Amh2020 ch 21
Terms in this set (39)
- Roosevelt declared to temporarily halt all bank operations and called Congress into a
- March 9, 1933
Emergency Banking Act
- provided funds to shore up threatened institutions
- measures that followed this included the Glass-Steagall Act which barred commercial
banks from becoming involved in the buying and selling of stocks and created the FDIC
Period of the first three months of Roosevelts administration that held a flurry of legislation
National Recovery Administration
- Established by the National Industrial Recovery Act passed during the Hundred Days
- Worked with groups of business leaders to establish industry codes that set standards for
output prices and working conditions
- Headed by Hugh S. Johnson
- Soon became corrupt as it was controlled by big business leaders- they drove up prices
and laid off workers and limited production and divide markets among themselves
- Produced neither economic recovery nor peace between employers and workers
Civilian Conservation Corp.
- set young men to work on projects life forest preservation, flood control and the
improvement of national parks and wildlife preserves
- received government wages of $30/month
Public Works Administration
- $3.3 bil.; built roads, schools, hospitals and other public facilities
- Areas of Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas and Colorado that were affected by a period on
unusually dry weather - century's most severe drought
- Winds blew much of the soil away
Federal Housing Administration
- Insured millions of long term mortgages issued by private banks
Congress of Industrial Organizations
- John L Lewis led a walkout when the AFL convention refused the creation of unions of
- It aimed to secure economic freedom and industrial democracy - a fair share in the
wealth produced by their labor and voice in determining the conditions under which they
- Helped to stabilize a chaotic employment situation and offered members a sense of
dignity and freedom
- Had been pioneered by the IWW 30 yrs. earlier
- Instead of walking out and allowing employers to bring in strikebreakers, the workers halted production but remained inside
Share Our Wealth movement
- Launched by Huey Long
- Slogan: "Every Man a King"
- Called for the confiscation of most of the wealth of the richest Americans in order to
finance an immediate grant of $5000 and a guaranteed job and annual income for all
Works Progress Administration
- Hired some 3 million Americans each year until it ended in 1943
- Constructed thousands of public buildings and bridges, more than 500,000 miles of roads
and 600 airports
- Built stadiums, swimming pools, and sewage treatment plants
- Most famous projects were in the arts:
- Set hundreds of artists to work decoration public buildings with murals
- hired writers to produce local histories and guidebooks and record recollections of ordinary Americans, including hundreds of former slaves
Social Security Act
- Embodied FDR's conviction that the national government had a responsibility to ensure
the material well-being of ordinary Americans
- Created a system of unemployment insurance, old age pensions, and aid to the disabled,
elderly poor, and families with dependent children
- Term that originated in Britain during WWII to refer to a system of income assistance, health coverage, and social services for all citizens
- American version - more decentralized, involved lower levels of public spending and covered fewer citizens
- FDR proposed that the president be allowed to appoint new justices for each one who
remained on the Court past aged 70 - on the pretext that several members were too old to
perform their functions
- Faced with the threat - the Court suddenly revealed a new willingness to support
- Set by the Fair Labor Standards Act finally passed in 1938
- 40 cents hourly
Indian New Deal
- Commissioner of Indian Affairs John Collier
- Ended the policy of forced assimilation and allowed Indians unprecedented cultural
- Replaced boarding schools with schools on reservations and dramatically increased
spending on Indian health
- Passage of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
- ended the policy of "allotment" which divided up Indian lands into small plots
for individual families and selling off the rest
- Federal government recognized Indians right to govern their own affairs
A period of time during the mid-1930s when the Communist Party sought to ally itself
with socialists and New Dealers in movements for social change, urging reform of the
capitalist system rather than revolution
- Nine young black men arrested for the rape of two white women in Alabama in 1931
- The case had very weak evidence and one of the victims recanted—however three times
they were put on trial and convicted
House Un-American Activities Committee
- established by the House of Representatives to investigate disloyalty
- expansive definition of "un-American" included communists, labor radicals, and the left
- Passed in 1940
- Made it a federal crime to "teach, advocate, or encourage" the overthrow of the
What were the major policy initiatives of the New Deal in the Hundred Days?
