The three domain classification system is based on differences in the structure of:
The oldest known fossils are the remains of prokaryotes that lived approximately:
3.5 billion years
The definition of a species as "a group of closely related organisms that can interbreed" applies to:
Why are viruses not included in the three domain classification system?
They are not composed of cells
Which of these techniques is NOT used for classification of bacteria?
DNA fingerprinting Biochemical testing Nucleic acid hybridization rRNA sequencing
Different strains of bacteria can be identified by:
Which of these are found on all three domains?
Ribosomes Peptidoglycan Cell walls Nuclei
A non-photosynthetic multicellular organism with cell walls and hyphae belongs to the kingdom:
Serological testing is used to identify:
Serotypes. Serovars. Biovars. All of the above.
All of the above
The first step in the identification of a bacterium is:
The evolutionary history of a group of organisms can be represented by:
In the taxonomic hierarchy, a group of similar families is a/an:
One method used to detect microorganisms that cannot be cultured in the laboratory is:
A scientific name such as Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae indicates:
The species name has been changed. The genus name has been changed. Both the genus and species names have been changed. The organism was named by two different scientists.
The genus name has been changed
The method currently used to determine phylogenetic relationships between groups of bacteria is:
Ribosomal RNA sequencing
Which of these is NOT a serological test?
Western blotting Southern blotting Slide agglutination ELISA
Members of the Domain Archaea:
Are usually pathogenic. Have cell walls containing peptidoglycan. Often live in extreme environments. Have nuclei. All of the above.
Often live in extreme environments
All of the following are true about archaea except A) They are prokaryotes. B) They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls. C) Some are hyperthermophiles, some are extreme halophiles others are methanogens. D) They evolved before bacteria. E) Some produce methane from carbon dioxide and hydrogen.
Which of the following characterizes the Domain Bacteria? A) Prokaryotic cells; ether linkages in phospholipids B) Eukaryotic cells; ester linkages in phospholipids C) Prokaryotic cells; ester linkages in phospholipids D) Complex cellular structures E) Multicellular
Which of the following is not used in a routine bacteriology laboratory identification A) Serological testing B) Morphology determination C) Nucleic acid-base composition D) Biochemical testing
Which of the following is a true about the members of Kingdom Fungi? A) All members are photosynthetic. B) Absorption of dissolved organic matter through cell wall. C) Absorption of dissolved inorganic matter. D) All members are microscopic. E) All members are macroscopic.
All of the following are true about the members of the Kingdom Plantae except A) They are multicellular. B) They have eukaryotic cells. C) They can photosynthesize. D) They use organic carbon sources. E) They use inorganic energy sources.
All of the following are true about the members of the Kingdom Animalia except A) They are multicellular. B) They have eukaryotic cells. C) They can photosynthesize. D) They use organic carbon sources. E) They ingest their food
What is the phylogenetic classification of the Domain Bacteria based on? A) Cell morphology B) rRNA sequences C) Gram stain reaction D) Habitat
A bacterial species differs from a species of eukaryotic organisms in that a bacterial species A) Does not breed with other species. B) Has a limited geographical distribution. C) Can be distinguished from other bacterial species. D) Is a population of cells with similar characteristics. E) All of the above are true.
Which of the following is the best evidence for a three-domain system? A) There are three distinctly different cell structures. B) There are three distinctly different cellular chemical compositions. C) There are three distinctly different Gram reactions. D) Some bacteria live in extreme environments. E) None of the above.
Into which group would you place a multicellular heterotroph with chitin cell walls? A) Animalia B) Archaea C) Bacteria D) Fungi E) Plantae
Which of the following is not based on nucleic-acid hybridization? A) DNA chip B) FISH C) PCR D) Southern blotting E) Western blotting
The phylogenetic classification of bacteria is based on A) Cell morphology. B) Gram-reaction. C) rRNA sequences. D) Habitat. E) Diseases.
All of the following could have been the reasons for classifying the viruses into one of the three domains except A) Some viruses can incorporate their genome into a host's genome. B) Viruses direct anabolic pathways of host cells. C) Viruses are obligate parasites. D) Viruses are not composed of cells. E) None of the above.
Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology differs from Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology in that the former A) groups bacteria into species. B) groups bacteria according to phylogenetic relationships. C) groups bacteria according to pathogenic properties. D) groups bacteria into 19 species. E) all of the above
Which of the following is in the correct order from the most general to the most specific? A) Kingdom-phylum-class-order-family-genus-species B) Kingdom-class-order-family-phylum-genus-species C) Species-genus-family-order-class-phylum-kingdom D) Species-genus-phylum-family-order-class-kingdom E) Phylum-kingdom-class-order-genus-family-species
Protist is a diverse group of organisms that are similar in A) rRNA sequences. B) Metabolic type. C) Motility. D) Ecology. E) None of the above.
