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Principles of Ecology Test #3
Terms in this set (67)
Perturbations produced by experimentation in a laboratory.
Perturbations produced by experiments in the field.
Natural Trajectory Experiments
Comparisons of the same community before, during, and after the perturbation.
Natural Snapshot Experiments
Comparisons of communities that have reached stead-state with relation to perturbation. (Comparing like-sites with different levels of perturbation).
Community- association of populations which interact. (Occur together in time and space).
The close association of two or more dissimilar organisms. (Symbiosis).
Both benefit from the association [++/--].
One of the species in benefited without harm to the other [+0/-0].
Parasitism, Predation, Herbivory
One species is benefited, the other is harmed [+-/-+]. This can however, evolve into mutualism.
Inhibition of one organism by another by the release of metabolic by-products into the environment.
a. Passive interaction
b. Pines acid and tannins
c. Anti-herbivory chemicals, i.e. hormones
Release of chemicals that inhibit the germination of seeds.
Fire releases the inhibition and ______ seeds germinate faster than others.
A negative effect of one species (or individual) upon the population size of another arising from their joint exploitation of environmental resources [--/++].
Law of Limiting Factor
Growth and distribution of a population is dependent on the one environmental factor most critically in demand.
Two species cannot coexist on the same limiting resource.
Each population will utilize a slightly different area or part of the same resource and coexist.
Individuals of different species compete.
Individuals of the same species compete.
Related to the number and distribution of species and is the product of richness and evenness.
The number of species in a community.
Is the distribution of individuals; the number of other individuals of other species (max- all have the same number).
General Implications of Biodiversity
a. Supposedly characterizes complex communities.
b. Diversity increases in early succession but decreases in late succession.
c. In harsh environments populations are most affected by the environment; in less harsh environments populations are most affected by interactions with other populations.
d. Community Simplification (artificial) decreases stability.
An ecological unit composed of interacting components of the biotic and abiotic worlds in a defined area.
a. Size- Biosphere to raindrop.
b. Boundaries must be defined.
1.) Natural boundaries with Transition Zones.
2.) Artificial Boundaries.
a. 4th General Principle of Ecology
1. Minerals (and matter) cycule within ecosystem.
2. Minerals, such as nitrogen, carbon, water, etc. cycle between pools (storage compartments) such as geologic formations, oceans, the atmosphere, and living organisms.
b. Cycling Models (Compartments)
a. Spacial cycle and chemical cycle
b. Compartment (where the minerals reside) and flux arrows (movement) between compartments /pools.
c. Renewal Time- Time required to completely replace an element in a pool.
1. Atmospheric cycles are relatively fast.
2. Elements with a major pool in a geologic formation are very slow.
3. Organisms affect some cycles.
d. Water Cycle
Earth's major kinds of terrestrial communities recognized by its dominant vegetation and defined by temperature patterns with sub biomes defined by moisture patterns (with one exception).
Equator to 23.5 degrees north and south latitude, warm and hot year round.
(Tropical Rain Forest, Tropical Savanna)
Tropical Rain Forest
a. High rainfall year-round
b. Productivity is high
c. Diversity is high
d. Soils are thin and leached
e. Decomposition rate is very high
f. Nutrient pool in living organisms
a. Grassland with mixed shrub/ forest areas.
b. South America and Africa
Moderate year round temperature.
(Temperate Deciduous Forest, Temperate Evergreen Forest, Temperate Rain Forest [old growth]).
Temperate Deciduous Forest
PPT throughout the year and cold winters.
a. Productivity is moderate
b. Diversity is moderate
c. 9 regional associations
Temperate Evergreen Forest
2. Productivity is low
3. Diversity is low
4. High frequency of drought and fire.
Temperate Rain Forest
1. Cool mountain climate
2. Winter ppt is very low
3. Redwoods and Sequoias
A method used to determine the size of a species population. This is done by marking captured individuals and then releasing them back into the environment. Smaller populations have more recaptured species. While larger populations have less recaptured species.
Temperate Grasslands (Prairie, steppe, pampas, veldt)
Too little moisture for a forest, but more than a desert.
a. Less than 60 cm ppt , decreasing east to west.
b. Largest formation in North America.
c. Continental Climate (huge extremes in temperature).
d. Summer drought.
e. Fire and grazing climax.
Produce stolons for many years. (Stolons are above ground horizontal-stems).
Spread by rhizomes (below ground horizontal stems).
Tall Grass Prairie
Mixed Grass Prairie
Bunch and Sodgrass
Plateaus above 1000m at the edge of western desert in the USA
Taiga (Boreal Forest)
Latitude type Gymnosperm forest survives extreme cold weather.
a. Canada to Siberia
b. PPT as snow
c. Low species diversity
d. Forest floor 100% covered with cryptograms (lichens, moss, and algae)
e. White Spruce, Balsem Fir, and Larch
Treeless due to the extremely cold temperatures.
a. High latitudes at low elevation.
b. Permafrost- snow covered.
a. High elevations at low latitudes
b. No permafrost (Colorado, etc.)
Timberline [Krummholz Zone- twisted wood] Found between Taigas and Tundras.
a. Broad ecotone in arctic, narrow in alpine biomes.
b. Dwarf, twisted trees.
Extremely dry areas.
a. PPT is less than 200 mm per year. (Less than 7 inches)
b. Productivity is low
c. Diversity is very low (except reparations areas-near rivers or streams).
d. Large daily temperature changes
Subtropical or Hot Deserts
a. mainly between 20-30 latitude
b. Drought resistant deciduous trees: Shrubs and succulents
d. Sonoran Desert in Arizona
e. Chihuahuan Desert in New Mexico
a. Mainly due to Rain Shadow Effect
b. Warm desert (Mohjore Desert)
c. Cold desert (Great Basin Desert)
Previously productive land becoming a desert.
c. 1,000,000 hectare per year
Measure of the total amount of energy made by photosynthesis for a given unit of land surface for a given unit of time.
Dry weight of plant material at a given time.
Use of energy to preform life functions.
Does not use oxygen.
Breaks down glucose into Pyuvic Acid (PA) molecules.
(Type of Anaerobic Respiration)
a. Lactic Acid Fermentation
b. Krebs Cycle
c. Electron Transport Chain System (9 times more efficient than anaerobic).
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP or Pc)
Total amount of chemical energy fixed by photosynthesis (per unit area, per unit time).
Net Primary Productivity (NPP or Pa) = GPP
Energy lost through respiration.
Second Law of Ecology
Energy flows through ecosystems. Organisms may be arranged in groups or levels, as to how they obtain energy.
Use inorganic Carbon (CO2) as their carbon source.
Use light energy via photosynthesis. (Plants, algae, cyanobacteria, and some bacteria).
Inorganic energy. (bacteria)
Use organic carbon as their carbon source.
Use organic molecules for energy.
Feed on dead organic matter.
Third General Principle of Ecology
The graphic representation of the trophic levels is represented in a pyramid.
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