- NRA: National Recovery Administration
-Federal Emergency Relief Foundation: make grants to local agencies that aided those impoverished by the Depression
-FDR preferred to create temporary jobs to combat unemployment while improving the nation's infrastructure
-CCC: Civilian Conservation Corps
-PWA: Public Works Administration
-CWA: Civil Works Admin.: employed more than 4 million in construction of highways,
tunnels, courthouses and airports
- AAA: Agricultural Adjustment Act: authorized the federal government to try to raise
farm prices by setting production quotas for major crops and paying farmers to plant less
Who were the main proponents of economic justice in the 1930s, and what measures did they advocate?
- FDR - New Deal
- Louis Brandeis - advised Woodrow Wilson during the 1912 campaign and now offered
political advice to FDR
- he believed that large corporations wielded excessive power and had contributed to the Depression by keeping prices artificially high and failing to increase workers' purchasing power
- Huey Long and Francis Townsend - idea that the lack of consumer demand caused the Depression, advocated for redistribution of wealth to increase purchasing power of common Americans
What were the major initiatives of the Second New Deal?
- levied a highly publicized tax on large fortunes and corporate profits
- REA: Rural Electrification Agency: bring power to homes that lacked it- 80% of farms were without electricity in 1934 - enable more Americans to purchase household appliances
- Tried to promote soil conservation and family farming - belief that the country would never achieve prosperity as long as farmers standard of living lagged behind that of city dwellers - farmers received federal assistance in reducing soil loss in their fields
- still mainly only benefitting landowners
- WPA: Workers Progress Administration
- Wagner Act: empowered the National Labor Relations Board to supervise elections in which employees voted on union representation
- outlawed unfair labor practices: firing and blacklisting union organizers
- Social Security Act
How did the New Deal recast the meaning of American freedom?
- FDR reclaimed the word freedom and defined it as "greater security for the average man"
as opposed to the prior meaning reflecting "liberty of contract" which served the interests
of the privileged few
- FDR consistently linked freedom with economic security - many New Deal initiatives
were aimed at securing economic security for common American citizens
How did New Deal benefits apply to women and minorities?
- racist southern Democrats controlled most of Congress
-didn't benefit much from the programs- they were cut and administered in a way that excluded non-whites
- social security excluded agricultural and domestic workers which made up a majority of the black population
-Mexican-Americans worked in grom conditions in California's vegetable and fruit fields- again Wagner and Social Security acts did not apply to agricultural laborers
- most New Deal programs did not exclude women but the idea of the male- headed household powerfully shaped social policy
- the depression inspired widespread demands for women to remove themselves from the labor force to make room for unemployed men
- the CCC restricted its camps to only men
- since paying taxes on wages made you eligible for taxes it left many women uncovered because they did not work outside the home
How did the Popular Front influence American culture in the 1930s?
- Through theatre, film and dance the Popular Front vision of American society sank deep
-Their ideas were that social and economic radicalism defined true Americanism -Ethnic and racial diversity was the glory of American society
- Art about the people -- photographs of migrant workers and sharecroppers—and art crated by the people - black spirituals—came to be seen as genuine Americanism
- Films celebrated populist figures who challenged and defeated corrupt businessmen and politicians
- Moved beyond New Deal liberalism on condemning racism as incompatible with true Americanism
Discuss how regional development such as the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Columbia River project reflected broader changes in American life during the New Deal.
- The TVA built a series of dams to prevent floods and deforestation and provide cheap
electrical power for homes and factories in the region - Many families in this region still
lived in isolated log cabins
- The Columbia River project created thousands of jobs for the unemployed and the
network of dams crated produced abundant cheap power to the region
What actions did President Roosevelt and Congress take to help the banking system recover as well as to reform how it operated in the long run?
- Roosevelt called a "banking holiday" and called Congress into a special session in which
they rushed to pass the Emergency Banking Act. This Act provided funds to help keep
threatened institutions from going bankrupt.
- Roosevelt's administration also passed the Glass-Steagall Act which barred commercial
banks from buying and selling stocks. This prevented many of the irresponsible practices that had contributed to the stock market crash. This law also established The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) which insures the accounts of individuals depositing money into banks.
