Anthropology Ch. 6,7,8,
Test chapters 6 7 8
Terms in this set (52)
is a sub field
is an open system, it is infinite, they are born with language
the ability to talk about things other than the present
only talk in the present, language is finite
Studies the smallest unit of sound
the smallest unit of sound, English has 46 phonemes
systematic rules by which sounds are combined, how morphemes can be combined,
smallest unit of meaning (convey meaning
International Phonetic Alphabet
Ex. _ ^
read and read or pronounced red and red
has meaning but can not stand alone Ex. repainted re and ed are bound morphemes they have meaning but are not words alone. must have a word with meaning attached (re-paint-ed)
that can covey a meaning and stand alone
the study of rules governing. how morphemes are formed into words
linguistic rules, found in all languages, that determine how phrases and sentences are constructed
Example of Morphology
Mary fix Tom Phone
ed 's s
Phonology and Grammar
Two parts of language
Syntax and Morphology
Two parts of Grammar
The Study of one language at a single point in time.
They study OF language and its change over time
the study of ONE language over time.
looking at linguistic change in related languages
Language change internal
a word from your language changed from one meaning to another... Example gay was changed from happy to same sex preference.
Language change external
when words are borrowed from another language... example: cafe vs coffee shop... the reason of borrowing words is the prestige effect of the word vs the original word... sound better
a grouping of related languages
the mother language, where the language came from, where two related languages come from. Page 129 graph study.
the study of the relationship between language and culture
Sapir Whorf hypothisis
the notion that a persons language shapes her or his perception and view of the world, language determines culture
Studied children monolingual (NAVajo) vs Children Bilingual (NAVajo/English) Wanted to see if being bilingual thing differently and how they pick items that are similar to them. How they group it. However he was not able to explain what influences how they pick and what they pick.
What is important to my culture are emphasized in my language. Ex. American: occupation, technology, authenticity is important therefore it shows in the language
The difference of how language is used, (indirect vs direct) example: American focus on themselves they are clear and direct, blunt vs Japanese focus' are of a group, they are indirect they avoid being blunt , they save face not to disgrace the culture as a whole vs themselves.
The situational use of language
the practice of adapting ones language depending on the social situation, switching between languages. Example Spanglish.
is a regional variation of a language, dialects are given a low status of speech in society.
The standard language is education, gov't literature, New casters, this language can not be pinpointed to a region
hunters and gathers, living by hunting animals, fishing, and gathering wild plants.
subsistence agriculture or garden, is low intensity, small scale agriculture using small fields, plots or gardens, relys on human power and simple tools to work small plots of lad to produce primarlily for House hold consumptions
is animal husbandry. they breed and care for domestic and other animals. and use their products, milk meat blood as their major food source and item exhange.
large scale, complex farming and animal husbandry. more productive form of cultivation of food plants thank horticulture, using animal power mechanical power and fertilizer to produce a surplus
is faming on a much jlarger scale than intensive agriculture, relying on complex machinery, high yielding seed varieties, germplasm and domestic and export marketing of produce. It also is linked to processing systems, the transformation of raw commodities into processed food and nonfood items.
a theroy that foragers choos species of plants and animal that give them maximum calorie intake for the time spent hunting and gather.
form of subsistence that relies on using animal and plant resources found in the natural environment.
a stage in himan cultural evolution beginning around 10,000 characterized by the transition from hunting and gathering to the domestication of plants and animal q
movement pattern of pastoralist in which some of the men move livstock seasonally
the movemnt pattern of pstoralist involving the periodic migration of human popultions in search of food or pasture for livstock
the academic discipline that studies system of production distribution consumptions, typically in the industialized world
Main parts of economic
production, distribution, consumption
Regulation of resources
how land water and natural resources are controlled and allocated
Hunter and Gathers
land is not own, have very little notion of ownership, they move frequently
corp style ownership, of property, more control need when less resources are available,
community ownership, family owned,
the process whereby good are obtained from natural enviroment and altered to become cosumable good for society
allocation of resources
societys regulation and control of such resources as land water and their by products