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Light and Photosynthesis

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Autotrophic
Organisms which convert carbon dioxide(inorganic compound) into organic compound (glucose) utilizing some energy source.
Heterotrophic
Organisms that depend on other organisms for their source of organic compounds (foods).
Manganese
Black dioxide of this as an industrial raw material or additive, in glassmaking.
Tyrosine
An amino acid, one of the 20 building blocks of protein. A nonessential amino acid, is produced from another amino acid, phenylalanine.
Pheophytin
Chlorophylls from which the magnesium has been removed by treatment with weak acid.
Plastocyanin
An electron carrying protein present in chloroplasts, forming part of the electron transport chain. Associated with photosystem 1 contains two copper atoms per molecule.
Photosystem 1
A distinct complex of proteins and pigments molecules in chloroplasts that absorbs light during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
Chemiosmotic
Is the diffusion of hydrogen ions( Protons) across the biological membrane via the ATP synthase ( A transport protein) due to a proton gradient that forms on the other side of the membrane.
Synthase
Any of the various enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of a substance without the use of high-energy source such as cleavage of a phosphate bond.
ATP
Is a nucleotide that contains a large amount of chemical energy stored in its high-energy phosphate bonds.
P700
The reaction center chlorophyll (primary electron donor) of photosystem 1 that is most reactive and best in absorbing light at wavelength of 700 nm.
Chlorophyll a
The most common and predominant in all oxygen-evolving photosynthesis organisms such as high plants, red and green algae.
Phylloquinone
One of the K vitamins, found in cabbage, spinach, and other leafy green vegetables, and essential for the blood-clotting process.
Ferrodoxin
Any of a group of red-brown proteins containing iron and sulfur and acting as an electron carrier during photosynthesis, nitrogen oxidation-reduction reactions.
NADP reductase
An enzyme that catalyses the oxidation ( addition of oxygen) and reduction (addition of hydrogen) in the presence of NADP
Oxidation
Addition of oxygen
Reduction
Addition of hydrogen
Cyclic photophosphorylation
The productions of ATP (energy) using energy of sunlight.
Ribulose biphosphate
A five carbon sugar that is combined with carbon dioxide to form two three-carbon intermediates in the first stage of the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis.
OAA
A salt or an ester of oxaloacetic acid.
PEP carboxylase
An enzyme in the carborxylases responsible for the formation of the four-carbon compound oxaloacetate by catalyzing the bringing one molecule of carbon dioxide to the three-carbon compound phosphoenolpyruvate.
Mesophyll
Tissue found in the interior of leaves, made up of photosynthetic (parenchyma) cells, also called chlorenchyma cells.
Aspartate
A nonessential amino acids that plays a critical part of the enzyme in the liver that transfers nitrogen-contaning amino groups, either in building new proteins and amino acids or in breaking down proteins and amino acids for energy and detoxifying the nitrogen in the form of urea.
Malate
Any salt or ester of malic acid.
Bundle sheath
A layer or region of compactly arranged cells surrounding a vascular bundle in a plant.
Phosphoenol pyruvate
Is an important metabolic intermediate.
Palisade layer
A layer of parallel elongated cells below the epidermis of a leaf.
Thylakoids
Membranous cisterna of the chloroplast, found as part of the grana and also as single cisterna interconnecting the grana.
Mutagenic
Inducing genetic mutation.
Amplitude
The height of a wave
Wavelength
Distance from one point on a wave to the same point of a following wave.
Crest
The peak of a wave
Trough
the lowest point of a wave.