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Psychology Quiz 12
Terms in this set (28)
In some cultures, depression and schizophrenia are nonexistent.
Ritalin and Adderall are stimulants but help calm hyperactivity in children with ADHD.
About 30 percent of psychologically disordered people are dangerous; that is, they are more likely than other people to commit a crime.
By age 50, emotions have become stronger and anxiety disorders more common.
Identical twins who have been raised separately sometimes develop the same phobias.
In North America, today's young adults are three times as likely as their grandparents to report having experienced depression.
White Americans commit suicide nearly twice as often as Black Americans do.
There is strong evidence for a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia.
Dissociative identity disorder (split personality) is a type of schizophrenia.
About 1 in 4 adult Americans suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in a given year.
If researchers discovered that genetically influenced abnormalities in brain structure contribute to bipolar disorder, this would most clearly add
The medical model
The DSM-V is a diagnostic guide that:
Describes psychological disorders and their prevalence
Years after he barely survived a terrorist aUack that killed his wife and two children, Mr. Puskari suffers recurring flashbacks and frequent nightmares of the event that render him incapable of holding a steady job. Mr. Puskari is most clearly showing
Post traumatic stress disorder
If your psychologist believes that psychological disorders can be diagnosed, treated, and cured through the use of standard tools, techniques, and medications, she is most likely looking at psychological disorders from which perspective?
The medical perspective
What distinguishes normality from a disorder?
a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior (APA, 2013)
-Psychological disorders can be seen as psychopathology, an
illness of the mind.
-Disorders can be diagnosed, labeled as a collection of symptoms that tend to go together.
-People with disorders can be treated, attended to, given therapy, all with a goal of restoring mental health.
Mental disorders can arise in the interac(on between nature and nurture caused by biology, thoughts, and the sociocultural environment.
Advantages of diagnostic labels
-Diagnoses create a verbal shorthand for referring to a list of associated symptoms.
-Diagnoses allow us to statistically study many similar cases, learning to predict outcomes.
-Diagnoses can guide treatment choices.
Disadvantages of diagnostic labels
-The DSM calls too many people "disordered."
-The border between diagnoses, or between disorder and normal, seems arbitrary.
-Decisions about what is a disorder seem to include value judgments; is depression necessarily deviant?
-Diagnostic labels direct how we view and interpret the world, telling us which behavior and mental states to see as disordered.
-Psychological disorder rates vary, depending on the time and place of the survey.
-poverty is a risk factor
Mental disorders seldom lead to violence and clinical prediction of violence is unreliable
-GAD: Generalized anxiety disorder
-OCD: Obsessive-compulsive disorder
-PTSD: Post-traumatic stress disorder
Obsessive compulsive disorder
Characterized by persistent and repetitive thoughts
(obsessions), actions (compulsions), or both
-Occurs when obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors interfere with everyday life and cause distress
-Is more common among teens and young adults than older people
GAD: Generalized anxiety disorder
-Emotional-cognitive symptoms include
worrying, having anxious feelings and thoughts about many subjects, and sometimes "free-floating" anxiety with no aIachment to any subject.
-Anxious anticipation interferes with concentration.
-Physical symptoms include autonomic arousal, trembling, sweating, fidgeting, agitation, and sleep disruption.
-A specific phobia is more than just a strong fear or dislike. A specific phobia is diagnosed when there is an uncontrollable, irra.onal, intense desire to avoid the some object or situation.
-Even an image of the object can trigger a reaction--"GET IT AWAY FROM ME!!!"--the uncontrollable, irrational, intense desire to avoid the object of the phobia.
-Is disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and/or insomnia lingering for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
-Often involves battle-scarred veterans (7.6 percent of combatants; 1.4 of noncombatants) and survivors of accidents, disasters, and violent and sexual assaults (two-thirds of prostitutes)
-Has higher risk for women
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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