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174 terms

Medical Terminology Ch. 15 Diagnostic procedures and pharmacology

overview of diagnostic procedures and pharmacology
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assessment
the evaluation or appraisal of a condition
vital signs
indicates systems are functioning: temperature, pulse, respiration, and blood pressure
98.6 F
average normal temperature
hypothermia
abnormally low body temperature
hyperthermia
an extremely high fever
pulse
the rhythmic pressure against the walls of an artery caused by the contraction of the heart
respiratory rate
also known as respiration, the number of complete respirations per minute
blood pressure
the force of blood against the walls of the arteries
sphygmomanometer
measures blood pressure
systolic pressure
occurs when the ventricles contract, is the highest pressure against the walls of an artery
diastolic pressure
occurs when the ventricles are relaxed, is the lowest pressure against the walls of an artery
pain
can be a 5th vital sign
acute pain
pain that comes on quickly, can be severe and lasts for a short time
chronic pain
pain that can be mild or severe, persists over a long period of time
auscultation
means listening for sounds within the body and is usually performed thorugh a stethoscope
rale
also known as a crackle, is an abnormal rattle or crackle-like respiratory sound heard during inspiration
rhonchus
also known as wheezing, is an abnormal sound heard while listening to the chest during inspiration, expiration, or both
stridor
abnormal hgih-pitched harsh sound heard during inhalation
bruit
an abnormal sound heard during auscultaion of an artery
heart murmur
an abnormal heart sound that is most commonly a sign of abnormal function of the heart valves
abdominal sounds
also known as bowel sounds, are normal noices made by the intestines
palpation
an examination technique in which the examiner's hands are used to feel the texture, size, consistency, and location of certain body parts
percussion
a diagnostic procedure designed to determine the density of a body part by the sound produced by tapping the surface with the fingers
ophthalmoscope
an eye instrument used examine the interior of the eye
otoscope
an instrument used to visually examine the external ear canal and tympanic membrane
speculum
an instrument used to enlarge the opening of any canal or cavity to facillitate inspection of its interior
stethoscope
an instrument used to listen to the sounds within the body
recumbent position
describes any position in which the patient is lying down
prone position
patient is lying on the belly face down
horizontal recumbent position
also known as supine position, patient is lying on the back with the face up
dorsal recumbent position
the patient is lying on the back with knees bent
Sims' position
patient is lying on left side with the right knee and thigh drawn up with the left arm placed along the back
knee-chest position
patient is lying face down with the hips bent so that the knees and chest rest on the table
lithotomy position
patient is lying on the back with the feet and legs raised and supported by stirrups
stat
results are needed immediately
profile
tests that are frequently performed as a group on automated multichannel laboratory testing equipment
phlebotomist
an individual trained and skilled in phlebotomy
phlebotomy
also known as venipuncture, the puncture of a vein for the purpose of drawing blood
capillary puncture
technique used when only a small amount of blood is needed as a specimen for a blood test
complete blood count
series of tests performed as a group to evaluate several blood conditions
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
also known as sed rate, a test based on the speed at which the red blood cells separate from the plasma and settle to the bottom of the container
hematocrit
describes the percentage, by volume, of a blood sample occupied by red cells
platelet count
measures the number of platelets in a specified amount of blood and is a screening test to evaluate platelet function
red blood cell count
a determination of the number of erythrocytes in the blood
total hemoglobin test
usually part of the complete blood count
white blood cell count
determination of the number of leukocytes in the blood
white blood cell differential test
determines what percentage of the total count is composed of each of the five types of leukocyte
basic metabolic panel
group of eight specific blood tests that provide important information about the current status of the patient's kidneys, electrolyte balance, blood sugar, and calcium levels
blood urea nitrogen test
measures the amount of nitrogen in the blood due to the waste product urea
urea
major end product of protein metabolism found in urine and blood
crossmatch tests
performed to determine the compatibility of donor and recipient blood before a transfusion
agglutination
clumping together of the red blood cells, indicates donor is not a match
C-reactive protein test
performed to identify high levels of inflammation within the body
lipid panel
measures the amount of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides in a blood sample
prothrombin time
also known as pro time, a test used to diagnose conditions associated with abnormalities of clotting time and to monitor anticoagulant therapy
serum bilirubin test
measures the ability of the liver to take up, process, and secrete bilirubin into the bile
thyroid-stimulating hormone assay
measures circulating blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone that can indicate abnormal thyroid activity