How did the actions of the AAA benefit many farmers, injure others, and provoke attacks by conservatives?
- authorized the federal government to try to raise farm prices by setting production quotas for major crops and paying farmers to plant less
- succeeded in significantly raising farm prices and incomes
- benefits only went to property owning farmers - ignored the large number of farmers who worked on lands owned by others
-decreasing in growing crops encouraged the eviction of thousands of poor tenants and sharecroppers
Explain what labor did in the 1930s to secure "economic freedom and industrial democracy" for American workers.
- Laborers demanded an end to employers' arbitrary power in the workplace, basic civil
liberties for workers- right to picket, distribute literature and meet to discuss grievances
- Labors great Upheaval- era of unprecedented militancy- exploded in 1935
-there was over 2000 strikes
-violent confrontations between workers and local police
-strike of 400,000 textile workers demanding recognition of the United Textile Workers
- Sit-down strikes
- Organized the CIO: Congress of Industrial Organizations
How did the emphasis of the Second New Deal differ from that of the First New Deal?
- The emphasis of the second new deal was economic security
- Ideas that the lack of consumer demand caused the Depression - people concluded that
the government should not try to plan business recovery but should try to redistribute the
national income so as to maintain purchasing power in the consumer economy
- Attacked the problem of weak demand and economic inequality
How did the entrenched power of southern white conservatives limit African Americans' ability to enjoy the full benefits of the New Deal and eliminate racial violence and discrimination?
- After the souths blacks lost the right to vote around the turn of the century, Democrats
enjoyed a political monopoly in the region
- Democratic members were elected to congress again and again and through their
insistence, the social security law excluded agricultural and domestic workers- the largest
categories of black employment
- Blacks who did receive government aid were discriminated against and stigmatized as
recipients of unearned government assistance
Analyze the effects of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 on Native Americans.
- Got rid of allotment - Tribal land could no longer be sold
- Schools on reservations
- Indian reservations were still extremely poor and the effects of switching from
assimilated boarding schools to reservation schools resulted in decreases in education funding
Explain how New Deal programs contributed to the stigma of blacks as welfare dependent.
- Public assistance programs established by social security, especially aid to dependent
children and poor elderly, were open to all Americans who could demonstrate financial need. But they set benefits at extremely low levels and authorized states to determine eligibility standards including "moral" behavior as defined by local authorities
- As a result public assistance programs allowed for widespread discrimination of the distribution of its benefits - recipients bore the stigma of dependency on government handouts
- The situation stigmatized blacks as recipients of unearned government assistance
How did the New Deal build on traditional ideas about the importance of home ownership to Americans, and how did it change Americans' ability to own their own homes?
- Roosevelt spoke of "the security of the home" as a fundamental right
- Home Owners Loan Corporation and Federal Housing Administration
- Government built thousands of units of low-rent housing
- It became cheaper for most Americans to buy single-family homes than to rent
What were the major characteristics of liberalism by 1939?
- Limited government and free-market economics
- FDR chose to employ liberalism to describe a large, active, socially conscious state
Liberalism in 1939 had a focus on the general welfare (stemming from the continuing Great Depression), equality in the workplace and society, full legalization of labor unions (the source of much economic dispute until then), price controls and minimum wage standards, and the continuing of private company control (Roosevelt was on record in opposition to socialism, and during the New Deal only one program specifically came directly under government control).
Why in the 1930s, did the federal government determine it was the right time to rethink policies towards Native Peoples?
- In the late 1920s people were beginning to reexamine governments political intentions -
stemmed from Progressive Era
- There was the Problem of Indian Administration -- boarding schools and assimilation
efforts were not working and Native Americans were part to the people experiencing great poverty going on across the nation
Who was John Collier and why did he believe the federal government should change what it was doing with regards to Native Peoples in the 1930s?
- John Collier was an immigrant reformer who emphasized retaining immigrant culture
- Traveled to Taos, New Mexico where he experienced Indian culture and the issues its
members faced and concluded he could combine the ideas of immigration reform with Indian affairs
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