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SOC 220 Exam 3
Terms in this set (21)
-Live births per 1000 of the population per year
One child policy
China penalized families with more than one child...
-Social Maintenence Fee
-Rich can afford what other can't
-Food crises are less related to the absence of food rather than the inability to buy it
-Those with $$ will hoard and keep it form others
-"Whilst China gets too much credit for it's authoritarian measures, it gets far too little credit for other supportive policies it has followed that helped cut the birth rate"
-1798 - wrote an essay on population stating that growth in population will outpace our capacity to clothe, feed and shelter
-Without controls on population growth, it will be humanities undoing
-Future is bleak, especially for poorest classes
-Spreading out of economic development into adjoining cities
-With or without population growth
-Agricultural land becomes degraded
-Millions will abandon rural dwellings
-More employment and food in the cities
Urban and Ecological Footprints
Sprawl - greater number of ozone exceedances (more than what is allowed)
Most negative enviro indicators attributed to urbanization as result of sprawl (random build up, bad infrastructure, dangerous...)
-Current world population is 7 billion. It is projected to be 9 billion by 2050.
-Population growth and C02 growth aren't proportional
-10 million people or more.
-There were 20 in 2005, all but 5 are located in developing countries
Services than can include educational, social, emotional and medical services that empower individuals to make choices around production
-One child policy
-Social and economic transformations
-Urbanization - encouraging limits to family size
-Eco development is the best contraceptive
Family Planning Part 2
-Socioeconomic development - economic growth alone is insufficient
-Improvements in literacy rates, rates of school enrollment, gender equity, women empowerment, health care and social institutions.
-Meeting needs of sexual and reproductive health
-Reduce fertility amongst those that have the biggest carbon footprint
Global Food System
-Crop production slowing by 2050.
-First time in decades that crop yields for rice, wheat and soybeans will grow slower than population.
-Only take care of half of the worlds needs by 2050
-Food waste amounts to roughly 50%
Unlikely because governments hoard food.
Term population - not just humans
Food and Ag Organization...
-Must produce 2x as much protein by 2050 to keep up with demands
-By 2050, livestock consuming enough to feed 4 billion people
-25% of all trips within a mile of home
-40% of all trips within 2 miles of home
-50% of working population commutes 5 miles or less
-60% of car pollution happens in the first few minutes of the engine being on
-We drive because our urban environments require us to, many environments leave us with little choice.
Transportation Fast Facts
-More than 1 billion vehicles
-Globally we drive more than 18 billion miles per day
-Road accidents cause 1.3 million deaths and 50 million injuries costing 100 billion annually
-In the US, transportation accounts for 32% of CO2 emissions, 60% is burning of gasoline.
-Average cost to own/operate a car per year is $8776
Sociological Implication of Cars
Cars helped create urban conditions that made them necessary which lead to ...
-Obesity: Walking 1k per day lowers obesity by 4.8%. One hour in a car is a 6% increase
-1.2 million people die globally on roads/year
-20-50 million suffer non-fatal injuries
-90% of road deaths occur in non affluent
-Cyclists, pedestrians, users of 2 wheel vehicles are the most vulnerable.
Discontinues in an organism preferred environment
-Disastrous effects transportation systems can have on wildlife systems (chunking up of wildlife systems without wildlife corridors)
-Isolated plants and wildlife on that "island" at risk of going extinct
-Island populations: Isolated. Prone to disease, overhunting, floods and fires.
-Who we know matters as much as what we know
-Social networks and the norms of trust and reciprocity that come with frequent social interaction
-Social capital makes working with others easier, enhances information flow, encourages cooperative behavior and reduces the likelihood of unproductive defensive behaviors (locking doors, not walking at night or talking to people in public)
-Darkside: Community exclusion, groupthink, Ex... gated communities
-Multimodality - multiple modes to choose from
-Intermodality - the ability to make efficient connections between modes (rarely as attractive as a car)
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