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When pressure increases, volume _____.


When temperature increases, pressure _____.


When temperature increases, volume _____.

unit of pressure

mm Hg

unit of pressure


unit of pressure


unit of temperature


unit of temperature


unit of volume


unit of volume


Ideal Gas Law

PV = nRT



number of moles


gas constant




1) Particles do not take up space.
2) Particles bounce off of each other without losing energy.
3) Particles are not attracted to one another. (no intermolecular forces)

3 Rules for ideal gases (vs real gases)

Combined Gas Law

P₁V₁ / T₁ = P₂V₂ / T₂

1) Particles are small and inert.
2) Temperature is high.
3) Pressure is low.

3 Conditions when real gases act almost exactly like ideal gases.

1) Temperature must be in kelvins
2) Units for P1 must match P2 (and units for V1 must match V2)

2 Rules for units on the combined gas law (P₁V₁ / T₁ = P₂V₂ / T₂)

Graham's Law

Rate₁/Rate₂ = sq rt(M₂)/sq rt (M₁)

1) The right side of the equation flips so that 2 is over 1.
2) Rate = amount/time

2 Rules for on Graham's Law
Rate₁/Rate₂ = sq rt(M₂)/sq rt (M₁)

(all units must match the gas constant R)
1) Temperature must be in kelvins.
2) Pressure must be in atm.
3) Volume must be in L.

3 Rules for units on Ideal gas law
(PV = nRT)

Mass can be used to find n (or conversely, n can be used to find mass) by converting between moles and grams.

Mass in the ideal gas law
(PV = nRT)


the process that occurs when a gas escapes through a tiny hole in its container

rate (described in terms of time)

= 1/time (inverse)

rate (described in terms of amount)

= amount

specific heat formula

q = mc delta T

specific heat (variable)


heat added


looks like a triangle, means "change in"


unit of energy

Calorie (cal)

specific heat (definition)

the heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance 1°C

specific heat of water

basis for the calorie

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