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80 terms

chapter 15- lymphatic system

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what is the lymphatic system made up of?
lymph, lymph vessels, lymph tissue, lymphocytes, lymph organs, red bone marrow
functions of the lymphatic system
drains IF, immune functions, absorption of fats
lymph
fluid in tissue spaces tht carries protein molecules & other substances back to the blood
lymphatic vessels
one way movement of lymph fluid away from tissue
lymphatic capillaries
microscopic, everywhere except bone marrow, CNS & tissues w/o blood vessels, thin, porous
lymphatic nodes
small bean shaped, 1000's in body, in clusters, filter lymph, perform biological filtration, defense & WBC formation
where do axillary nodes drain?
wupper extremities, thoracic region
where do cervical nodes drain?
head, face
whre do inguinal nodes drain?
lower extremities, lower abdomen-thigh, hip, prineum
where do popliteal nodes drain?
foot, leg
where do submental & submaxillary nodes drain?
mouth, nose, lips, teeth
where do cubital/supratrochlear nodes drain?
forearms
where do pelvic cavity nodes drain?
pelvic organs
where do thoracic cavity nodes drain?
thoracic cavity
where do abdominal cavity nodes drain?
abdominal viscera
right lymphatic ducts
drains lymph from the right upper extremity and right side of head, neck and upper torso
thoracic duct
largest lymmphatic vessel draining lymph from 3 fourths of the body, all but the right quarter
2 final empying ducts
thoracic and right lymphatic
cistera chyli
dilated area at base of thoracic duct, located below diaphragm in lubar region in abdominal cavity, collects and temp stores lymph from lower extremities & abdomen
3 main causes of edema
cardiovascular dysfunction, lymphatic dysfunction, trauma
edema due to cardio condition
hypertension, complication of diabetes, obesity, pregnancy, insufficiency of veins
traumatic edema
excessive fluid spills into the damaged tissue, increased protein cells too lg to move into venous capillaries, fliud moved into lymphatic capillaries
lymphatic dysfunction-lymphedema
swelling caused by blockage of lymph vessels, too much IF, complication of surgery or mastectomy
lymphangitis
inflammation of lymph vessels, can become septicemia
elephantiasis
severe lymphedema of limbs resulting from parasite infestation of lymph vessels
lymph massage contraindications
kidney disease, CHF (congestive heart failure), presence of thrombophlebitis
lymphadenopothy
malignant tumor of lymph nodes, 2 types--hodgkins and non hodgkins
hodgkins disease
most common form of lymphoma, painless swelling in neck, progresses to other regions
non hodgkins disease
lymphocytic leukemia, more malignant, faster growing
thymus
lymphiod tissue organ in mediastinem, part of lymphatic and endocrine systems, controls development of body's immune system, produces thymusin and t-lymphocytes
tonsils
cluster of lymphoid tissues, provides protection, 3 masses
palatine tonsils
mass of lymph tissue in back of throat, can't see
pharyngeal tonsils
adenoids, back up and behind the nose
lingual tonsils
behind the tongue
tonsilitis
affects the palantine, viral or bactrial, when active massage contraindicated
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing
dysphasia
difficulty in communicating
spleen
largest lymphoid organ, blood reservoir in upper left quadrant of abdomen, injured by trauma to abdomen
functions of the spleen
destroys old RBC's, recycles hgb, supply blood to circulatory system if hemorrhage happens, cleanses blood by acting as a filter
spleenectomy
surgical removal of spleen
splenomegaly
enlargement of spleen
peyer's patches
on wall of small intestine, destroys bacteria
lacteals
milky appearance, in small intestine, absorbs lipids
appendix
located at ileocecal valve (junction of lg and sm intestine), filter or trap for pathogens from GI tract, may replenish bacteria for intestines
immune system functions
immunity, development of lymphocytes (t & B cells), protects body from bacteria, foreign or cancerous cells
antigens
substances that are nonself, foreign proteins, when in body trigger an immune response
anibodies
protein compounds normally in body, transported to infection site
primary response
antigen is detected, antibodies are produced & transported by blood & lymph to site where they inactivate the invading antigens
secondary response
if previous exposure occurred, memory cells remain dormant until same antigen returns then recognize and respond
antigen-antibody complexes
neutralize toxins, agglutinate enemy cells, promote phagocytosis, aka humoral immunity/antibody-mediated immunity
complement proteins
normal inactive presence in blood, activated by antibody exposure
complement fixation
results from exposure to antibodies, from antigen/antibody complex that targets foreign cells & destroys, causes cell lysis by permitting entry of H20
non-specific immunity
aka innate immunity, present at birth, general protection, ex; skin, tears & mucus, WBC ability to go to area of inflammation
specific immunity
aka adaptive immunity, takes time to recognize targets & reacts, 2 characteristics-specificity & memory, ex; chicken pox, influenza, herpes
inherited or inborn immunity
immunity to certain diseases from birth, probs in animals but not humans, ex; distemper
acquired immunity
4 ways to gain-active & passive (reacting to antigen), natural & artificial (how it is obtained)
natural immunity
exposure to causative agent, not deliberate
natural active immunity
having disease produces immunity, contract disease & produce memory cells
natural passive immunity
immunity passes from mom to fetus thru placenta, from mom to child thru mom's milk
artificial immunity
deliberate exposure to causative agent
artificial active immunity
vaccination results in immunity, memory cells produced
artificial passive immunity
protective material developed in anothers immune system and given to non-immune person, immediate temp protection, booster is needed
types of phagocytes
neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages
neutrophils
phagocyte, small granular leukocyte
monocyte
phagocyte, largest of WBC's
macrophages
phagocyte, mature monocyte
lymphocyes
most numerous of immune cells, 2 types T & B cells
B-lymphocytes
migrate fr bone marrow then 2 stages of development
2 stages of B cell development
1st-stem cells develop into immature B cells (in liver & bone marrow b4 birth, in bone marrow only as adult), 2nd-immautre B cell develops into active B cell then divide repeatedly for memory cells
plasma cells
antibody, secrete lg amounts of antibodies into the blood, secretes what memory cell tell them to
memory cells
antibody, remain in reserve in the lymph nodes til needed, old B cell that remembers certain antigen
functions of B cells
do not attack pathogens but produce antibodies (plasma and memory cells) that attack
T lymphocytes
cell-mediated immunity, migrate fr bone marrow to thymus, become killer T cells destroy pathogens, more direct than B cells, directly attack invading pathogens
2 stages of T cell development
1st-stem cells into T cells, in thymus b4 & after birth, migrate to lymph nodes, 2nd-t cells develop into sensetized t cells
natural killer cells (NK cells)
another defense cell, not B or T, type of lymphocyte, puts chemicals in granules in cytoplasm, broad action, kills tumor cells and virus infected cells
autoimmunity
inappropriate excessive response to self-antigens, causes autoimmune diseases
autoimmune disease
person's own immune system attacks its own body tissues ex; rheumatiod arthritis, MS (attacks myelin sheaths), allergy-hypersensitivity
isoimmunity
excessive reaction to antigens fr another human, immune response to another person's antigens leads to rejection syndrome, occurs b/t mother and fetus (rh factor), or tissue transplants
congenital immune deficiency or immunodeficiency (rare)
bubble babies, improper lymphocyte development b4 birth
acquired immune deficiency
develops after birth, ex; aids (caused by hiv infection of T cells)