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Review for chapter 23, 24, and 26
Terms in this set (26)
Know the Differences between Archegonia, Antheridia, Microspore, Megaspore, Pollen Grain, Ovary, Ovule, Seed, Embryo, Male Gametophyte and Female Gametophyte.
Antheridia: Male reproductive structure of mosses and ferns produces the sperms.
Archegonia: Female reproductive structure of mosses and ferns produces the eggs.
Microspore: In gymnosperms and Angiosperms it develops into the pollen grain.
Megaspore: Also known as megaspore mother cell in the ovule, which undergoes meiosis, producing four
haploid megaspores, three are nonfunctional and one is functional. It divides until there are eight nuclei in the female gametophyte found in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Of the eight nuclei, one forms the egg cell with two synergids cells, one becomes a large cell with two polar nuclei (Become the endosperm) and three are antipodel cells.
Pollen Grain: Microspore that carries the sperm (2)
Ovary: An enlarge ovule bearing portion of the carpel (Pistil) that develops into a fruit.
Ovule: In Angiosperms and Gymnosperms, the structure that contains the female gametophyte and has
the potential to develop into a seed.
Seed: Mature ovule contains an embryo, with stored food (Endosperm) enclosed by a seed coat.
Embryo: A stage of a multicellular organisms, in seed plants, fungi and animals that develops from a
zygote into a free living organism (plant, or animal).
Male Gametophyte: A pollen grain.
Female Gametophyte: Produces the egg.
What are the Differences between the Nonvascular and Vascular Seedless plants?
Nonvascular Seedless: Plants without roots, leaves or stems known as Embryophyta: Mosses (Bryophyta), Hornworts (Antherophyta), Liverworts (Hepatophyta) The dominant generation is the Gametophyte.
Vascular Seedless: Plants with roots, and microleaves (scale-like) known as Pteridophyta: Ferns (Pteridophyta produce pores through sori), Whisk fern (Psilotophyta, produce spores through sporangia), Club Mosses: (Horsetails (Sphenophyta) and Ground Pines (Lycophyta) both produce spores through strobili.
What are the Differences between Sporophyte and Gametophyte?
Sporophyte: A diploid stage in the cycle of plants that undergoes meiosis to produce spores that develop into gametophytes.
Gametophyte: A haploid stage in the life cycle of plants that produces gametes that fuse to produce a zygote that later develops into a sporophyte.
Know which is the Dominant Generation in the Embryophyta (Bryophyta) and the Pteridophyta.
Embryophyta: Dominant generation is the gametophyte
Pteridophyta: Dominant generatioin is the Sporophyte.
5. What structures in plants, Nonvascular and Vascular are Haploid and which are Diploid?
Haploid structures: gametes, eggs, sperms, gametophyte, ovule, pollen grain.
Diploid structures: Zygote, sporophyte, ovary, strobili, sporangia, sorus.
Know the Differences between a Sorus, Strobili, Sporangia and what group of plants posses them.
Sorus (Pteridophyta), Strobili (Club Mosses, Sphenophyta and Lycophyta) and Sporangia (Whisk fern and fungi): All are spore producing structures.
What groups constitute the Gymnosperms and the Angiosperms and what are the major Differences between them?
Gymnosperms: Major differences from Angiosperms is that they do not produce flowers, or
furits, they do not have ovaries.
Include the Coniferophyta (Cone bearing plants, Pines, etc) Cycadophyta (Cycads or sego palms) Ginkgophyta (Ginkgo trees) and Gnetophyta (Ephedra and Welwitchia)
Angiosperms: Flowering plants, produce flowers and fruits have ovaries are divided into three
major groups: Magnoliophyhta, Monocotyledons and Eudicotyledons.
Know what Double Fertilization is and how it is accomplished.
In double fertilization, the pollen carries two sperms, one will fertilized the egg and will develop into
the zygote and grow to be the sporophyte. The other sperm will unite with the Polar nuclei and will become the endosperm, also known as the cotyledon and when the seed is planted it becomes the seed leaves.
What are the Differences between Endosperm, Cotyledon and Seed Leaves?
All are the same structure in the Angiosperms seeds.
Know the Differences between Vascular Cambium, Cork, Cork Cambium and Secondary Phloem, and Periderm tissues.
Vascular cambium: In plants it produces secondary phloem on the outside of the trunk of trees, but is
not part of the trunk of trees.
Cork: Outer layer of bark cells, made of dead cells, part of the bark.
Cork Cambium:Lateral meristem that produces cork cells, part of the bark.
Periderm: Protective tissue that replaces epidermis includes cork and cork cambium.
What is (makes up) Xylem and Phloem and what are their functions in plants?
