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ESRM Midterm 3
Terms in this set (147)
Material which is eliminated or discarded as no longer useful or required.
The designing of products to wear out or to become outdated quickly, so that people will feel a need to replace their possessions frequently.
Municipal Solid Waste
The waste materials produced in homes, businesses, schools, and other places in a community.
The flow of solid waste that is recycled, incinerated, placed in a solid waste landfill, or disposed of in another way.
Discarded electronic equipment such as computers, cell phones, television sets, etc.
The Three Rs
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
How to best lessen the amount of waste. Using less will create less waste.
A waste management approach involving the reduction or elimination of the use of materials that produce an accumulation of solid waste
A waste management approach involving the reduction or elimination of waste by replacing the original source with another, less bad type.
Involves using a resource over and over in the same form.
The process of making new products from materials that were used as another product.
When materials, such as plastic or aluminum, are used to rebuild the same product. An example of this is the use of the aluminum from aluminum cans to produce more aluminum cans.
A recycling system in which a product made from one type of material is recycled into a different type of product (e.g., used newspapers into toilet paper).
People don't sort their recycling and workers do it instead, and decide which parts are more desirable in the market.
The controlled biological decomposition of organic solid waste such as food scraps and yard trimmings. Through composting, organic waste materials are transformed into soil conditioners such as humus or mulch.
Older type of waste management where people would simply dispose of their waste in an open area without protection.
A method of solid waste disposal in which refuse is buried between layers of dirt in order to fill in or reclaim low-lying ground.
Polluted liquid produced by water passing through buried wastes in a landfill.
Disposal sites for non-hazardous solid waste that is spread in layers and compacted to the smallest practical volume. The sites are typically designed with floors made of materials to treat seeping liquids and are covered by soil as the wastes are compacted and deposited into the landfill.
Subpart of a landfill, used to compress landfills more.
A fee charged for disposing of material in a landfill or incinerator.
The burning of solid waste.
The residual nonorganic material that does not combust during incineration.
Residue collected at the bottom of the combustion chamber in a furnace.
The residue collected from a chimney or exhaust pipe of a furnace.
Waste material that is dangerous or potentially harmful to humans or ecosystems
US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Enacted in 1976, is the principal federal law in the United States governing the disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste. Phases out the disposal of hazardous waste.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund) 1980; To facilitate the cleanup of any abandoned or uncontrolled sites containing hazardous substances and to impose strict liability for cleanup costs on potentially responsible parties
Locations in the U.S. designated by federal government to be extremely polluted and requiring extensive, supervised, and subsidized clean up.
Underused or abandoned industrial or commercial properties where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by the presence or potential presence of hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants.
Collecting information on the lifelong impact of a product, all the way from extraction of raw material to design, manufacturing, distribution, use, and ultimate disposal. Aim is to minimize the adverse impact of a particular product at all stages, from cradle to grave.
Integrated Waste Management
An integrated approach to waste management that incorporates a combination of practices to safely and effectively handle municipal solid waste. These practices include source reduction, recycling, composting, waste combustion, and landfilling.
An impaired function of the body with a characteristic set of symptoms.
A disease caused by a pathogen.
A disease that slowly impairs functioning of an organism.
A disease that rapidly impairs the functioning of an organism.
A situation in which a pathogen causes a rapid increase in disease.
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
An infectious disease caused by bacterium Yersinia Pestis, carried by fleas.
An infectious disease caused by one of several species of protists in the genus Plasmodium.
A highly contagious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium Tuberculosis that primarily infects the lungs.
Emergent Infectious Diseases
An infectious disease that has not been previously described or has not been common for at least 20 years.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, an infectious disease caused by HIV
Human immunodeficiency virus. Causes AIDS.
Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever
An infectious disease with high death rates, causes the Ebola virus.
Mad Cow Disease
A disease in which prions mutate into deadly pathogens and slowly damage a cow's nervous system.
Any of various infectious proteins that are abnormal forms of normal cellular proteins, that proliferate by inducing the normal protein to convert to the abnormal form, and that in mammals include pathogenic forms.
A viral infection that is rarely harmful to wild birds, but can cause serious illness in domesticated birds and humans.
West Nile Virus
A virus transmitted to humans from birds from mosquito bites which can turn into West Nile Fever, a potentially lethal disease.
A toxin that disrupts the nervous system of animals.
Chemicals that cause cancer.
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation. Carcinogens that cause mutations is this.
Agents that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Chemical pollutants that have the potential to substitute for, or interfere with, natural hormones.
Dose Response Studies
Expose plants or animals to different amounts of a chemical and then observe a variety of possible responses including mortality or changes in behavior or reproduction.
Studies that last for only 1 to 4 days in which scientists measure mortality of organisms as a response to a dose of a chemical.
