chapters 7,8 and 9
Terms in this set (68)
words that differ by single phoneme (ex sand/hand bit/bet rag/rat), typically used to help students distinguish specific sounds that change the meanings of words and help students improve their prononciation
the ability to express one's self well in speech. Also can denote the oral skills used in formal education, particularly around reading and writing. Oracy has three main components; language structures, vocabulary and dialogue
a period many new learners of a second language go through before they feel comfortable speaking in the new langauge
total physical response (TPR)
a language teaching approach in which students physically respond to language input (e.g., commands) to internalize the meaning and to demonstrate their comprehension of the language
the period after a question has been posed during which students can think and formulate answers in their head before being required to answer out loud. Particularly important for ELLs who may need extra time to process input and formulate output in their second language
Which of the four language skills do people use most often?
Listening because you use this to respond to what people say and comes before speaking
What makes it especially challenging for ELLs to understand native speakers in everyday speech? (SR)
English speakers do not pronounce individual words separately and distinctly with space between them as for the written words on the page
What 5 aspects of oral language make it difficult for ELLs to fully understand it?
Oral language is full of sentence fragments, run-on sentences, false starts, hesitations, and embedded clauses, which make it challenging for ELLs to fully comprehend
How does oral language differ from written language which requires students to "let it go or try to say it again"?
ELLs cannot rewind real-life conversations to hear an utterance they missed
What things do ELLs need to have to be comprehensible? (SR)
To be comprehensible, an ELL must have adequate pronunciation, a smooth rate and flow of speech, and sufficient vocabulary and grammar as well as a working understanding of the sociocultural context of the speech event
What are speech activities structured by that native speakers know about that ELLs don't?
Different types of speech activities are structured by unwritten norms that are known by native speakers but may be elusive to ELLs (e.g., having a friendly conversation, giving a formal presentation, asking the teacher a question, giving an opinion in class about a reading, agreeing and disagreeing with students in a small group activities) Even in everyday converstations, there are norms governing turn taking, adding a point, changing the subject, and ending the conversation.
What are the reasons the CREDE reviewers give to explain why oral language hasn't been researched as much as other forms of language?
The CREDE reviewers found that "there is virtually no US research on how classroom instruction might best promote more academic aspects of oral language development, and there is very little research on oral language proficiency beyond the elementary grades"
Between what levels of English language proficiency do ELLs make faster progress?
ELLs on average, require several years to develop oral English proficiency and tend to make more rapid progress from lower to middle levels of proficiency and slower progress as they move beyond level 3
What is needed for interactive activities to be beneficial for ELLs and what considerations need to be made?
ELLs need some English proficiency before interaction with native speakers is beneficial.
What can teachers do to encourage "student talk"? (SR)
Teachers can encourage student talk by creating supportive classrooms in which teachers scaffold and support students' oral language development.
Describe the process that ELLs go through to orally answer a question.
If a teacher asks them a question, they may need first need to mentally translate the question, figure out the answer, and then translate the answer before they can respond to the teacher
What can teachers do to build in wait time for ELLs? (SR)
One strategy is to simple wait. Another is to find creative ways to build in wait time. For example, the teacher might as the class a question for which there are multiple answers, and then go down the line of students and have each give an answer in succession
13. What are the ways teachers can adjust their speech to make it more comprehensible for ELLs?
• Slow down
• Speak clearly, but do not over articulate so that the words sound unnatural
• Speak at a normal volume
• Use simple sentence structure
• As students progress increase the complexity of vocab and syntax appropriately
• Emphasize key vocabulary through frequent repetition of these new words
• Avoid idioms
• Avoid cultural references
• Use gestures and images
• Repeat, rephrase and use other types of reinforcements
What types of errors SHOULD teachers correct?
Teachers should only correct those errors students are ready to learn how to correct.
Explain negative feedback vs. positive feedback.
Positive and negative feedback has to do with the way in which the teacher responds to the what a student says and how they correct them. Teachers should only correct students in a positive way by restating what a student said or repeating it so that students can understand as well as the teacher
What are recasts?
