
acrophobia 306
excessive fear of being in high places
autism 306
describes a group of conditions in which a young child cannot develop normal social relationships
bipolar disorder 307
a condition characterized by cycles of severe mood changes shifting from highs (manic behavior) and severe lows (depression) that affect a person's attitude, energy, and ability to function
catatonic behavior 307
marked by a lack of responsiveness, stupor, and a tendency to remain in a fixed posture
alcoholism 308
chronic alcohol dependence with specific signs and symptoms upon withdrawal
antidepressant 308
a medication administered to prevent or relieve depression
antipsychotic drug 308
a medication administered to treat symptoms of severe disorders of thinking and mood that are associated with neurological and psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, mania, and delusional disorders
anxiolytic drug 308
a medication administered to temporarily relieve anxiety and to reduce tension; also known as an antianxiety drug or tranquilizer
behavioral therapy 309
focuses on changing behavior by identifying problem behaviors, replacing them with appropriate behaviors, and using rewards or other consequences to make the changes
brainstem 292
the stalk-like portion of the brain that connects the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord; made up of three parts: the midbrain, pons, and medulla
cerebral contusion 298
the bruising of brain tissue as the result of a head injury that may also cause swelling of the brain
cerebrospinal fluid 291
a clear, colorless, and watery fluid that flows throughout the brain and around the spinal cord
cervical radiculopathy 302
nerve pain caused by pressure on the spinal nerve roots in the neck region
claustrophobia 306
an abnormal fear of being in narrow or enclosed spaces
cluster headaches 298
intensely painful headaches that affect one side of the head and may be associated with tearing of the eyes and nasal congestion
cognition
the mental activities associated with thinking, learning,and memory
cognitive therapy
focuses on changing cognitions or thoughts that are affecting a person's emotions or actions
coma 299
a deep state of unconsciousness
complex regional pain syndrome 303
pain that occurs after an injury to an arm or a leg, a heart attack, stroke, or other medical problem
concussion 298
a violent shaking up or jarring of the brain that may result in a temporary loss of awareness and function
connecting neurons 288
associative neurons which link sensory and motor neurons
conscious
the state of being awake, alert, aware, and responding appropriately
conversion disorder 308
characterized by serious temporary or ongoing changes in function, such as paralysis or blindness, that are triggered by psychological factors rather than by any physical cause
cranial hematoma 298
a collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain
cranial nerves 295
12 pairs of nerves that originate from the undersurface of the brain
delirium 299
a potentially reversible condition that comes on suddenly and is often associated with high fever, intoxication, or shock in which the patient is confused, disoriented, and unable to think clearly
delirium tremens 308
an acute organic brain syndrome due to alcohol withdrawal that is characterized by sweating, tremor, restlessness, anxiety, mental confusion, and hallucinations
delusion 307
a false personal belief that is maintained despite obvious proof or evidence to the contrary
dementia
a slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, and judgment, that is often accompanied by personality changes
dendrites 288
the root-like processes that receive impulses and conduct them to the cell body
depression
a common mood disorder characterized by lethargy and sadness, as well as the loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities
descending nerve tracts 288
carry nerve impulses away from the brain
dissociative disorders 306
occur when normal thought is separated from consciousness
dissociative identity disorder 306
a mental illness characterized by the presence of two or more distinct personalities, each with its own characteristics, which appear to exist within the same individual; formerly known as multiple personality disorder
dura mater 290
the thick, tough, outermost membrane of the meninges
dyslexia 306
a learning disability characterized by substandard reading achievement due to the inability of the brain to process symbols; also known as a developmental reading disorder
dysthymia 307
a low-grade chronic depression with symptoms that are milder than those of severe depression but are present on a majority of days for 2 or more years
echoencephalography 304
the use ofultrasound imaging to diagnose a shift in the midline structures of the brain
efferent neurons 288
motor neurons which carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord and toward the muscles and glands
electroencephalography 304
the process of recording the electrical activity of the brain through the use of electrodes attached to the scalp
encephalitis 298
an inflammation of the brain
encephalocele 298
a congenital herniation of brain tissue through a gap in the skull
epidural anesthesia 304
regional anesthesia produced by injecting a local anesthetic into the epidural space of the lumbar or sacral region of the spine
epilepsy 303
