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67 terms

MUSCULAR SYSTEM EXAM

STUDY
PLAY
HOW MANY MUSCLES
OVER 630 MUSCLES
MUSCLES CANNOT PUSH
MUSCLES PULL & OFTEN WORK IN PAIRS
3 TYPES OF MUSCLES
SKELETAL, SMOOTH AND CARDIAC
ALL MUSCLES ARE ELONGATED
THUS ARE CALLED MUSCLE FIBERS
SKELETAL MUSCLES
STRIATED & VOLUNTARY, CONTRACT RAPIDLY, TIRES EASILY & MUST REST AFTER SHORT PERIODS OF ACTIVITY, IS 40% OF ADULT BODY WEIGHT, LARGEST TYPE OF MUSCLE, ARE MUSCLE FIBERS THAT MOVE ALL BONES, FACE & EYES
SMOOTH MUSCLES
VICERAL, NON-STRIATED, INVOLUNTARY, FOUND IN STOMACH, INTESTINES, URINARY BLADDER, REPIRATORY PASSAGES & BLOOD VESSELS, ARE SLOW & SUSTAINED, CONTRACTIONS ARE REGULATED BY HORMONES & AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
CARDIAC MUSCLES
STRIATED & INVOLUNTARY, FORMS THE WALL OF THE HEART, IS ATTACHED TOGETHER - NOT TO A BONE, CONTROLLED BY AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM, CONTRACTS AT A STEADY RATE SET BY HEART'S PACEMAKER
LIGAMENTS
CONNECTIVE TISSUE BINDING BONES TO BONES
CONNECT AT THE END OF MUSCLES, PREVENTS SLIPPING/SLIDING FORCING THEM TO BEND
ORIGEN
PART OF THE BODY, USUALLY A BONE, WHERE THE MUSCLE ATTACHES & DOES NOT MOVE WHEN MUSCLE CONTRACTS
INSERTION
PART OF THE BODY WHERE THE MUSCLE ATTACHES & MOVES WHEN MUSCLE CONTRACTS
JOINTS = ARTICULATIONS
SITES WHERE 2 OR MORE BONES MEET
JOINTS - 2 FUNDAMENTAL FUNCTIONS
1) HOLD SKELETEN TOGETHER 2) PROVIDE MOBILITY
JOINTS CLASSIFICATION
CLASSIFIED BY THEIR STUCTURE (TYPE OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT JOINS THE BONES TOGETHER OR BY A FLUID FILLED JOINT CAPSULE) & CLASSIFIED BY THEIR FUNCTION (THE DEGREE OF MOVEMENT ALLOWED)
FIBROUS JOINT
CONNECTS BONES W/OUT ALLOWING ANY MOVEMENT. EG. SKULL AND PELVIS BONES
CARTILAGINOUS JOINT
JOINTS IN WHICH BONES ARE ATTACHED BY CARTILAGE, ALLOW ONLY A LITTLE MOVEMENT, EG. SPINE AND RIB BONES
SYNOVIAL JOINT
A FREELY MOVEABLE JOINT, ALLOW MUCH MORE MOVEMENT THAN CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS
JOINTS CAVITIY
CAVITIES BTWN BONES IN SYNOVIAL JOINTS ARE CALLED JOINT CAVITIES
SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
TISSUE LINING IN THE SYNOVIAL CAVITY - PRODUCES SYNOVIAL FLUID
ARTICULAR CARTILAGE
SMOOTH, GLISTENING. WHITE TISSUE THAT COVERS THE SURFACE OF A JOINT
BURSA
SAC OF FLUID NEAR A JOINT
TENDON
CONNECTIVE TISSUE BINDING MUSCLES TO BONES
SUTURE JOINT
IMMOVABLE JOINT BTWN THE BONES OF THE SKULL
ARTICULATION
ANY TYPE OF JOINT
SYNOVIAL FLUID
VISCOUS FLUID WITHIN THE SYNOVIAL SPACE
SYNOVIAL CAVITY
SPACE BTWN BONES AT A SYNOVIAL JOINT
HINGE JOINT
ELBOW - MOVEMENT IN 1 DIRECTION, A BACK & FORTH MOTION
BALL AND SOCKET JOINT
SHOULDER JOINT - MOVEMENT IN MANY DIRECTIONS AROUND A CENTRAL POINT
SADDLE
FINGERS & TOES - MOVEMENT BACK & FORTH AND UP & DOWN
FLEXION
A BENDING MOTION
