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the selling of Church offices


relating to a style of church architecture that developed in medieval Europe, featuring ribbed vaults, stained glass windows, flying buttresses, pointed arches and tall spires.


Holy war


The leader of the Muslims in the third crusade and captured Jerusalem in 1187.

Richard the Lion Hearted

He joined the Third Crusade when he heard that Jerusalem had fallen to the Muslims. He left others to rule England in his place.


The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.


a church court set up to try people accused of heresy

Three-field system

a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.


an organization of people in the same craft or trade

Commercial Revolution

the business revolution that occurred in Europe after the Middle Ages


A medieval merchant-class town dweller.


everyday language of ordinary people


scholars who gathered and taught at medieval European universities.

William the Conqueror

duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England

Henry II

In 1154, He became king of England, broadened the system of royal justice by expanding accepted customs into law and establishing royal courts. Married to Eleanor of Aquitaine, father of King John

common law

a legal system based on custom and court rulings


a body of representatives that makes laws for a nation

Magna Carta

This document, signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights

Great Schism

a division in the medieval Roman Catholic Church, during which rival popes were established in Avignon and in Rome.

John Wycliffe

He preached that Jesus Christ, not the pope, was the head of the Church.

Jan Hus

He taught that the authority of the Bible was higher than that of the Pope. He was excommunicated and burned at the stake.

Bubonic Plague

Also called the Black Death was a deadly disease that spread through Europe and killed one out of every three people

Hundred Years War

Conflict between England and France from 1337 to 1453; fought over the control France by an English King.

Joan of Arc

French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king, she was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake

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