urinalysis
the examination of the physical and chemical properties of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements
routine urinalysis
performed to screen for urinary and systemic disorders
microscopic examination
peformed when more detailed testing of the specimen in necessary
casts
fibrous or protein materials, such as pus and fats, that are thrown off into the urine in kidney disease
pH
the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance
acidosis
excessive acid in the body fluids, pH below 7
alkaline urine
pH above 7
specific gravity
reflects the amount of wastes, minerals, and solids present in the urine
low specific gravity
dilute urine
high specific gravity
concentrated urine
acetone
sweet, fruity odor, found in small quantites of normal urine
albuminuria
presence of the protein albumin in the urine and is the sign of impaired kidney function
albumin
a form of protein found in most body tissues
bacteriuria
the presence of bacteria in the urine
calciuria
the presence of calcium in the urine
creatinuria
an increased concentration of creatine in the urine
creatinine
a waste product of muscle metabolism that is normally removed by the kidneys
drug-screening urine test
a rapid method of identifying the presence in the body of one or more drugs of abuse
glycosuria
presence of glucose in the urine, most commonly caused by diabetes
hematuria
presence of blood in the urine
gross hematuria
presence of blood can be detected without magnification
microscopic hematuria
urine is clear, blood cells can be seen under a microscope
ketonuria
presence of ketones in the urine
ketones
formed when the body breaks down fat
proteinuria
the presence of an abnormal amount of protein in the urine
pyuria
presence of pus in the urine
urine culture and sensitivity tests
laboratory tests that are used to identify the cause of a urinary tract infection and determine which antibiotic would be the most effective treatment
endoscopy
visual examination of the interior of a body cavity
endoscopic surgery
a surgical procedure performed through very small incisions with the use of an endoscope and specialized instruments
endoscope
a small flexible tube with a light and lens on the end
laparoscopy
visual examination of the interior of the abdomen with the use of a laparoscope tha is passed through a small incision in the abdominal wall
centesis
a surgical puncture to remove fluid for diagnostic purposes or to remove excess fluid
abdominiocentesis
surgical puncture of the abdominal cavity to remove fluid
arthrocentesis
surgical puncture of the joint space to remove synovial fluid for analysis to determine the cause of pain or swelling in a joint
cardiocentesis
also known as cardiopuncture, puncture of a chamber of the heart for diagnosis or therapy
pericardiocentesis
puncture of the pericardial sac for the purpose of removing fluid
tympanocentesis
surgical puncture of the tympanic membrane with a needle to remove fluid or pus from an infected middle ear
contrast medium
administered by swallowing, via an enema, or intraveneously to make specific body structures visible
radiopaque
substance does not allow x-rays to pass through and appears white or light gray on the resulting film
radiolucent
substance, such as nitrogen gas, does allow x-rays to pass through and appears black or dark gray on the resulting film
radiography (X-ray)
uses x-radiation passing through the patient to expose a film or create a digital image that shows the body profile
computed tomography (CT)
uses x-radiation with computer assistance to produce multiple cross-sectional views of the body
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
uses a combination of radio waves and a strong magnetic field to produce images
intraveneous contrast medium
injected into a vein to make the flow of blood through blood vessels and organs visible
barium
a radiopaque contrast medium used primarily to visualize the gastrointestinal tract
radiology
also known as x-rays, an image of hard-tissue internal structures created by the exposure of sensitized film to x-radiation
radiologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders with x-rays and other forms of radiant energy
radiographic positioning
describes the body placement and the part of the body closest to the x-ray film
radiographic projection
describes the path that the x-ray beam follows through the body from enterance to exit
anteroposterior projection
patient positioned with the back parallel to the film
posteroanterior projection
patient positioned facing the film and parallel to it
lateral projection
patient positioned at right angles to the film
oblique projection
patient positioned so the body is slanted sideways to the film
extraoral radiography
film is placed and exposed outside of the mouth
panoramic radiograph
also known as panorex, shows all the structures in both dental arches in a single film
intraoral radiography
film is placed within the mouth and exposed by a camera positioned next to the exterior of the cheek
periapical radiographs
show the entire tooth and some surrounding tissue
bite-wing radiographs
show the crowns of teeth in both archs on one side of the mouth
magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
combines MRI with the use of a contrast medium to locate problems within blood vessels throughout the body
fluoroscopy
visualization of body parts in motion by projecting x-ray images on a luminous fluorescent screen
cineradiography
recording of images as they appear in motion on a fluorescent screen
ultrasonography
also known as ultrasound, imaging of deep body structures by recording the echoes of pulses of sound waves that are above the range of human hearing
