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what is the lymphatic system made up of?
lymph, lymph vessels, lymph tissue, lymphocytes, lymph organs, red bone marrow
microscopic, everywhere except bone marrow, CNS & tissues w/o blood vessels, thin, porous
small bean shaped, 1000's in body, in clusters, filter lymph, perform biological filtration, defense & WBC formation
right lymphatic ducts
drains lymph from the right upper extremity and right side of head, neck and upper torso
largest lymmphatic vessel draining lymph from 3 fourths of the body, all but the right quarter
dilated area at base of thoracic duct, located below diaphragm in lubar region in abdominal cavity, collects and temp stores lymph from lower extremities & abdomen
edema due to cardio condition
hypertension, complication of diabetes, obesity, pregnancy, insufficiency of veins
excessive fluid spills into the damaged tissue, increased protein cells too lg to move into venous capillaries, fliud moved into lymphatic capillaries
swelling caused by blockage of lymph vessels, too much IF, complication of surgery or mastectomy
lymph massage contraindications
kidney disease, CHF (congestive heart failure), presence of thrombophlebitis
most common form of lymphoma, painless swelling in neck, progresses to other regions
lymphiod tissue organ in mediastinem, part of lymphatic and endocrine systems, controls development of body's immune system, produces thymusin and t-lymphocytes
largest lymphoid organ, blood reservoir in upper left quadrant of abdomen, injured by trauma to abdomen
functions of the spleen
destroys old RBC's, recycles hgb, supply blood to circulatory system if hemorrhage happens, cleanses blood by acting as a filter
located at ileocecal valve (junction of lg and sm intestine), filter or trap for pathogens from GI tract, may replenish bacteria for intestines
immune system functions
immunity, development of lymphocytes (t & B cells), protects body from bacteria, foreign or cancerous cells
antigen is detected, antibodies are produced & transported by blood & lymph to site where they inactivate the invading antigens
if previous exposure occurred, memory cells remain dormant until same antigen returns then recognize and respond
neutralize toxins, agglutinate enemy cells, promote phagocytosis, aka humoral immunity/antibody-mediated immunity
results from exposure to antibodies, from antigen/antibody complex that targets foreign cells & destroys, causes cell lysis by permitting entry of H20
aka innate immunity, present at birth, general protection, ex; skin, tears & mucus, WBC ability to go to area of inflammation
aka adaptive immunity, takes time to recognize targets & reacts, 2 characteristics-specificity & memory, ex; chicken pox, influenza, herpes
inherited or inborn immunity
immunity to certain diseases from birth, probs in animals but not humans, ex; distemper
4 ways to gain-active & passive (reacting to antigen), natural & artificial (how it is obtained)
natural passive immunity
immunity passes from mom to fetus thru placenta, from mom to child thru mom's milk
artificial passive immunity
protective material developed in anothers immune system and given to non-immune person, immediate temp protection, booster is needed
2 stages of B cell development
1st-stem cells develop into immature B cells (in liver & bone marrow b4 birth, in bone marrow only as adult), 2nd-immautre B cell develops into active B cell then divide repeatedly for memory cells
antibody, secrete lg amounts of antibodies into the blood, secretes what memory cell tell them to
antibody, remain in reserve in the lymph nodes til needed, old B cell that remembers certain antigen
functions of B cells
do not attack pathogens but produce antibodies (plasma and memory cells) that attack
cell-mediated immunity, migrate fr bone marrow to thymus, become killer T cells destroy pathogens, more direct than B cells, directly attack invading pathogens
2 stages of T cell development
1st-stem cells into T cells, in thymus b4 & after birth, migrate to lymph nodes, 2nd-t cells develop into sensetized t cells
natural killer cells (NK cells)
another defense cell, not B or T, type of lymphocyte, puts chemicals in granules in cytoplasm, broad action, kills tumor cells and virus infected cells
person's own immune system attacks its own body tissues ex; rheumatiod arthritis, MS (attacks myelin sheaths), allergy-hypersensitivity
excessive reaction to antigens fr another human, immune response to another person's antigens leads to rejection syndrome, occurs b/t mother and fetus (rh factor), or tissue transplants
congenital immune deficiency or immunodeficiency (rare)
bubble babies, improper lymphocyte development b4 birth
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