Indirect forms of correcting students
List the five productive "talk moves" used to support student thinking and learning around targeted instructional concepts. Describe who does what for each "move" and why or how each supports students' thinking/learning. (SR)
• Revoicing - teacher tries to repeat some or all, of what the student has said. Used when what the student has said is unclear or what other students have said may not be clear to the student, after revoicing the teacher verifies with the student that what they said is correct
• Repeating - asking students to restate someone else's reasoning. Similar to revoicing, only having a student do it in response to another students statement, the first student can confirm if the second student stated their intended meaning correctly
• Reasoning - asking students to apply their own reasoning to someone else's reasoning. The teacher refrains from sharing his or her own opinion, and uses this talk move to elicit respectful discussion of students' ideas. It is important to follow up with "Why?" to develop the students' thinking as they must explain their reason for agreeing or disagreeing
• Adding on - prompting students for further participation. This move increases student engagement in the discussion by asking for further input
• Waiting - using the wait time.
What are three productive talk formats teachers use to configure classroom interactions for instruction?
1 - whole class discussions
2 - small - group discussions
3 - partner talk
What are the 6 steps Marzano and Pickering (2005) suggest for teaching new vocabulary words through direct instruction to ELLs?
1 - Provide a description, explanation, or example of the new term (along with non-linguistic representations such as pictures)
2 - Ask students to restate the description, explanation, or example in their own words
3 - Ask students to construct a picture, symbol or graphic representing the term or phrase
4 - Engage students periodically in activates that help add to their knowledge of the terms in their notebooks
5 - Periodically ask students to discuss the terms with one another
6 - Involve students periodically in games that allow them to play with terms
What are the examples of ways students can demonstrate their understanding using their whole bodies? (SR)
• Students do a thumbs up or thumbs down to respond to a true-false question related to a unit of study
• Students use personal chalk boards or whiteboards to draw or write a response to an oral question and then hold it up when they are finished
• Students point to an illustration or word (or part of a word) in a book that is being read aloud
• Students preform a skit or act out a story
What are some ways students can give oral retellings in content-area classes? (SR)
Oral retellings can be presented in front of the whole class or in pairs or small groups.
With what types of errors should minimal pair work be used?
Discriminate between words that initially may sound the same to them.
According to Wright, what is the "only way to effectively assess ELL students' oral English language proficiency"?
Talk with them and listen to them talk
before, during, after (BDA)
in literacy instruction, refers to strategies used before, during and after reading a text, to maximize students' comprehension. Also referred to as into through and beyond
a form of literacy instruction designed to address an area of need within students' writing development. Typically guided reading lessons start with a mini-lesson on some aspect of writing; students practice the writing principle or strategy they were just taught, under the teachers supervision, and share their final written projects
language experience approach
a literacy instruction approach in which students dictate stories based on their own experiences and teachers transcribe the students' dictations into texts and then use these texts for reading instruction
a form of independent recreational reading that entails reading several books on the same subject, by the same author, or in the same genre
a combination of qualitative and quantitative measures to determine the level of reading difficulty of a book or other text
short mini-lessons focusing on the morphological or semantic properties of words and related sets of words
What makes balanced literacy approaches particularly important for ELLs?
A balanced approach to literacy recognizes the need for some direct instruction in reading skills but emphasizes the importance of providing such instruction in meaningful contexts to ensure that students are able to comprehend and use what they read for authentic purposes
In contrast to listening, what are the things ELLs can do if they do not understand something they read?
ELL's have much more control over what they read than what they hear. They can choose the topic and the level of difficulty of the text they read. If they do not understand something, they can go back and read it again. They can take time to figure out the meaning of new words and structures by looking up words in a dictionary, asking a teacher or a friend, or figuring out the meaning from the context. Also, they will encounter words, phrases and structures that are unlikely to occur in spoken English.
According to the CREDE report, why do ELLs have trouble comprehending what they read?
ELL's phonological skills in English are directly related to word-level skills, but they are not related to reading comprehension. ELL's often learn how to decode English words but have trouble comprehending what the read is the lack of attention to the ELL's oral English language development
What are the ways in which transfer occurs between the first and second languages of ELLs?
• Word recognition skills
• Positive word transfer of cognates
• They use spelling knowledge from the first language to help them spell better
• There is evidence of cross-language transfer of reading comprehension in bilinguals of all ages, even when the languages have different types of alphabets
• Students transfer reading strategies from one language to another
• For writing there is some cross-language connection that is mediated by the first language
Considering the three major shifts for English language arts and literacy represented in the CCSS, provide one specific example of an activity you would use in YOUR content area for each of the three shifts (SR)
1. Shift and activity:
Building Knowledge through content rich non-fiction
- using current events articles
- primary source documents
2. Shift and activity:
Reading, writing and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational.