The point at which 50 percent of the test organisms die from a toxin.
The point at which 50 percent of the test organisms show a negative effect from a toxin.
The effects of an environmental hazard that are not lethal, but which may impair an organism's behavior, physiology, or reproduction.
An experiment that exposes organisms to an environmental hazard for a long duration.
The branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality.
A study that monitors people who have been exposed to an environmental hazard at some time in the past.
Monitor people who might become exposed to harmful chemicals in the future.
Risks that cause more harm than expected based on individual risks.
Routes of Exposure
The way an individual might come into contact with an environmental hazard.
A measure of how much solute can dissolve in a given solvent at a given temperature.
Increase in concentration of certain stable chemicals (for example, heavy metals or fat-soluble pesticides) in successively higher trophic levels of a food chain or web.
How long the chemical remains in the environment.
Factors or conditions in the environment that increase the risk of human injury, disease, or death.
Qualitative Risk Assessment
Assessment of risk probability and its impact based on subjective judgment.
Quantitative Risk Assessment
Estimates risk as probability of loss and evaluated such probability to make decisions and communicate results, require data and/or modeling.
Risk = Probability of Exposure x Probability of being harmed if exposed
Principle based on the philosophy that a potential hazard should not be considered an actual hazard until the scientific data definitively demonstrate that it actually causes harm.
If there is a link b/t hazard and potential cause, even if scientific data cannot indicate the cause, action must be taken to prevent the hazard.
At the convention, a group of 127 nations produced a list of 12 chemicals to be banned, phased out, or reduced. Most were endocrine disruptors.
Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals
A 2007 agreement among the nations of the EU about regulation of chemicals and action to be taken.
The death of the last member of a species.
The negative reproductive consequences for a population associated with having a high frequency of homozygous individuals possessing harmful recessive alleles.
At serious risk of extinction.
A repository where seeds, representing many different varieties of domestic crops or other species, are preserved.
Species which have no reliable data to assess their status; they may be increasing, decreasing, or stable as defined by the IUCN.
A species that could become endangered in the near future.
Species that are very likely to become threatened in the future.
Least Concern Species
Types of species that are wide-spread and abundant.
Type of species that humans have introduced to an area where it does not naturally occur. Exotic Species.
Species that normally live and thrive in a particular ecosystem.
An introduced species that spreads out and often has harmful ecological effects on other species or ecosystems because they do not have much competition.
A conservation law prohibiting the transportation of illegally captured or prohibited animals across state lines. It was the first federal law protecting wildlife, and is still in effect, though it has been revised several times. Today the law is primarily used to prevent the importation or spread of potentially dangerous non-native species
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
(CITES) lists species that cannot be commercially traded as live specimens or wildlife products.
Single Species Approach
A conservation strategy that focuses on protecting one particular species.
Marine Mammal Protection Act
Seeks to protect whales, dolphins, sea lions, seals, manatees, and other species of marine mammals, many of which remain threatened or endangered. The law requires wildlife agencies to review any activity—for example, the use of underwater explosives or high-intensity active sonar—that has the potential to "harass" or kill these animals in the wild. The law is our nation's leading instrument for the conservation of these species and is an international model for such laws.
Endangered Species Act
(1973) identifies threatened and endangered species in the U.S., and puts their protection ahead of economic considerations.
The convention on Biological Diversity
International treaty commits countries to draw up national strategies for conservation, protect ecosystem and individual species, and to take steps to restore degraded areas. 3 main goals are conservation, sustainability, and equal use.
A conservation strategy that focuses on protecting the ecosystem as a whole in an effort to protect the species that live there.
Interacting groups of populations of the same species that are dispersed among patchy habitats but have occasional migration and interaction. Pertains to ecosystem approach of conservation.
Habitat that occurs with two different communities come together, typically forming an abrupt transition.
Designated by the UN, these are regions intended to maintain biodiversity and evaluate techniques for sustainable human development while maintaining local cultural values.
The transformations or modifications of both physical and biological components of the Earth System through time.
Global Climate Change
A broad term that refers to changes in the earth's climate mostly as a result of changes in temperature and precipitation.
The warming of the oceans, landmasses, and atmosphere of Earth; an aspect of global climate change.
The Greenhouse Effect
greenhouse gases = prevent IR from escaping, trap Ir direct it back to Earth's surface, which gases = water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane.
Gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and ozone in the atmosphere which are involved in the greenhouse effect. Also CFCs.
Greenhouse Warming Potential
Estimates how much a molecule of any compound can contribute to global warming over a period of 100 years relative to a molecule of CO2. Calculates based on persistence and effectiveness.
Signed in 1997 and went into effect in 2005, it was an extension of the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change (UNFCC). The UNFCC commits states to reduce CO2 emissions upon the bases that (1) climate change exits and (2) it is caused by human CO2 emissions.