sonogram
image created by ultrasonography
sonographer
technician trained to take a sonogram
echocardiography
an ultrasonic diagnostic procedure used to evaluate the structures and motion of the heart
doppler echocardiogram
measures the speed and direction of the blood flow within the heart
fetal ultrasound
noninvasive procedure used to image and evaluate fetal development during pregnancy
transesophageal echocardiography
also known as TEE, an ultrasonic imaging techinque used to evaluate heart structures
carotid ultrasonography
use of sound waves to image the carotid artery to detect an obstruction
nuclear medicine
radioactive substances are administered for either diagnostic or treatment purposes
radiopharmaceuticals
radioactive substance used for diagnostic or treatment purposes
nuclear imaging
images document the structure and function of organs being examined
nuclear scan
also known as a scintigram, a diagnostic procedure that uses nuclear medicine technology to gather information about the structure and function of organs or body systems that can not be seen on conventional x-rays
bone scan
nuclear scanning test that identifies new areas of bone growth or breakdown
thyroid scan
a radiopharmaceutical containing radioactive iodine is administered
single photon emission computed tomography
also known as SPECT, a type of nuclear imaging test that produces 3D computer-reconstructed images showing profusion through tissues and organs
profusion
means the flow of blood through and organ
positron emission tomography
also known as PET imaging, combines tomography with radionuclide tracers to produce enhanced images of selected body organs
pharmacology
the study of the nature, uses, and effects of drugs for medical purposes
pharmacist
licensed specialist who formulates and dispenses prescribed medications
prescription
medication that can legally be dispensed only by a pharmacist with an order from a licensed professional such as a physician or dentist
over-the-counter
also known as OTC, medication that can be purchased without a prescription
generic drug
usually named for its chemical structure and is not protected by a brand name or trademark
brand-name drug
sold under the name given the drug by the manufaturer.
addiction
compulsive, uncontrollable dependence on a drug, alcohol, or other substance
adverse drug reaction (ADR)
also known as a side-effect, an undesirable reaction that accompanies the principal response for which the drug was taken
compliance
patient's consistency and accuracy in following the regimen prescribed by a physician or other health care professional
contraindication
a factor in the patient's condition that makes the use of a medication or specific treatment dangerous or ill advised
drug interaction
result of drugs reacting with each other, often in ways that are unexpected or potentially harmful
idiosyncratic reaction
an unexpected reaction to a drug that is peculiar to the individual
palliative
a substance that eases the pain or severity of the symptoms of a disease, but does not cure it
paradoxical reaction
the result of medical treatment that yields the exact opposite of normally expected results
placebo
an inactive substance, administered for suggestive effects
potentiation
drug interaction that occurs when the effect of one drug is increased by another drug, herbal remedy, or other treatment
antipyretic
medication administered to prevent or reduce fever
anti-inflammatory
relieves inflammation and pain without affecting consciousness
analgesic
refers to the class of drugs that relieves pain without affecting consciousness
acetaminophen
analgesic that reduces pain and fever, but does not relieve inflammation
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
also known as NSAIDs, are nonnarcotic analgesics administered to control pain by reducing inflammation and swelling
ibuprofen
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicine that acts as an analgesic to relieve pain
anticonvulsants
administered to prevent seizures
antidepressants
administered to prevent or relieve depression
pain-relieving creams
applied topically to relieve pain, capsaicin is primary active ingredient
transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation
TENS, method of pain control by wearing a device that delivers small electrical impulses to the nerve endings through the skin
inhalation administration
vapors and gases taken in through the nose or mouth and absorbed in the bloodstream through the lungs
oral administration
medications taken by mouth to be absorbed through the walls of the stomach or small intestine
rectal administration
insertion of medication in the rectum either in the form of a suppository or a liquid
sublingual administration
placement of medication under the tongue where it is allowed to dissolve slowly
topical application
liquid or ointment that is rubbed into the skin on the area to be treated
transdermal medication
administered from a patch that is applied to unbroken skin
parenteral
taken into the body in a manner other than the digestive tract
subcutaneous injection (SC)
made into the fatty layer just below the skin
intradermal injection
made into the middle layers of the skin
intramuscular injection (IM)
made directly into the muscular tissue
intravenous unjection (IV)
made directly into a vein
bolus
also known as a bolus infusion, is a single, concentrated dose of drug usually injected into a blood vessel over a short period of time
peripherally inserted central catheter
PICC line, used for a patient who will need IV therapy for more than 7 days