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1) Particles do not take up space.

2) Particles bounce off of each other without losing energy.

3) Particles are not attracted to one another. (no intermolecular forces)

3 Rules for ideal gases (vs real gases)

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1) Particles are small and inert.

2) Temperature is high.

3) Pressure is low.

3 Conditions when real gases act almost exactly like ideal gases.

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1) Temperature must be in kelvins

2) Units for P1 must match P2 (and units for V1 must match V2)

2 Rules for units on the combined gas law (P₁V₁ / T₁ = P₂V₂ / T₂)

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1) The right side of the equation flips so that 2 is over 1.

2) Rate = amount/time

2 Rules for on Graham's Law

Rate₁/Rate₂ = sq rt(M₂)/sq rt (M₁)

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(all units must match the gas constant R)

1) Temperature must be in kelvins.

2) Pressure must be in atm.

3) Volume must be in L.

3 Rules for units on Ideal gas law

(PV = nRT)

### Mass can be used to find n (or conversely, n can be used to find mass) by converting between moles and grams.

Mass in the ideal gas law

(PV = nRT)