The removal and storage of carbon from the atmosphere in carbon sinks (such as oceans, forests or soils) through biogeochimcal processes.
Clean Air Act
1970- law that established national standards for states, strict auto emissions guidelines, and regulations, which set air pollution standardds for private industry.
The status of being healthy, happy, and prosperous.
The study of how humans allocate scarce resources in the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
A curve that shows the relationship between the price of a product and the quantity of the product supplied.
A graph of the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity demanded.
The point at which the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied.
Gross Domestic Product
The total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country during a specific time period, usually one year.
Genuine progress indicator, a metric that has been suggested to replace, or supplement, gross domestic product (GDP) as a measure of economic growth. GPI is designed to take fuller account of the health of a nation's economy by incorporating environmental and social factors which are not measured by GDP.
The Kuznets Curve
Environmental quality declines with initial growth in wealth (GDP), but then improves as nations become even wealthier.
The communication of specific plans, designs, or educational programs necessary for the use of new technologies from one society or class to another. Helps nations advance technologically when they don't have the assets. Kuznets curve doesn't apply to this situation.
The situation in which less developed countries use newer technology without first using the precursor technology. Kuznets curve doesn't apply to this situation.
The practice of loaning small amounts of money to help people in less developed countries start small businesses.
Refers to an expanded meaning of the factor of production land, including everything that is included in land plus additional natural resources occurring naturally in the environment such as air, biodiversity, soil quality, the ozone layer, and the global climate.
The knowledge and skills a person possesses.
Refers to all goods and services that humans produce.
When an economic system does not appropriately account for all costs.
A subfield of economics that examines costs and benefits of various policies and regulations related to environmental degradation.
The study of economics as a component of ecological systems.
Assigning monetary value to seemingly intangible benefits and natural capital.
Set of assumptions and beliefs about how people think the world works, what they think their role in the world should be, and what they believe is right and wrong environmental behavior.
A worldview that focuses on human welfare and well-being.
A philosophy that holds that humans have a unique responsibility to manage, care for, and improve nature. A subset of anthropocentric worldveiw.
A worldview that considers human beings to be just one of many species on Earth, all of which have equal intrinsic value.
Philosophy or perspective that places intrinsic value on all living organisms and their natural environment, regardless of their perceived usefulness or importance to human beings
An international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. It was founded in 1945 at the signing of the United Nations Charter by 50 countries, replacing the League of Nations, founded in 1919.
The United Nations Environment Programme established in 1972, is the voice for the environment within the United Nations system. UNEP acts as a catalyst, advocate, educator and facilitator to promote the wise use and sustainable development of the global environment.
The World Bank
The World Bank is a United Nations international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs. A member of the United Nations Development Group,main aims are to provide aid and advice to developing countries, as well as reducing poverty levels and encouraging and safeguarding international investment.
World Health Organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
United Nations Development Programme: works to eradicate poverty and reduce inequalities through the sustainable development of nations.
Advocates for change and connects countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; responsible for managing federal efforts to control air and water pollution, radiation and pesticide hazards, environmental research, hazardous waste, and solid-solid waste disposal.
Occupation Safety and Health Administration: A government organization whose mission is to assure the safety and health of America's workers by setting and enforcing standards; providing training, outreach, and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging continual improvement in workplace safety and health.
Department of Energy, concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
Human Development Index: A tool developed by the United Nations to measure and rank countries' levels of social and economic development based on four criteria: Life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling and gross national income per capita.
Human Poverty Index, an indication of the standard of living in a country, developed by the United Nations (UN) to complement the Human Development Index (HDI) .
National Environmental Policy Act
Authorized the Council on Environmental Quality as the oversight board for general conditions; directs federal agencies to take environmental consequences into account in decision making; requires EIP statement be prepared for every major federal project having environmental impact.
Occupational Safety and Health Act
Act that established the first national policy for safety and health and continues to deliver standards that employers must meet to guarantee the health and safety of their employees.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, regulates handling of wastes from "cradle to grave"; rules for landfills, underground storage tanks, hazardous waste disposal; permits to process, treat or dispose of hazardous wastes; record keeping.
An approach that involves the government imposing quantitative limits on the amount of pollution firms are allowed to emit or requiring firms to install specific pollution control devices.
A program that constructs financial and other incentives for lowering emissions, based on profits and benefits.
A levy on environmentally harmful activities and products aimed at providing a market-based incentive to correct for market failure.
Triple Bottom Line
Economic, social, and environmental impact metrics used to determine an organization's success.
The world's time-bound and quantified targets for addressing extreme poverty in its many dimensions-income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and exclusion-while promoting gender equality, education, and environmental sustainability.
Proportionate and equitable distribution of environmental benefits and risks among diverse economic and cultural communities.
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