64 terms

inhibitors of Cell Wall synthesis

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fosfomycin
inhibits one of the first steps in synthesis of peptidoglycan. combined with beta lactam, both gram +/-, 2nd line for UTIs
cycloserine
inhibits attachment of sidechain to peptidoglcyan, severely neurotoxic (CNS)
bacitracin
inhibits the transporter, can't get peptidoglycans out. very nephrotoxic, gram +, used topically
vancomycin
glycopeptide, sterically inhibits chain formation of peptidoglycan. binds D-ala-D-ala, also inhibits transglycosylation, DOC for MRSA, other gram +, ototoxic/nephrotoxic "redman", IV, not absorbed orally, no CNS
teicoplanin
glycopeptide, like vancomycin
penicillin V
natural penicillin, relatively acid resistant, orally useful (50% bioavailable)
procaine penicillin
natural penicillin, IM, it is a salt because procaine is a base and penicillin is acid, slow release 12-18h. Used in acute bacterial infections
benzathine penicillin
natural penicillin, IM depot, long life but low blood levels. Used for syphilis or longterm prophylaxis in Rheumatic Fever.
nafcillin
penicillinase resistant penicillin, anti-staph, liver metabolism, lipid soluble, only IV/IM
oxacillin
penicillinase resistant penicillin, anti-staph, liver metabolism, oral
cloxacillin
penicillinase resistant penicillin, anti-staph, liver metabolism, oral
methicillin
penicillinase resistant penicillin, anti-staph, testing only for MRSA, liver metabolism, nephrotoxic
ampicillin
extended spectrum penicillin (amino), not penicillinase resistant, no klebsiella coverage, DOC for listeria
amoxicillin
extended spectrum penicillin (amino), not penicillinase resistant, no klebsiella coverage
carbenicillin
antipseudomonal penicillin, not Klebsiella, least potent
ticarcillin
antipseudomonal penicillin, not klebsiella
mezlocillin
antipseudomonal penicillin, not klebsiella
piperacillin
antipseudomonal penicillin, not klebsiella, most potent
aztreonam
monobactam
imipenem
carbapenem
cilastatin
carbapenem
merepenem
carbapenem
ertapenem
carbapenem
clavulanic acid
beta-lactamase inhibitor
sulbactam
beta-lactamase inhibitor
tazobactam
beta-lactamase inhibitor
augmentin
amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, oral, strep throat, URI
TImentin
Ticarcillin + clavulanic acid
Unasyn
ampicillin + sulbactam, parental, anaerobic infections
Zosyn
piperacillin + tazobactam
Penicillin G
natural penicillin, short half life, IV, IM
sulfisoxazole
short acting sulfonamide, UTIs, Otitis media, Chlamydia, Nocardiosis
sulfamethoxazole
intermediate acting sulfonamide
sulfadoxine
intermediate acting sulfonamide, UTIs, Nocardiosis
sulfasalazine
poorly absorbed sulfonamide, prodrug for ulcerative colitis, combo of sulfapyridine and mesalamine
silver sulfadiazine
topical sulfonamide, used in burn patients (normally sulfas are hyperallergic topically)
sulfamethaxoazole + trimethoprim
TMP-SMX combo (Co-trimoxazole), P jiroveci pneumonia, prostatitis, DOC for UTI and Moraxella catarrhalis, used in otitis media, listeria (2nd line)
Sulfadoxine+Pyrimethamine
combo drug, presumptive treatment of malaria (not prophylaxis, d/t toxic epidermal necrolysis TEN), parasitic inhibition,
cefazolin*
1st generation cephalosporin, most gram +, and E.Coli, Klebsiella, Proteus. (NOT enterococci, MRSA, S. epidermis). DOC for surgical prophylaxis, single 4gm/day IV dose
cephalexin monohydrate*
1st generation cephalosporin, most gram +, and E.Coli, Klebsiella, Proteus (NOT enterococci, MRSA, S. epidermis)
cephradine sodium*
1st generation cephalosporin, most gram +, and E.Coli, Klebsiella, Proteus (NOT enterococci, MRSA, S. epidermis)
cephalothin sodium
1st generation cephalosporin, most gram +, and E.Coli, Klebsiella, Proteus (NOT enterococci, MRSA, S. epidermis)
cefadroxil monohydrate
1st generation cephalosporin, most gram +, and E.Coli, Klebsiella, Proteus (NOT enterococci, MRSA, S. epidermis)
cefoxitin
2nd generation cephalosporin,
cefamondole*
2nd generation cephalosporin, disulfram reaction with EtOH
cefaclor*
2nd generation cephalosporin
cefuroxime*
2nd generation cephalosporin
ceonicid
2nd generation cephalosporin
cefotetan
2nd generation cephalosporin
cefprozil*
2nd generation cephalosporin
loracarbef
2nd generation cephalosporin
cefotaxime sodium*
3rd generation cephalosporin, CNS penetration
ceftizoxime
3rd generation cephalosporin
cefoperazone*
3rd generation cephalosporin, No CNS penetration, metabolized by the liver, antipseudomonal aeruginosa, disulfiram reaction with EtOH
ceftazidime*
3rd generation cephalosporin, antipseudomonal aeruginosa
ceftriaxone*
3rd generation cephalosporin, CNS penetration, DOC single shot for gonorrhea, 50% metabolized by liver, treat penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae
cefixime
3rd generation cephalosporin, oral substitute for gonorrhea treatment
cefpodoxime proxetil
3rd generation cephalosporin
ceftibuten
3rd generation cephalosporin
cefdinir
3rd generation cephalosporin
Cefepime
4th generation cephalosporin, more resistant to some beta-lacatamases, most advanced, like 3rd generation but better, NOT enterococcus or bacteroides
teicoplanin
...
sulfadiazine
intermediate duration sulfonamide, combo with pyrimethamine for toxoplasmosis, oral, crystalluria
trimethoprim
gram +/- UTIs, combined for prophylactic Pneumocysitis carinii, possibly teratogenic (NO PREGNANCY)