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a local official in Mogul India who received a plot of farmland for temporary use in return for collecting taxes for the central government


the Hindu custom of cremating a widow on her husband's funeral pyre


founder of Mogul dynasty; captured Delhi and established his power in North India; father descended from Temur Lenk and mother from Genghis Khan


by 1605, had brought Mogul rule to most of India; greatest of conquering Mogul monarchs and known for his humane character

Shah Jahan

Mogul ruler who reigned from 1628 to 1658; rule marred by failure to deal with growing domestic problems


succeeded Shah Jahan; one of the most controversial rulers in India's history; attempted to eliminate what he considered India's social evils

Sir Robert Clive

British empire builder; chief representative in India of the East India Company; fought any force that threatened the Eat India Company's power

Taj Mahal

built in Agra by Shah Jahan in the mid-17th century in the memory of his wife, Mumtaz Mahal; most beautiful building in India, or even the world


"king" used in Persia and Iran, also used as the title of Safavid rulers


traditional beliefs, especially in religion


political disorder; lawlessness


controlled area extending from Persia into central Asia at the beginning of the 16th century; Shiites; founded by Shah Ismail

Shah Ismail

founded Safavid dynasty; seized much of Iran and Iraq in 1501; sent Shiite preachers to convert Turkish tribes in the Ottoman Empire

Shah Abbas

built Isfahan; Safavids reach the high point of the dynasty during his reign; ruled from 1588 to 1629


capital of Safavid dynasty; a treasured city in Iran; built by Shah Abbas


most famous artist during the Safavid Era; did Persian painting


a solider in the elite guard of the Ottoman Turks recruited from the Christian population in the Balkans


an appointed official in the Ottoman Empire who collected taxes, maintained law and order, and was directly responsible to the sultan's court

gunpowder empire

an empire formed by outside conquerors who unified the regions that they conquered through their mastery of firearms


"holder of power"; the military and political head of state under the Seljuk Turks and the Ottomans


"sacred place"; the private domain of an Ottoman sultan, where he and his wives resided

grand vizier

Ottoman sultan's chief minister, who led the meetings of the imperial council


group of religious advisers to the Ottoman sultan; this group administered the legal system and schools for educating Muslims


led new group of Turks in the late 13th century; began Ottoman dynasty

Mehmet II

Ottoman sultan who conquered Constantinople in 1453

Sultan Selim I

took control of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Arabia from 1514 to 1517; declared himself the new caliph, defender of the faith, and successor to Muhammad

Süleyman I

Ottoman Empire reached its high point under his reign; more than doubled territory, encouraged the growth of architecture and fine arts, and played a key role in European politics of the day

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