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a tax on imports or exports


a storage place for weapons and ammunition


an extreme shortage of food


people who move into a country to live


a person who leaves a country or region to live elsewhere

trade unions

organization of workers with the same trade or skill


money for investment


an unfair opinion not based on facts


unfair treatment of a group; unequal treatment because of a person's race, religion, ethnic background or place of birth


a person who favors those in his country and is opposed to immigrants


a person who strongly favors doing away with slavery


a person who sacrifices his or her life for a principle or cause


runaway or trying to run away


southern owner of a small farm who did not have slaves

tenant farmers

farmer who works land owned by another and pays rent either in cash or crops

slave codes

the laws passed in the southern states that controlled and restricted enslaved people

underground railroad

a system that helped enslaved african americans follow a network of escape routes out of the south to freedom in the north


exaggerated loyalty to a region

popular sovereignty

political theory that people living in a territory had the right to decide by voting if slavery would be allowed there

Kansas-Nebraska Act

proposed by Stephen Douglas to repeal the Missouri Act so people of Kansas and Nebraska could have popular sovereignty

Bleeding Kansas

what Kansas was known as because of the fighting over slavery

border ruffians

Missourians who travelled in armed groups to vote in Kansas's election for slavery

Republican party

antislavery whigs and democrats who joined with free-soilers; formed to prohibit slavery in territories; supported Abraham Lincoln

Fort Sumpter

a US fort near Charleston Harbor where the Confederates fired the first shots starting the Civil War

Confederate States of America

what the states that seceded were known as

civil war

war between citizens of a same nation


to leave the Union

Elias Howe

invented the sewing machine

Robert Fulton

invented the steamboat

Samuel Morse

invented the telegraph

John Deere

invented the steel-tipped plow

Eli Whitney

invented the cotton gin

Nat Turner

a rebellious slave who led a violent rampage in Virginia

Harriet Tubman

an escaped slave who led over 300 slaves to freedom

Frederick Douglass

an escaped slave who became an important abolitionist speaker

Stephen A Douglas

"little giant"; ran against Lincoln for Senator of Illinois and president; believed in popular sovereignty

Harriet Beecher Stowe

wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin" which showed slavery as a cruel, brutal system

Dred Scott

sued for his freedom because moved to a free state, but was said to be property

Abraham Lincoln

16th president of the US; ran against Douglas for senator of Illinois and president; opposed slavery

John Brown

abolitionist who led attack on Pottawatomie Creek; tried to seize federal arsenal then tried, found guilty, and sentenced to hang

John Breckinridge

Southern Democrat candidate

John Bell

Constitutional Union party candidate

Jefferson Davis

president of Confederate States of America

Ireland and Germany

two countries where many immigrants came from


main topic of Lincoln-Douglas debates


"king" crop of the south

4 years

how long did the Civil War last?

Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee

name 11 states that seceded

Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware

name 5 border states

Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York

name 5 of the Union states

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