Xylem: Part of Vascular Bundle tissue that transports water from soil to plant via the root
system. Made up of Tracheid cells and Vessel members.
Phloem: Part of Vascular Bundle tissue that transport plant produced substances, such as
starch, minerals, etc throughout the plant.
What is a Flower, Ground tissue, Meristematic tissue and Vascular tissue?
Flower: Reproductive organ of Angiosperms which have the ovary, ovule, stamens, petals,
sepals and a receptacle.
Ground Tissue: Tissue that constitutes most of the body of the plants, consists of Parenchyma,
Collenchyma and Sclerenchyma cells.
What is a Bud and what does in grow into?
A bud is a point on a plant where something new is growing. Usually a bud is a place where a new stem
or leaf or flower is growing. Flower buds give rise to flowers.
Know the Different Structures that plants use for storage of starch, such as Stems, Roots, Leaves and their functions. (Potato, Yam (Sweet potato), Corm and a Bulb)
Potato: Underground stems for storage.
Yam (Sweet Potato): Underground root for storage.
Corm: Vertical underground stem, such as that of gladiolas, taro, etc.
Bulb: Specialized leaves for storage, such as onions, leek, etc.
What are the Differences between Monocotyledons and Eudicotyledons? (Handout given)
Know the Differences between Parenchyma, Collenchyma and Sclerenchyma.
Parenchyma: Least specialized cells of ground tissue.
Collemchyma: Cells with thick outer cell wall, such as found in celery.
Sclerenchyma: Cells with thick secondary cell walls. When impregnated with lignin, they are very
tough fibers that are found in the vascular bundle tissues with xylem and phloem. Use to make rope, and other fibrous material.
What is the Meaning of Moneocious and Dioecious?
Moneocious: Having flowers or cones with both unisexual flowers on the same individual tree.
Dioecious: Having male or female flowers or cones in different trees, Male trees, and female trees.
Why would a plant die if the bark were to be girdled?
Secondary Phloem carries food to the roots, if the bark is girdled, no phloem will go to the roots,
roots will die and eventually the tree dies.
In what types of cells in the leaves does photosynthesis takes place?
Mesophyll cells, especially Palisade mesophyll.
Know the Plants' Tropisms and the Differences between them.
Tropisms (Tropus = turning): Plant growth in response toward or away from a directional stimulus.
Gravitropism: Makes stem grow upward, roots grow downward.
Phototropism: Makes plants grow toward light, due to concentration of Auxin.
Thigmotropism: Plants that have tendril, will wrap (coil) around solid objects and grow upward around
them. Usually vines.
Nastic Movements: Immediate movement or response of plants to touch.
Sleep movements: Plant leaves that close at night due to a circadian rhythm.
What are the most common Plant Hormones and their Functions?
Auxins: Growth promoting hormones produced b y apical meristem and found in young leaves and flowers and fruits. Involved in gravitropism and Phototropism.
Giberrelic acid (Giber = to bent): Causes plants to grow faster and bigger, fruits also grow bigger, use commercially to enhance size of fruits.
Cytokinins: (Kineo = to move): Causes cells to divide, thus plants grow bigger also. Use commercially to extend the shell life of cut flowers, and vegetables. Also use in tissue cultures to produce plants (clones) from a cell. Also prevents Senescence (aging).
Abscisic Acid: Produce by any green tissue that contains chloroplast. Called the stress hormone because it maintain seed and bud dormancy and closes stomata. Functions in abscission, or dropping of leaves, fruits and flowers.
Ethylene: A gas hormone that promotes fruit ripening. Also can cause abscission,
What is Phytochrome and how does it affect plant flowering?
Phytochrome is a blue green leaf pigment that is activated by infra red light to turn off flowering or turn on flowering.
What is Vernalization and how does it affect fruit plants?
Vernalization: A plants cold hours requirement in order to flower the following spring.
Know and identify the parts of the Flower.
Pistil (carpel): Contains the stigma, style and ovary (that has the ovule that will become the seed).
Ovary: Contains the seed. The ovary will become the fruit.
Stamens: Anthers (where pollen is produced), filament (what attaches to the anther)
Sepals: The green leaf-like structure that surrounds the flower bud.
Petal: The colorful modified leaves of flowers.
What structures are the results of fertilization?
a. Fruits b. Seeds c. Embryo d. Sporophyte e. Endosperm
Structures that produce spores: Sporangia, Strobili, sorus, sporophyte
Structures that produce gametes: Antheridia and Archegonia, gametophyte
Structures that are Diploid: Sporophyte, ovary, flower, zygote, seed, embryo.
Structures that are Haploid: Gametes, sperm, egg, ovule, gametophyte, spore, pollen grain.
Miller and Levine Biology
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