Yeasts belong to the Kingdom A) Animalia. B) Plantae. C) Protista. D) Fungi. E) Bacteria.
In the scientific name Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter is the A) Specific epithet. B) Genus. C) Family. D) Order. E) Kingdom.
The arrangement of organisms into taxa A) Shows degrees of relatedness between organisms. B) Shows relationships to common ancestors. C) Was designed by Charles Darwin. D) Is arbitrary. E) Is based on evolution.
Bacteria and Archaea are similar in which of the following? A) Peptidoglycan cell walls. B) Methionine (code AUG) is the start signal for protein synthesis. C) Sensitivity to antibiotics. D) Possessing prokaryotic cells. E) None of the above.
You could identify an unknown bacterium by all of the following except A) hybridizing a DNA probe from a known bacterium with the unknown's DNA. B) making a fatty acid profile (FAME) of the unknown. C) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing. D) observe morphological characteristics under a microscope E) percentage of guanine + cytosine.
Serological testing is based on the fact that A) All bacteria have the same antigens. B) Antibodies react specifically with an antigen. C) The human body makes antibodies against bacteria. D) Antibodies cause the formation of antigens. E) Bacteria clump together when mixed with any antibodies.
Which of the following indicates that two organisms are closely related? A) Both are cocci. B) Both ferment lactose. C) Their DNA can hybridize. D) Both normally live in clams. E) All of the above.
Organism A has 70 moles % G+C and organism B has 40 moles % G+C. Which of the following can be concluded from these data? A) The two organisms are related. B) The two organisms are unrelated. C) The organisms make entirely different enzymes. D) Their nucleic acids will not hybridize. E) None of the above.
Nucleic acid hybridization is based on the fact that A) The strands of DNA can be separated. B) A chromosome is composed of complementary strands. C) Pairing between complementary bases occurs. D) DNA is composed of genes. E) All cells have DNA.
One of the most popular taxonomic tools is DNA fingerprinting to develop profiles of organisms. These profiles provide direct information about A) Enzymatic activities. B) Protein composition. C) The presence of specific genes. D) Antigenic composition. E) Nucleotide sequences.
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a valuable tool for environmental microbiologists for all of the following reasons except A) It allows for detection of uncultured microbes B) To demonstrate the diversity of microbes in an environment. C) To observe microbes in their natural environment in association with other microbes. D) To obtain pure cultures of microbes. E) All of the above.
A clone is A) Genetically identical cells derived from a single cell. B) A genetically engineered cell. C) A taxon composed of species. D) A mound of cells on an agar medium. E) None of the above.
Into which group would you place a photosynthetic cell that lacks a nucleus enclosed in a nuclear membrane? A) Animalia B) Bacteria C) Fungi D) Plantae E) Protist
You discovered a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and peptidoglycan in its wall. You suspect the organism is in the group of A) Animalia. B) Archaea. C) Bacteria. D) Fungi. E) Plantae.
Which of the following criteria is most useful in determining whether two organisms are related? A) Both ferment lactose. B) Both are gram-positive. C) Both are motile. D) Both are aerobic. E) All are equally important
Into which group would you place a unicellular organism that has 70S ribosomes and a peptidoglycan cell wall? A) Animalia B) Bacteria C) Fungi D) Plantae E) Protist
Into which group would you place a multicellular organism that has a mouth and lives inside the human liver? A) Animalia B) Fungi C) Plantae D) Firmicutes (Gram-positive bacteria) E) Proteobacteria (Gram-negative bacteria)
Grouping organisms into categories to highlight similarities is called A) Systematics B) Taxonomy C) Hierarchy D) Nomenclature
Historically, eukaryotic organisms that didn't fit into other kingdoms were placed by the scientists into which kingdom? A) Protista B) Fungi C) Plantae D) Animalia
Amino acid sequencing provides direct information about A) Nucleotide bases making up a gene B) Morphology C) Antigenic composition D) Enzymatic activities
What process can be used to increase the amount of microbial DNA to levels that can be tested by gel electrophoresis? A) Phage typing B) DNA fingerprinting C) Polymerase chain reaction D) Western blotting
Mycoplasmas do not have a cell wall, are very small in size and can pass through the standard bacterial filters. They considered to be related to gram-positive bacteria.
Which of the following findings or tests, would provide the most compelling evidence for this? A) They share common rRNA sequences. B) Some gram-positive bacteria and some mycoplasmas produce catalase. C) Both groups are prokaryotic. D) Some gram-positive bacteria and some mycoplasmas have coccus-shaped cells. E) Both groups contain human pathogens.