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Mental operations

actions that can be performed on objects or ideas and that consistently yield a result. This allows children the reverse their thoughts and understand conservation.

concrete operational period

Piaget's stage that lasts approximately 7 to 11 years

concrete operations

cognitive stage when egocentrism wanes, children understand conservation and take an earthbound, concrete, practical minded sort of problem solving approach.

formal operational period

Piaget's stage that extends from roughly age 11 into adulthood.

formal operations

cognitive stage when children expand beyond thinking in the concrete, and are able to think hypothetically and reason abstractly.

deductive reasoning

ability to make appropriate conclusions from facts.


psychologists who specialize in measuring psychological characteristics such as intelligence and personality.


psychologist who developed the g-Factor theory of intelligence - general factor - responsible for performance on all mental tests.

Thurstone and Thurstone

psychologist who developed the theory of several intelligences. 7 distinct and different abilities: perceptual speed, word comprehension, word fluency, space, number, memory, induction.


psychologist who developed the theory of multiple intelligences . 9 in total. Linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence and spatial intelligence are included in psychometric theories. Also Musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic and existential intelligences.


psychologist who developed the theory of successful intelligence, using three different abilities: analytic ability, creative ability, practical ability.

Analytic ability

analyzing problems and generating different solutions.

Creative ability

dealing adaptively with novel situations and problems.

Practical ability

knowing what solution or plan will actually work.

Word recognition

the process of identifying a unique pattern of letters.


the process of extracting meaning from a sequence of words.

Phonological awareness

the ability to hear distinctive sounds of letters.


various combinations of selected words from a sentence that convey a particular idea. They can be combined to build the overall meaning of a passage as a whole.

knowledge-telling strategy

writing strategy that relies on writing down information on a topic as they retrieve it from memory. Typical of young writers.

knowledge transforming strategy

writing strategy that involves deciding what information to include and how best to organize it for the point they wish to convey to their reader. Achieved toward end of elementary school.

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