28 terms

Stage Theories

STUDY
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Sigmund Freud
psychodynamics. sex motive.
psychosexual stages of development
each stage represents conflicts & motives in our unconscious that we must resolve. failure=results in fixation-> part of our unconscious becomes developmentally 'stuck' at that stage
oral stage
infancy, our needs center around the mouth
fixation: chewing, biting, eating, smoking, overtalking
anal stage
toddler, beginning of controlling urges
fixations: anal retentive-> overly controlled or anal expulsive-> completely uncontrolled
phallic stage
late childhood, notice gender differences, question them, beginning of gender identification
*oedipus & elektra complexes- inititially child will cling to parent of opposite sex and reject parent of same sex
fixation: failure to properly gender identify (homosexuality/transgender)
latency
late childhood, all conflict is hidden and further repressed
fixations: either continue to repress all conflicts or seek out conflict
genital stage
adolescence->adulthood, complete the gender identification, formation of intimate relationship
jean piaget
stages of cognitive development
assimilation
adding new ideas & experiences into our existing shemas
accomodation
changing our schemas to fit new info that contradicts our schemas
sensorimotor stage
infant->2 years, use of senses to understand the world/motor development
*object permanence- realizing things still exist even when out of sight
preoperational stage
2 years, language development
*egocentrism-world view is limited to their own perspective
concrete stage
8-12 years, logical reasoning
*concepts of conservation-understanding that mass doesn't change even if shape changes
formal operations
12-adulthood, abstract reasoning
*metacognition-ability to think about thinking(to analyze your own mental processes)
lawrence kolhberg
moral development, how we respond to ethical conflicts
preconventional
moral decisions are aimed at avoiding punishment
conventional
moral decisions are made based on how others would view you
postconventional
moral decisions are made based on our own set of values & rights
elisabeth kubler-ross
stages of dying, can be applied to any situation that involves a perceived loss
-denial
-anger
-bargaining
-depression
-acceptance
erik erikson
psychosocial stage theory. social motivation. each stage represents an unconscious choice-no fixations. stages continue throughout lifespan b/c we continue to face social challenges.
trust vs. mistrust
infancy, babies must learn to trust caregivers
autonomy vs. shame & doubt
toddler, learn how to control themselves
initiative vs. guilt
early childhood, curiosity, problem solving guilt=scolding for asking
industry vs. inferiority
late childhood, peer pressure, compare to others
identity vs. role confusion
adolescence, self-being, discover our social identity
intimacy vs. isolation
early adulthood, balance relationships (coworkers, family, bf/gf, teachers)
generativity vs. stagnation
mid-adulthood, look at life path, take control of our own lives
integrity vs. despair
late adulthood, satisfaction or despair at past accomplishments