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43 terms

Anatomy Muscles Test Review

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sarcomere
the contractile unit in a muscle cell; separated by z-bands
actin
a type of myofilament (protein) found in thin filament
myosin
a type of myofilament (protein) found in thick filament
epimysium
An external connective tissue that covers fascicles
perimysium
A type of connective tissue surrounding each fasicle; the CT enveloping bundles of muscle fibers
fasicle
A bundle of muscle celles bound by CT to form a functional unit
acetylcholine
the name of the neurotransmitter used at the synapse for contraction
abduction
movement along the frontal plane, away from the body midline; raising arm laterally
circumduction
describing a cone-shaped pathway with a limb
dorsiflexion
movement of the superior aspect of the foot toward the leg; standing on the heels
elevation
lifting or raising a body part; shrugging the shoulders
flexion
movement along the sagittal plane that decreases the angle between two bones
gliding
slight displacement or slipping of bones, as might occur between the carpals of the wrist
inversion
turning the sole of the foot medially
plantar flexion
pointing the toes down
protraction
movement of a body part anteriorly; jutting the lower jaw forward
retraction
movement of a body part posteriorly; moving the lower jaw backwards
rotation
circular movement around the longitudinal bone axis; shaking head "no"
supination
moving the hand into a palm-up, or forward, position
pronation
moving the hands with palms facing backwards
tendon
cord of dense, fibrous tissue attaching muscle to a bone
adduction
moving arms towards the body
origin
the part attached to the immovable (or less moveable) bone
insertion
the part attached to the moveable bone, and move towards the origin when contracted
eversion
turn sole of foot laterally
opposition
moving thumbs to each finger
prime mover
the super-hero; muscle that has major responsibility for a particular movement; EX: biceps brachii
antagonist
the villain; muscles that reverse or oppose a movement; EX: triceps
synergists
the sidekick; help prime movers by producing same movement, or reducing undesireable movement; EX: wrist when making a fist
fixators
the bat-mobile; "specialized-synergists" hold bone still or stabilize origin so tension can be used to move insertion to bone; EX: back muscles
endomysium
the thin connective tissue surrounding each muscle cell
myofilaments
proteins that make up a myofibril
A-Bands
the dark band
I-Band
the light band
z-line
the separations between the bands on a myofibril
ATP
Used for energy, and loses a phosphate making it ADP
circular fascicle arrangement
fascicles arranged in concentric rings
EX: obicularis oris
parallel fascicle arrangement
length fascicles run parallel to long axis of muscle
EX: satorius; rectus abdominus
convergent fascicle arrangement
fascicles converge to a single insertion tendon
EX: pectoralis major; temporalis
fusiform fascicle arrangement
spindle-shaped with expanded belly
EX: biceps brachii, triceps brachii
unipennate fascicle arrangement
Short fascicles attach obliquely to a central tendon on one side
EX: external oblique
bipennate fascicle arrangement
short fascicles attach obliquely to a central tendon on two sides
EX: rectus femoris; gastrocnemius
multipennate fascicle arrangement
short fascicles attach obliquely to a central tendon on two sides; looks like many feathers side by side
EX: deltoid