- DBQ with several articles and primary source documents as well as some poems or short stories that are written as accounts of the event that is being studied
3. Shift and activity:
Regular practice with complex text and its academic language
- reading an academic text and doing a chart with the meanings of new words given and students must use the context in the text to find the correct meaning and the word (possible words are underlined so that students have a word bank to use)
According to Fillmore, what are some specific things teachers must do when using complex texts with ELLs? (SR)
Fillmore argues that ELL's "can learn complex, challenging materials well before they have learned all the intricacy of the grammar of English" and that "what it takes for ELL's to achieve full mastery of academic language is work with precisely the rigorous kinds of complex text that the Common Core requires" She emphasizes language of academic discourse, which is crucial to academic progress beyond grade 3, is learned by all children through literacy"; that is, this type of language is "acquired through meaningful interaction with materials written in such language"
What do teachers need to be clear about with regard to ELLs and reading?
ELL's need balanced approach to literacy instruction the integrates reading, writing, listening and speaking; that teaches reading skills and strategies within the context of meaningful, authentic communication; and that is differentiated to meet the diverse language and literacy needs of students in the class, Teachers need to understand their ELL's reading strengths and challenges, and they need to be clear about what they want their students to know and be able to do with reading as a result of their instruction.
What do content-area teachers have a responsibility to teach ELLs with regard to their reading?
For ELL's, all content area reading is part of their English reading development and all teachers have a responsibility to help ELL's learn to read text associated with the content areas they teach.
Describe a specific activity with which you could use the BDA structure in your content area to support ELLs. (SR)
Give students an article or text describing an event in History such as the Cold War. Introduce the topic in a general sense and teach some common things that they will find in the article. Have students read the article underlining the main points and things that stuck out to them in one color, and things they don't understand or would like to know more about in another color. Then students can share their points out loud and allow for discussion and clarification.
Why should even secondary teachers use read-alouds with their students?
Read-alouds give students access to text beyond their current level of ability. When parents or teachers read aloud, they are demonstrating the connection between oral and written language while modeling fluent reading and oral production of English. Through read-alouds students are exposed to new content and concepts, a variety of language patterns and interesting vocabulary—including concepts they may not have even been exposed to in their everyday lives and patterns and words they may never hear in ordinary oral interaction. Students are also exposed to a variety of genres and different writing styles. Finally, research has shown that the more students are read to, the more they read on their own.
What are some examples of appropriate read-aloud materials for older students? middle (SR)
The book may be selected because it goes along with a current theme, topic or genre being studied in the classroom, because it addresses a particular topic of concern or interest of the students, or because it contains useful vocabulary and language patterns.
What should students be encouraged to do during read-alouds?
Students should be interactive and engaged by the teacher.
If, during a lesson, you realize that students do not understand a word, explain the process you could use to teach a mini-vocabulary lesson. (SR)
While the students read, teachers identify words, phrases and structures the students appear to struggle with and use this information to create mini-lessons.
Explain how and why the use of narrow reading with one of your content area topics could help ELLs improve their English skills. (SR)
Students who read several books on the same topic accumulate a great deal of background knowledge, which facilitates comprehension of each new text read on the topic
According to Wright, what is the simplest postreading activity?
The simplest activity is a discussion involving the whole class or within small groups.
Why, specifically, are graphic organizers helpful for ELLs?
Graphic organizers are beneficial for ELL's because they represent the main ideas and other content visually with just a few words. ELLs can demonstrate their comprehension of the text by completing their own graphic organizers. Graphic organizers also provide an important oral language scaffold for ELLs to talk about and retell stories or summarize expository texts.
Explain how you would use a notemaking guide with your students in your content area and describe what kind of information they can give you and your students.
Notemaking guides are easy to create, and they can be adapted for different text types. Cornell notes is one such form. Teachers can review students' notemaking guides to assess how well they understand main ideas and to learn about the connections students are making. Students can use their notemaking guides to support their discussions of expository texts and to consider multiple perspectives on the same text.