EXTENSION
A STRAIGHTENING MOTION
ABDUCTION
BONE MOVING AWAY FROM MIDLINE OF THE BODY
ADDUCTION
BONE MOVING TOWARD THE MIDLINE OF THE BODY
ROTATION
MOVEMENT OF A BONE TURNING ON ITS OWN AXIS
SUPINATION
TURNING PALM UP OR FORWARD
PRONATION
TURNING PALM DOWN OR BACKWARD
DORSIFLEXION
BENDING FOOT BACKWARD OR UPWARD AT THE ANKLE
PLANTAR FLEXION
BENDING FOOT DOWNWARD AT THE ANKLE WITH TOES POINTING DOWNWARD
CIRCUMDUCTION
MOVEMENT IN A CIRCULAR MOTION
BUCCINATOR
MUSCLES IN THE FLESHY PART OF THE CHEEK - HELPS WITH MASTICATION (CHEWING)
ORBICULARIS OCULI
MUSCLES AROUND THE ORBIT OF EACH EYE - CLOSES EYE & WRINKLES FOREHEAD
TEMPORAL OR TEMPORALIS
MUSCLES ABOVE & NEAR THE EAR, ELEVATES & RETRACTS MANDIBLE (JAW BONE)
MASSETER
MUSCLES AT THE ANGLE OF THE JAW, ELEVATES & RETRACTS MANDIBLE (JAW BONE)
OBICULARIS ORIS
CIRCULAR MUSCLES AROUND THE MOUTH, CLOSES & COMPRESSES LIPS
STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID
MUSCLES EXTENDING FROM STERNUM UPWARD ALONG THE SIDE OF THE NECK, ROTATES NECK AND FLEX THE HEAD
TRAPEZIUS
FLAT TRIANGULAR MUSCLES COVERING THE BACK OF THE NECK & SHOULDERS
LATISSIMUS DORSI
MUSCLES ALONG THE SIDES OF THE MIDDLE OF THE BACK, CONNECT TO HUMEROUS (ARM BONE) & ROTATES ARM
PECTORALIS
MAJOR MUSCLE, LARGE, FAN SHAPED MUSCLE THAT CROSSES THE UPPER PART OF THE FRONT CHEST
BICEPTS
2 HEADED MUSCLE IN UPPER ARMS
TRICEPTS
3 HEADED MUSCLE IN UPPER ARMS
BRACHIORADIALIS
MUSCLE IN FRONT LOWER ARMS, FOREARM
DELTOID
THICK TRIANGULAR MUSCLE COVERING THE SHOULDER JOINTS
GLUTEUS MAXIMUS
MUSCLE FORMS MOST OF THE FLESHY PART OF THE BUTTOCKS
GLUTEUS MEDIUS
SMALLER MUSCLE IN UPPER BUTTOCKS
QUADRICEPTS - A GROUP OF 4 MUSCLES IN THIGH
1) RECTUS FEMORIS 2) VASTUS MEDIALIS 3) VASTUS LATERALIS 4) VASTUS INTERMEDIALIS
GASTRONEMIUS
MAIN MUSCLE OF THE CALF
TIBIALIS ANTERIOR
MUSCLE POSITIONED ON THE FRONT OF THE LEG
HAMSTRING MUSCLE
(3) MUSCLES ON THE BACK OF OUR THIGHS 1) BICEPTS FEMORIS 2) SEMIMEMBRANOSIS 3) SEMITENDINOSIS
MUSCULAR DISTROPHY
GENETIC DISORDER/INHERITED DISEASE THAT WEAKENS MUSCLES THAT HELP THE BODY TO MOVE
STRAINS
AN INJURY TO A MUSCLE OR TENDON
(OFTEN BACK OR HAMSTRING)
STRAINS 2 TYPES
ACUTE - TRAUMA (BLOW TO THE BODY)
CHRONIC - OVERUSE (REPETITIVE MOVEMENT)
SPRAINS
INJURY TO A LIGAMENT (STRETCHING/TEARING)
ANKLE IS MOST COMMON
ARTHRITIS
INFLAMMATION OF 1 OR MORE JOINTS
ARTHRALGIA
JOINT PAIN
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
AN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE - CHRONIC INFLAMMATION OF THE JOINTS - BODY TISSUES ARE MISTAKENLY ATTACKED BY ITS OWN IMMUNE SYSTEM
LUPUS
AN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE - CHRONIC INFLAMMATION
AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE
WHEN BODY TISSUES ARE MISTAKENLY ATTACKED BY ITS OWN IMMUNE SYSTEM
DISCOID LUPIS
WHEN THE SKIN IS INVOLVED