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Medical Office: Human Diseases Final Exam Study Guide Review

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an example of a congenital disease
cerebral palsy
what two types of cancers carry the highest risk among families
colon/breast
factors which delay wound healing are
age, size, circulation
the purpose of antihypertensives
regulate BP
treatment for viral infections include
rest and fluids
treatment for bacterial infections
antibiotics
preventative measures for a UTI include
fluids, frequent urination
someone with diabetes insipidous might urinate
2-10 gallons of urine per day
the thyroids job is to regulate
metabolism
sebaceous glands produce
sebum
styes are caused by
staph
external and inner ear are separated by the
tympanic membrane
treatment for otitis media includes
antibiotics
herpes varicella is another name for
chicken pox
the medical term for shingles is
herpes zoster
holistic medicine
concept considering the whole person rather than just physical being. spiritual, cognitive, social, physical,emotional being
acute disease
short term example common cold
congenital
present at birth even if not apparent
genetic mutation
something wrong with genes
congenital
condition existing in infant because mother
example radiation
thrombocytes
clotting cells
leukocytes
white blood cells
anticoagulents
substance that prevents the clotting of blood
kyphosis
curvature of thoracic spine (hunchback)
lordosis
exaggerated anterior or inward curve of lumbar spine
scoliosis
lateral curvature of spine
colon
is the large intestine
reed sternberg cells
cell confirms the diagnosis of hodgkin's lymphoma
islets of langerhans
specialized cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin
melena
black tar like stool
tinea
another name for ringworm
wheal
smooth slightly elevated swollen area that's redder or paler than surrounding skin. accompanied with itching
bulla
large vesicle
vesicle
circumscribed elavation of skin containing fluid
papule
small solid raised lesion
pustule
small circumscribed elevation of the skin containing pus
macule
flat discolored lesion
cyst
a closed sack or punch containing fluid or semisolid material
pediculosis
infestion of lice
antihypertensives
if blood pressure is extremely high this is used
neoplasm
tumor; increase in cell number, leading to an increase in tissue size
pratt sign
squeeze on calf if there's pain then it's thrombphlebitis
homan sign
bend toes back if there's pain then there's thrombphlebitis
opthalmascope
instrument to examine the interior of the eye
snellen chart
test to measure eye
signs of inflammation
heat, redness, pain, edema, swelling, loss of function
highest cancer risks among families
colon/breast
most definitive test to diagnose a tumor
biopsy
factors which delay healing
age, location, steroids, size of wound, nutrition, circulation, organism virulence
another name for asthma
bronchial asthma
symptoms of anaphylaxis
itching, swelling, and uticaria(rash of round)
blood forming organs
lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, liver
urine culture determines this
is a test to find and identify germs (usually bacteria) that may be causing a UTI
tension
stress, strain & tension on the facial, neck and scalp muscles
cluster
caused by stress, emotional trauma or unknown reasons
migrane
severe headache, with nausea, vomiting and visual disturbances experiances aura
3 types of headaches
tension, cluster, migrane
environmental causes of congenital defects
what the mother does to baby
drugs, alcohol, smoking
how is intellectual disability diagnosed
observation and IQ test
example of tics
suddenly rapid muscle movement or vocalization
ex: eye blinking
largest mental health disorder in US
anxiety
test used to determine mental health issue
battery
psychological testing
asthma
cause: allergens in environment such as pollen, dust,smoke
signs: shortness of breath, wheezing, anxiety cough
prevention: avoid allergens, medications, deep breathing
treatment: no cure
cardiovascular disease
cause: heredity, diet, age, obesity, smoking, or even stress
signs: pain, shortness of breath, pain, numbness, weakness
treatment: anti-hypertensive, lifestyle changes, low salt diet, stress reducing exercise
prevention: don't smoke, and exercise
bacterial infection
cause: staph, clostridium, haemophilus, e.coli, strep
signs: coughing, fever, headache, difficulty breathing, sore throat
treatment: it depends on the causative agents along with relief of symptoms
prevention: some can be prevented by immunizations
anemia
cause: anything that lows #'s of RBC, acute/chronic bleeding
signs: pallor,fatigue,headache,shortness of breath, irritability,syncope(fainting),tachycardia(abnormal heartbeat)
treatment: anemia varies,sickle cell aren't curable
prevention:eating healthy,notall mightbe preventable& treatable
cirrhosis
cause:chronic alcoholism, more common in males than female
signs:loss appetite,nausea,indigestion,weakness,weightloss
treatment:replacement of normal liver cells with non-functioning scar tissue-hobnail liver
prevention:not all preventable, avoid alcohol, avoid exposure all types of hepatitis
UTI
cause:more common in females,sexual intercourse,pregnant
signs:hematuria, pyuria, oliguria(scanty)
treatment:bacterial sensitivity test
prevention:antibiotics
gigantism
cause:begign pituitary tumors
signs:oily and tough skin,slurr speech,large hands feet and forehead, abnormal facial features
treatment:surgery radiation,drug therapy
prevention:no prevention,prevent injury or trauma to the gland
graves
most common autoimmune condition
cause: diarrhea
signs:skin moist, extreme thirst, exophthalmos(abnormal eyes
treatment:medication,surgery,radiation
prevention:no general prevention but those smokes likely
diabetes insipidous (DI)
cause:decrease in the release of vasopressin or ADH
signs:urine,colorless,dizziness, constipation
treatment:administration of vasopressin
prevention:many not preventable
conjunctivis
cause:viruses,bacteria,allergies (this is pink eye)
signs:excessive tearing,itching,burning,and pain
treatment:analgesics,decongestants,antibiotics
prevention:avoid bottle feeding and smoking environment
psoriasis
common chronic disease skin
cause:unkown
signs:red,raised lesions with distinct borders&silvery scales
treatment:medication to control itching,streroids,ultraviolet light
prevention:no way to prevent it
ringworm (tinea)
cause:variety of fungi
signs:itching, cracking, and weeping skin
treatment:keep affected area clean & dry,use antifungeal fungi
prevention:keep skin healthy,clean,dry,avoid tight fitting clothes and avoid public showers and bathtubs
herpes simplex
largest virus family
signs:inflimmation on skin,clustersor fluid filled vesicles
treatment:no cure
prevention:healthy lifestyle, avoid skin contact,vaccination
cerebral palsy(CP)
cause:low oxygen during birth
signs:infants difficult sucking or swallowing,seizure,metal
treatment:no cure
prevention:no preventive measures
tetrology of fallot
cause:unkown
signs:cyanosis,clubbing fingers&toes,retardiation
treatment:early diagnosis&surgical corrections
prevention:controlling risk factors
cystic fibrosis
cause:hereditary recessive disorder affecting young children
signs:viscous(thick)secretions,coughing,lung constantly liquid
treatment:antibiotics,postural drainage, chest clapping
prevention:no preventions
ADHD
cause:unknown
signs:inability to concentrate,hyperactivity,impulsiveness
treatment:amphetamines(speeds)
prevention:unknown
cataract
clouding of lens
cause:change in metabolism and nutrition in lens,aging
signs:decreased visual acuity
treatment:lens replacement surgery
prevention:unknown
impetigo
staph or strep bacteria which causes vesicles to erupt on mouth and hands
cause:strep&staph bacteria
signs:appearance of vesicles and rustules that rupture
treatment:washing & drying affecting area, applying antibiotics
prevention:good personal hygiene, frequent handwashing