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Greek in the dark and Archaic Ages

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Dorians
warlike northern Greeks
Peloponnesus
southernmost part of Greece
Argos
was gained by Temenus, grandchild of Hercules, when Peloponnesus was divided in 3
Messenia
was gained by Messenia, grandchild of Hercules, when Peloponnesus was divided in 3
Laconia
was gained by the sons of Aristomdemus when Peloponnesus was divided in 3
Athens
City in Eastern Greece
Ionia
the western coastal area of Anatolia
Subsistence Economy
where all resources necessary for survival were locally produced
Phratry
"brotherhood"
Dialects
different forms of the same language that have unique words, meanings, and pronounciations
Thessaly and Boetia
where the Aeolians setteled, the attic dialect was specifically spoken here
Monarchy
"rule by one"
Ekklesia
a warrior assembly composed of all free men eligible to serve in the army
Aristocrats
Rich families "the best people"
Boule
heads of the aristocratic families, members of the council that advised the king
Aristocracy
government that replaced monarchy, Aristocrats ruled
Sparta
the most powerful Greek city in the Peloponessus
Archon
"ruler", replaced the aristocrat king
Corinth
8 villages combined to make Corinth a city
Statis
constant competition and conflict
Arete
"excellence". Greeks, aristocrats in particular, were expected to demonstrate this
Shame culture
one's feelings of oneself were determined by how one appeared to other people
Hetairai
elegant and sophisticated prostitutes. "companion"
Hellenes
Those who came from Hellas, proud people, What the Greeks called themselves
Barbarian
one that did not speak Greek
Olympian gods
Greek mythology, religious belief in 12 gods headed by Zeus
Zeus
Head of Olympian gods, God of lightning and thunder
Hera
wife of Zeus, goddess of marriage
Aphrodite
goddess of sex and love
Dionysus
god of wine and ritual madness
Athena
armored goddess of wisdom
Ares
God of war
Anthropomorphic
humanlike gods. Not just in shape but in behavior
Hercules
Hero. Half-god
Oracle of Apollo
An oracle was a person who revealed the will of the gods in answer to people's questions. , Tells Acrisius that his grandson, Perseus, will be greater than him and kill him
This is why Danae is locked up
Apollo
god of light, music, and medicine
Pythia
priestess of Apollo, inhaled volcanic fumes and then a cryptic response
Amphictyonic "neighboring peoples" League
cities of peoples formed together that could declare a sacred war to protest the sanctuary
pan-hellenic
Greece wide
Archaic age (776-500 BCE)
Greece was emerging from its period of depression
Colonies
established around the shores, modeled on the cities that founded them
Metropolis
Mother city
Magna Graecia
"Great Greece". Southern Italy and western Sicily
Syracuse
great city in Sicily established by Corinth
Hoplites
heavily armed Greek infantrymen who marched and fought in close ranks; most of the recruits were middle-class citizens. primary weapon was an 8 foot spear
Phalanx
Army of hoplites 6 ranks deep
Lawgivers
appointed to write down the laws
Oligarchy
form of constitutional government "rule of the few"
Tyrant
illegal ruler
Age of Tyrants
650-550 BCE. many Greek cities used this means of dealings
Homer
blind poet
philosophy
"love of wisdom". Greek scientific thought.
Pythagoras
Greek philosopher from Samos