a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent episodes of seizures of varying severity
factitious disorder 307
a condition in which an individual acts as if he or she has a physical or mental illness when he or she is not really sick; previously known as Munchausen syndrome
factitious disorder by proxy 307
although seeming very concerned about the child's well-being, the mentally ill parent will falsify an illness in a child by making up, or inducing symptoms, and then seeking medical treatment, even surgery, for the child - form of child abuse
ganglion 288
nerve center made up of a cluster of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system
generalized anxiety disorder 305
characterized by chronic anxiety plus exaggerated worry and tension even when there is little or nothing to provoke these feelings
glial cells 290
provide support and protection for neurons
Guillain-Barre syndrome 303
inflammation of myelin sheath of peripheral nerves - characterized by rapidly worsening muscle weakness that may lead to temporary paralysis - infectious polyneuritis
hallucination 307
sensory perception experienced in absence of an external stimulation
hemorrhagic stroke 301
occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks or ruptures; also known as a bleed
hydrocephalus 298
a condition in which there is an abnormally increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain
hyperesthesia 303
a condition of excessive sensitivity to stimuli
hypnotherapy 309
the use of hypnosis to produce a relaxed state of focused attention in which the patient may be more willing to believe and act on suggestions
hypnotic 304
depresses the central nervous system and usually produces sleep
hypochondriasis 308
a condition characterized by misinterpretation of physical symptoms and fearing that one has a serious illness despite appropriate medical evaluation and reassurance
hypothalamus 292
located below the thalamus, controls vital bodily functions
impulse-control disorders 307
a group of psychiatric disorders characterized by the inability to resist an impulse despite potential negative consequences
innervations 288
the supply of nerves to a specific body part
insomnia 301
the prolonged or abnormal inability to sleep
intracranial pressure 300
the amount of pressure inside the skull
ischemic stroke 300
a type of stroke that occurs when the flow of blood to the brain is blocked
kleptomania 307
a disorder characterized by repeatedly stealing objects neither for personal use nor for their monetary value
learning disabilities
disorders found in children of normal intelligence who have difficulties in learning specific skills such as processing language or grasping mathematical concepts
lethargy 299
a lowered level of consciousness marked by listlessness, drowsiness, and apathy
levels of consciousness (LOC) 309
terms used to describe alterations of consciousness caused by injury, disease, or substances such as medication, drugs, or alcohol
lobectomy 305
surgical removal of a portion of the brain to treat brain cancer or seizure disorders that cannot be controlled with medication
lumbar puncture 304
the process of obtaining a sample of cerebrospinal fluid by inserting a needle into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region to withdraw fluid
lumbar radiculopathy 302
nerve pain in the lower back caused by muscle spasms or by nerve root irritation from the compression of vertebral disks such as a herniated disk
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computer tomography (CT)
important neuroimaging tools because they facilitate the examination of the soft tissue structures of the brain and spinal cord
malingering 308
characterized by the intentional creation of false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms
manic behavior 307
includes an abnormally elevated mood state, including inappropriate elation, increased irritability, severe insomnia, poor judgment, and inappropriate social behavior
medulla 260
located at the lowest part of the brainstem, connected to the spinal cord
meninges 290
the system of membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord of the CNS
meningitis 298
an inflammation of the meninges of the brain or spinal cord
meningocele 298
the congenital herniation of the meninges that surround the brain or spinal cord through a defect in the skull or spinal column
mental retardation 306
diagnosis based on three criteria: 1) significant below-average intellectual functioning; 2) significant deficits in adaptive functioning; and 3) onset during the developmental period of life, which is before age 18
midbrain and pons 293
provides conduction pathways to and from the higher and lower centers in the brain
migraine headache 298
headache characterized by throbbing pain on one side of the head
mood stabilizing drugs
used to treat mood instability and bipolar disorders; an example is lithium
multiple sclerosis
a progressive autoimmune disorder characterized by scattered patches of demyelination of nerve fibers of the brain and spinal cord
myelin sheath
the protective covering made up of glial cells
myelitis
an inflammation of the spinal cord; also inflammation of bone marrow
myelography
a radiographic study of the spinal cord after the injection of a contrast medium through a lumbar puncture. The resulting record is called a myelogram.
