52 terms

Anthropology Ch. 6,7,8,

Test chapters 6 7 8
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Terms in this set (...)

Linguistic
is a sub field
Human Language
is an open system, it is infinite, they are born with language
Displacement
the ability to talk about things other than the present
Non Human
only talk in the present, language is finite
Universal Language
...
Phonology
Studies the smallest unit of sound
Phonemes
the smallest unit of sound, English has 46 phonemes
grammar
systematic rules by which sounds are combined, how morphemes can be combined,
Morphemes
smallest unit of meaning (convey meaning
International Phonetic Alphabet
Ex. _ ^
read and read or pronounced red and red
Bound Morphemes
has meaning but can not stand alone Ex. repainted re and ed are bound morphemes they have meaning but are not words alone. must have a word with meaning attached (re-paint-ed)
Free Morpheme
that can covey a meaning and stand alone
Morphology
the study of rules governing. how morphemes are formed into words
Syntax
linguistic rules, found in all languages, that determine how phrases and sentences are constructed
Example of Morphology
Mary fix Tom Phone
ed 's s
es
Phonology and Grammar
Two parts of language
Syntax and Morphology
Two parts of Grammar
Synchronic Analysis
The Study of one language at a single point in time.
Diachronic Analysis
They study OF language and its change over time
historical linguistic
the study of ONE language over time.
Comparitive
looking at linguistic change in related languages
Language change internal
a word from your language changed from one meaning to another... Example gay was changed from happy to same sex preference.
Language change external
when words are borrowed from another language... example: cafe vs coffee shop... the reason of borrowing words is the prestige effect of the word vs the original word... sound better
Language Families
a grouping of related languages
proto-language
the mother language, where the language came from, where two related languages come from. Page 129 graph study.
cultural Linguistic
the study of the relationship between language and culture
Sapir Whorf hypothisis
the notion that a persons language shapes her or his perception and view of the world, language determines culture
Casagrande
Studied children monolingual (NAVajo) vs Children Bilingual (NAVajo/English) Wanted to see if being bilingual thing differently and how they pick items that are similar to them. How they group it. However he was not able to explain what influences how they pick and what they pick.
Cultural Emphasis
What is important to my culture are emphasized in my language. Ex. American: occupation, technology, authenticity is important therefore it shows in the language
Linguistic Style
The difference of how language is used, (indirect vs direct) example: American focus on themselves they are clear and direct, blunt vs Japanese focus' are of a group, they are indirect they avoid being blunt , they save face not to disgrace the culture as a whole vs themselves.
Sociolinguistic
The situational use of language
Code Switching
the practice of adapting ones language depending on the social situation, switching between languages. Example Spanglish.
Dialect
is a regional variation of a language, dialects are given a low status of speech in society.
Standard
The standard language is education, gov't literature, New casters, this language can not be pinpointed to a region
food foraging
hunters and gathers, living by hunting animals, fishing, and gathering wild plants.
horticulture
subsistence agriculture or garden, is low intensity, small scale agriculture using small fields, plots or gardens, relys on human power and simple tools to work small plots of lad to produce primarlily for House hold consumptions
Pastoralism
is animal husbandry. they breed and care for domestic and other animals. and use their products, milk meat blood as their major food source and item exhange.
Intensive agriculture
large scale, complex farming and animal husbandry. more productive form of cultivation of food plants thank horticulture, using animal power mechanical power and fertilizer to produce a surplus
Industrial agriculture
is faming on a much jlarger scale than intensive agriculture, relying on complex machinery, high yielding seed varieties, germplasm and domestic and export marketing of produce. It also is linked to processing systems, the transformation of raw commodities into processed food and nonfood items.
optimal foraging
a theroy that foragers choos species of plants and animal that give them maximum calorie intake for the time spent hunting and gather.
foraging
form of subsistence that relies on using animal and plant resources found in the natural environment.
neolithic revolution
a stage in himan cultural evolution beginning around 10,000 characterized by the transition from hunting and gathering to the domestication of plants and animal q
transhumance
movement pattern of pastoralist in which some of the men move livstock seasonally
nomandism
the movemnt pattern of pstoralist involving the periodic migration of human popultions in search of food or pasture for livstock
economics
the academic discipline that studies system of production distribution consumptions, typically in the industialized world
Main parts of economic
production, distribution, consumption
Regulation of resources
how land water and natural resources are controlled and allocated
Hunter and Gathers
land is not own, have very little notion of ownership, they move frequently
pastoralist
corp style ownership, of property, more control need when less resources are available,
horicultural property
community ownership, family owned,
production
the process whereby good are obtained from natural enviroment and altered to become cosumable good for society
allocation of resources
societys regulation and control of such resources as land water and their by products