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-negatively charged


-smallest unit of matter that enters into chemical reactions


-positively charged



ionic bonds

-atoms that gained or lost electrons & are charged

covalent bonds

-form when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

hydrogen bonds

-bonding causes water molecules to stick together

acidity: pH < 7

-increasing [H+], increases

alkalinity: pH > 7

-increasing [OH-] increases

most organisms grow best between

-pH 6.5 & 8.5


-linked in chains or rings to form the backbone of these large complex molecules


-molecules are composed of basic units


-linked together to form large molecules


-simple sugars


-amino acids

nucleic acids



-fatty acids & Glycerol


-breaks the covalent bonds of a polymer using water

primary structure

-sequence of amino acids (polypeptide chain)

secondary structure

-folding into helix or pleats due to hydrogen bonding

tertiary structure

-three dimensional appearance due to interactions between side-chains

quaternary structure

-consists of two or more polypeptides


-proteins that speed chemical reactions


-the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life

catabolic reactions

-breakdown food & capture energy as ATP

anabolic reactions

-use energy from ATP to build up tissue


-light energy is converted into ATP (photosynthesis)

substrate level phosphorylation

-PO4 is directly transferred from a substance to ADP(Glysolysis)

oxidative phosphorylation

-ATP is made through Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) reactions by transferring electrons to oxygen or another molecule (the electron transport system)

competitive inhibitors

-similar to the substrate & block the active site, therefore preventing the enzyme from combining w/ substrate

feedback inhibition

-end product of metabolic pathway acts as noncompetitive inhibitor to first enzymes in pathway


-produces very little energy compared to other metabolic methods (1 or 2 molecules of ATP)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

-when grown without oxygen, it produces alcohol & CO2
-used in making bread, beer, wine, etc

GOOD Streptococcus & Lactobacillus


BAD Streptococcus

-Strep throat
-Necrotizing fasciitis

Krebs cycle

-complete breakdown of pyruvic acid to CO2

ETS (electron transport system)

-transfers electrons in stepwise fashion from NADH & FADH to O2

aerobic respiration

-O2 is final electron acceptor in the ETS
-most productive energy source (36-38 ATP)

anaerobic respiration

-O2 isn't available, some organisms use an alternate inorganic molecule (NO3, SO4) is final electron acceptor

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