myelosis
a tumor of the spinal cord
narcolepsy
a sleep disorder consisting of recurring episodes of falling asleep during the day
nerve
one or more bundles of neurons that connect the brain and the spinal cord with other parts of the body
neurologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the nervous system
neurons
the basic cells of the nervous system that allow different parts of the body to communicate with each other
neuroplasty
the surgical repair of a nerve or nerves
neurorrhaphy
surgically suturing together the ends of a severed nerve
neurosurgeon
a physician who specializes in surgery of the nervous system
neurotomy
a surgical incision or the dissection of a nerve
neurotransmitters
chemical substances that make it possible for messages to cross from the synapse of a neuron to the target receptor; examples include acetylcholine, dopamine, endorphins, norepinephrine, and serotonin
obsessive-compulsive disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, unwanted thoughts or impulses
panic attack
a group of intense emotional feelings that include apprehension, fearfulness, and terror
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected and repeated episodes known as panic attacks
parasympathetic nervous system
returns the body to normal after a response to stress
paresthesia
refers to a burning or prickling sensation that is usually felt in the hands, arms, legs, or feet, but can also occur in other parts of the body
Parkinson's disease (PD)
a chronic, degenerative central nervous disorder in which there is a progressive loss of control over movement, resulting in tremors and a shuffling gait
peripheral nervous system (PNS) 287
includes the 12 pairs of cranial nerves extending from the brain and the 31 pairs of peripheral spinal nerves extending outward from the spinal cord
peripheral neuropathy
a painful condition of the nerves of the hands and feet due to damage to the peripheral nerves; also known as peripheral neuritis
peripheralspinal nerves
31 pairs of spinal nerves that are grouped together and named based on the region of the body they innervate
persistent vegetative state
a type of coma in which the patient exhibits alternating sleep and wake cycles
personality disorder
a chronic pattern of inner experience and behavior that causes serious problems with relationships and work
phenobarbital
a barbiturate used as a sedative and as an anticonvulsant
phobia
a persistent irrational fear of a specific thing or situation, strong enough to cause significant distress, to interfere with functioning, and to lead to the avoidance of the thing or situation that causes this reaction
pia mater
the third layer of the meninges, located nearest to the brain and spinal cord
plexus
a network of intersecting spinal nerves
poliomyelitis
a highly contagious viral disease; also known as polio
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
the development of characteristic symptoms after a major traumatic event
psychiatrist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating chemical dependencies, emotional problems, and mental illness
psychoanalysis
based on the idea that mental disorders have underlying causes stemming from childhood and can only be overcome by gaining insight into one's feelings and patterns of behavior
psychologist
holds an advanced degree but is not a medical doctor; evaluates and treats emotional problems and mental illness
psychotic disorder
characterized by the loss of contact with reality and deterioration of normal social functioning
psychotropic drug
acts primarily on the central nervous system, where it produces temporary changes affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior
pyromania
a disorder characterized by repeated, deliberate fire setting
radiculitis
an inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve that causes pain and numbness radiating down the affected limb; also known as a pinched nerve
receptors
sites in the sensory organs that receive external stimulation
reflex
an automatic, involuntary response to some change, either inside or outside the body
restless legs syndrome (RLS)
a neurological disorder characterized by uncomfortable feelings in the legs, producing a strong urge to move them
Reye's syndrome (RS)
a potentially fatal condition that has been linked to giving aspirin to children suffering from viral infections
SAM
neuron functions: Sensory neurons (afferent); Associative neurons (connecting); Motor neurons (efferent)
schizophrenia
a psychotic disorder characterized by two or more of the following: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms
sciatica
inflammation of the sciatic nerve
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
a seasonal bout of depression associated with the decrease in hours of daylight during winter months
sedative
depresses the central nervous system to produce calm and diminished responsiveness without producing sleep
seizure
a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain that affects how a person feels or acts for a short time
shaken baby syndrome
the results of a child being violently shaken by someone
