61 terms

greece chapter 5

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tyrants
rulers who appeal to common people for support to seize control of the gov't
myth
the greeks often explained a mystery of nature through a traditional story, traditional stories about the gods and goddesses
to entertain, teach a moral/lesson, to explain mysteries of nature, to explain the power of human passion, to explain historical events
purpose of myths
polis
city-state made up of city and surrounding countryside
acropolis
fortified hilltop where citizens gathered to discuss city gov't
agora
market place
monarchy
type of government where king rules
aristocracy
type of government ruled by a small group of noble, land-owning families (wealthy)
oligarchy
ruled by few powerful people (military)
dacro
athenian leader who developed a legal code based on the idea that everyone, rich or poor, were = under the law, dealt harshly with criminals, upheld debt slavery
direct democracy
type of government where people directly make decisions
ex. athens
democracy
athens developed a form of government in which people rule
solon
athenian leader who outlawed debt slavery, organized athenians into 4 social classes, any citizen could bring charges against wrongdoers
cleisthenes
athenian leader who broke up power of nobility by organizing citizens into 10 groups based on where they lived not wealth, assembly more powerful by allowing all citizens to submit laws for debate and passage, council of 500, reforms allowed athenian citizens to participate in limited democracy, but only male adults were considered citizens
male, born free, had athenian parents, and owned land
the "athenian citizen"
to make food citizens
goal of education in athens
oligarchy
what type of government was sparta?
peleponnesus
southern part of greece that contained sparta
helots
peasants forced to work on the land they worked
messenia
conquered by sparta, revolted and almost won, made sparta focused on becoming military state
strengthen athenian democracy, hold and strengthen athenian empire, glorify athens
pericles' three goals for athens
crossing of hellespont
persians built a bridge to cross the hellespont to greece
battle of thermopylae
leonidas and 300 were killed and Spartans gave greeks time to get back to athens before the persians did to protect their city
battle of salamis
sea battle in which greeks won
tragedy
a serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war, and betrayal, featured a main character who was gifted but had downfall
parthenon
greek structure built by phidias to honor athena
expression of civic pride and tribute to the gods
what did athenian theater represent?
homer
the greek epic the iliad was written by
hubris
excessive pride
comedy
had scenes w/ crude humor and slapstick situations, playwrights made fun of politics and respected people and ideas of the time, demonstrated freedom of expression
athenians prodded them on b/c they thought they would win
why did athens and sparta begin the peloponnesian war?
a: stronger navy
s: stronger army and location meant no sea attacks
athens and sparta strengths
greece
plague struck ________ killing 1/3 of population, including pericles
sparta
who won the peloponnesian war?
philosophers
great thinkers, "lovers of wisdom"
sophists
questioned people's unexamined beliefs and ideas about justice and other traditional values, questioned existence of greek gods
socrates
greek philosopher who taught by questions, questioned moral character, provided basis for scientific method, taught plato
plato
student of socrates, teacher of aristotle, wrote the republic- his vision of a perfectly governed society ruled by philosophers
aristotle
questioned nature of the world and human belief, teacher of alexander the great, student of plato, opened school in athens called the lyceum
philosophy
the study of ideas about knowledge, truth, the nature, and meaning of life, etc.
macedonia
kingdom of north greece, rugged terrain; cold climate, thought of themselves as greeks but greeks looked down on them
alexander the great
son of king philip II of macedonia and succeeded his father at age 20, pupil of aristotle, military genius known for leadership skills, conquered vast area including the persian empire and egypt (never lost a battle for 15 years), ruled empire by building greek-style cities, honoring greek, persian, and egyptian gods, respecting various cultures, died at age 32 w fever but left no successor so empire fell apart
hellenistic culture
culture that emerged as a result of blending greek, egyptian, and persian cultures
koine
"common", language spoken throughout the hellenistic world
Alexandria (egypt)
egyptian city founded by alexander the great, center of commerce and culture in the hellenistic world, attractions: library, museum
pharos
giant lighthouse, 450-600 ft. in height, one of 7 wonders of the ancient world, destroyed by earthquake
stoicism
belief that human desires, power, and wealth are dangerous
focus on what you can control
founded by zeno
epicureanism
founded by epicurus
live each day like it is your last
the olympics
athletic competion with religious observances held in honor of zeus, king of the gods
hippodrome
stadium for equestrian events
the land- small streams and mountains bad for farming and divided the land into small regions with individual communities and hard to travel, the seas- transportation and trade and strong navy, the climate- moderate and conductive to outdoor living
how does geography shape greek life?
king philip II of macedonia
noticed greek was vulnerable, developed well-trained, professional army organized in phalanx, and after successful military campaigns in the north invaded and ended greece's independence, murdered by bodyguard
leonidas
...
archimedes
the scientist who arrived at a fairly accurate calculation of pi
aristarchus
astronomer who argued that the sun is much larger than the earth and the planets revolve around the sun
colossus of rhodes
brown statue that was more than 100 feet high; one of the tallest statues of the ancient world
euclid
mathematician whose work is still the basis for courses in geometry; best known work was the textbook "elements"
warlike, craftsmen, valued trade and had form of writing
mycenaean civilization characteristics
perspective/classical art
the greek values of harmony, order, balance, and proportion in art served as the standard for
thucydides
greatest historian of classical age
battle of chaeronea
battle that ended greek independence