How can the features of digital texts benefit ELLs? (SR)
They are able to be manipulated to help the student, with features including, enlgarged text, a built in dictionary and being able to underline words and phrases
Given the many eBook features available, which ones would you use in your content area? (SR)
• Being able to highlight major events and dates
• Short assessments to tell what the student understood
• Vocabulary words being bolded or italicized
• Enlarged text
• Supplement reading with more activities
a form of assessment that focuses on several aspects of a students' preformance, normally guided by a rubric that includes seperate analytic scales.
a form of assessment in which a student's performance (e.g., a writing sample) is given a single score that represent and overall judgment if the performance as a whole
writing instruction in which the teacher constructs a text in enlarged print (e.g., on chart paper), demonstrating a variety of writing strategies and techniques students are expected to learn and use in their own writing
thematic word chart
a list of key vocabulary related to a theme currently under study
Why is writing so crucial for students' success in school?
Writing is one of the most important skills students learn in school, and like reading, it is crucial to ELLs' academic success because it is one of the principle means by which they self-reflect and display their knowledge and competence across academic subjects
What are the factors to consider with regard to the challenges ELLs may face with writing?
• They begin with an intact home language and a developing knowledge of spoken and written English as a second language
• They are simultaneously acquiring language and composing schools
• They may or may not be familiar with the Roman alphabet and may thus still be learning English orthographic conventions
• They may produce sentence-level errors influenced by their home language or languages
• They may no have the same topic/schematic knowledge as native English-speaking writers because of their home country educational experience
• They may have little or no experience with peer response
• They may have little or no experience using outside sources, paraphrasing and quoting
Why might ELL students' writing "be only as good as their English speaking ability"?
Most ELLs are unlikely to use words in writing they do not know orally, and the language forms they use in writing will typically be limited, at least initially, to the forms they are able to use in conversation.
What does writing require in order for students to be able to do it successfully?
Writing tasks must be appropriate to the age and grade level of students.
According to Hudelson (1989), how does exposure to environmental print support ELLs' writing? middle of p. 226 Further, how would newcomer adolescent ELLs who arrive from a community where they had little to no exposure to environmental print be at an extreme disadvantage when it comes to their participation in your content area class? (SR)
When young ELL's are exposed to environmental print they come to understand that people read different kinds of materials for different purposes, that print carries meaning and that it makes sense. Not having exposure to print can be a disadvantage because it slows the amount of writing that a student is exposed to and so when they see it in a classroom they may not realize the significance of it.
How could you use modeled writing to support your ELLs in your content area? (SR)
They focus on genres and key skills they want their students to learn and use in their own writing. The topics for modeled writing could be tied into themes or topics being studied in class, or even extensions of read-alouds or shared readings.
Give an example of a thematic word wall you could create in your content-area classroom. (SR)
I would use things that you commonly find in articles and in essays or DBQ's such as transition words, synonyms as well as words that we commonly encounter. Also I would make it so that we could add new words that we find interesting as well as ones that are repeated often.
Considering the 5 types of writing in the Collins Writing Program, give SPECIFIC examples of types of writing activities you could assign to your students in YOUR content area (one example for each type) (SR)
1. Capture ideas - students write one draft to get a minimum number of ideas down on paper in a set amount of time. Writing is evaluated as complete or incomplete (Give students a sheet of paper at the end of a unit and ask them to name some of the main points of a time period or event that we are studying)
2. Respond correctly - students write one draft to demonstrate understanding. Writing is evaluated for correctness of ideas. (Ask a few questions on the event or topic out loud or on paper and students respond)
3. Edit for focus correction areas - students write a draft with attention to up to three targeted writing skills (e.g., topic sentence, conclusion, supporting details, content-specific vocabulary, varied sentence structure, punctuation). Writing id evaluated for content and relative FCAs. (DBQ's)
Given the information on pp. 248-253, describe 3 specific activities you could design for your students that would allow your ELLs to "write with technology" in YOUR content area. (SR)
• Online message boards - to discuss something that we are talking about in class, allowing students to respond to each other and feel more confident in what they are saying
• Key Pals - connecting students to other students so that they may learn more about current events and how they work across the nation as well as the world
• Multimedia Presentations - creating an interactive poster that tells students about what happened in an even we are studying
What information is not provided when using holistic scoring methods with ELLs?
In holistic scoring the teacher makes a judgment about the piece of writing as a whole and assigns it a single integrated score or level.
What are two challenges that come with using analytic scoring methods with ELLs?
A particular challenge for teachers is to score student writing with the analytic rubric in a consistent manner to ensure reliability. Another caution with these rubrics is to avoid giving students a rigid outline or formula to ensure their writing gets maximum rubric scores.