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39 terms

BIO 160 Midterm (Module 4 Fuel to Burn) CSUSM

STUDY
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electrons
-negatively charged
atom
-smallest unit of matter that enters into chemical reactions
protons
-positively charged
neutrons
-uncharged
ionic bonds
-atoms that gained or lost electrons & are charged
covalent bonds
-form when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
hydrogen bonds
-bonding causes water molecules to stick together
acidity: pH < 7
-increasing [H+], increases
alkalinity: pH > 7
-increasing [OH-] increases
most organisms grow best between
-pH 6.5 & 8.5
carbon
-linked in chains or rings to form the backbone of these large complex molecules
monomers
-molecules are composed of basic units
polymers
-linked together to form large molecules
carbohydrates
-simple sugars
proteins
-amino acids
nucleic acids
-nucleotides
lipids
-fatty acids & Glycerol
hydrolysis
-breaks the covalent bonds of a polymer using water
primary structure
-sequence of amino acids (polypeptide chain)
secondary structure
-folding into helix or pleats due to hydrogen bonding
tertiary structure
-three dimensional appearance due to interactions between side-chains
quaternary structure
-consists of two or more polypeptides
enzymes
-proteins that speed chemical reactions
metabolism
-the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life
catabolic reactions
-breakdown food & capture energy as ATP
anabolic reactions
-use energy from ATP to build up tissue
photophosphorylation
-light energy is converted into ATP (photosynthesis)
substrate level phosphorylation
-PO4 is directly transferred from a substance to ADP(Glysolysis)
oxidative phosphorylation
-ATP is made through Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) reactions by transferring electrons to oxygen or another molecule (the electron transport system)
competitive inhibitors
-similar to the substrate & block the active site, therefore preventing the enzyme from combining w/ substrate
feedback inhibition
-end product of metabolic pathway acts as noncompetitive inhibitor to first enzymes in pathway
fermentation
-produces very little energy compared to other metabolic methods (1 or 2 molecules of ATP)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-when grown without oxygen, it produces alcohol & CO2
-used in making bread, beer, wine, etc
GOOD Streptococcus & Lactobacillus
-cream
-cheese
-yogurt
-buttermilk
-kimchee
BAD Streptococcus
-Strep throat
-Necrotizing fasciitis
Krebs cycle
-complete breakdown of pyruvic acid to CO2
ETS (electron transport system)
-transfers electrons in stepwise fashion from NADH & FADH to O2
aerobic respiration
-O2 is final electron acceptor in the ETS
-most productive energy source (36-38 ATP)
anaerobic respiration
-O2 isn't available, some organisms use an alternate inorganic molecule (NO3, SO4) is final electron acceptor