sleep deprivation
a sufficient lack of restorative sleep over a cumulative period so as to cause physical or psychiatric symptoms and affect routine performance or tasks
somatoform disorder
characterized by physical complaints or concerns about one's body that are out of proportion to any physical findings or disease
somnambulism
the condition of walking or performing some other activity without awakening; also known as sleepwalking
spinal cord
a long, fragile tube-like structure that begins at the end of the brain stem and continues down almost to the bottom of the spinal column
stimulant
works by increasing activity in certain areas of the brain to increase concentration and wakefulness
stimulus
anything that excites (activates) a nerve and causes an impulse
stupor
an unresponsive state from which a person can be aroused only briefly and with vigorous, repeated attempts
substance abuse
the addictive use of tobacco, alcohol, medications, or illegal drugs
sympathetic nervous system
prepares the body for emergencies and stress by increasing the breathing rate, heart rate, and blood flow to muscles
synapse
the space between two neurons or between a neuron and a receptor organ
syncope
the brief loss of consciousness caused by the decreased flow of blood to the brain; also known as fainting
terminal end fibers
the branching fibers at the end of the axon that lead the nervous impulse from the axon to the synapse
tetanus
an acute and potentially fatal infection of the central nervous system caused by a toxin produced by the tetanus bacteria
thalamotomy
a surgical incision into the thalamus
thalamus
located below the cerebrum, produces sensations by relaying impulses to and from the cerebrum and the sense organs of the body
tract
a bundle or group of nerve fibers located within the brain or spinal cord
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
the temporary interruption in the blood supply to the brain
traumatic brain injury
a blow to the head or a penetrating head injury that damages the brain
trichotillomania
a disorder characterized by the repeated pulling out of one's own hair
trigeminal neuralgia
a condition characterized by sudden, intense, severe lightning-like pain due to an inflammation of the fifth cranial nerve
unconscious
a state of being unaware and unable to respond to any stimuli including pain
acetycholine
released at some synapses in the spinal cord and at nueromuscular junctions, it influences muscle action
dopamine
realeased within the brain, involved in mood and thought disorders and in abnormal movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease
endorphins
naturally occuring substances that are produced by the brain to help relieve pain
norepinephrine
realeased at synaptic nerve endings, responds to hypotension and physical stress
seratonin
released in the brain, has roles in sleep, hunger and pleasure recognition
white matter
portion of the nerve fibers that are myelinated
gray matter
portion of the nerve fibers that are unmyelinated
epidural space
inner surface of the vertebral column
subdural space
located between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane
subarachnoid space
locateb below the arachnoid membrane and above the pia mater, contains cerebrospinal fluid
cerebral cortex
made up of gray matter, is the outer layer of the cerebrum and is arranged in deep folds known as fissures
corpus callosum
connects the two cerebral hemispheres
frontal lobe
controls skilled motor functions, memory, and behavior
parietal lobe
receives and interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors in the tongue, skin and muscles
occipital lobe
controls eyesight
temporal lobe
controls the senses of hearing and smell, and the ability to create store, and access new information
autonomic nerve fibers
carry instructions to the organs and glands and from the autonomic nervous system
sensory nerve fibers
receive external stimuli, and transmit this informationto the brain where it is interpreted
somatic nerve fibers
also known as motor nerve fibers, convey information that controls the body's voluntary muscular movements.
coup
any injury occuring within the skull near the point of impact
contrecoup
also known as a counter blow, is an injury that occurs beneath the skull opposite to the area of impact
malignant brain tumor
destroys brain tissue
benign brain tumor
does not invade brain tissue
cerebral thrombosis
occurs when a blood clot blocks a artery that supplies blood to the cererum
demyelination
loss of patches of the protective myelin sheath
spasticity
condition in which certain muscles are continuously contracted
antisocial personality disorder
a pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others.
borderline personality disorder
characterized by impulsive actions, often with the potential for self harm, as well as mood instability and chaotic relationships
narcissistic personality disorder
a pattern of extreme preoccupation with the self and complete lack of empathy for others
cognitive-behavioral therapy
combines the techniques of cognitive and behavioral therapy