Like this study set? Create a free account to save it.

Sign up for an account

Already have a Quizlet account? .

Create an account


-negatively charged


-smallest unit of matter that enters into chemical reactions


-positively charged



ionic bonds

-atoms that gained or lost electrons & are charged

covalent bonds

-form when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

hydrogen bonds

-bonding causes water molecules to stick together

acidity: pH < 7

-increasing [H+], increases

alkalinity: pH > 7

-increasing [OH-] increases

most organisms grow best between

-pH 6.5 & 8.5


-linked in chains or rings to form the backbone of these large complex molecules


-molecules are composed of basic units


-linked together to form large molecules


-simple sugars


-amino acids

nucleic acids



-fatty acids & Glycerol


-breaks the covalent bonds of a polymer using water

primary structure

-sequence of amino acids (polypeptide chain)

secondary structure

-folding into helix or pleats due to hydrogen bonding

tertiary structure

-three dimensional appearance due to interactions between side-chains

quaternary structure

-consists of two or more polypeptides


-proteins that speed chemical reactions


-the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life

catabolic reactions

-breakdown food & capture energy as ATP

anabolic reactions

-use energy from ATP to build up tissue


-light energy is converted into ATP (photosynthesis)

substrate level phosphorylation

-PO4 is directly transferred from a substance to ADP(Glysolysis)

oxidative phosphorylation

-ATP is made through Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) reactions by transferring electrons to oxygen or another molecule (the electron transport system)

competitive inhibitors

-similar to the substrate & block the active site, therefore preventing the enzyme from combining w/ substrate

feedback inhibition

-end product of metabolic pathway acts as noncompetitive inhibitor to first enzymes in pathway


-produces very little energy compared to other metabolic methods (1 or 2 molecules of ATP)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

-when grown without oxygen, it produces alcohol & CO2
-used in making bread, beer, wine, etc

GOOD Streptococcus & Lactobacillus


BAD Streptococcus

-Strep throat
-Necrotizing fasciitis

Krebs cycle

-complete breakdown of pyruvic acid to CO2

ETS (electron transport system)

-transfers electrons in stepwise fashion from NADH & FADH to O2

aerobic respiration

-O2 is final electron acceptor in the ETS
-most productive energy source (36-38 ATP)

anaerobic respiration

-O2 isn't available, some organisms use an alternate inorganic molecule (NO3, SO4) is final electron acceptor

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording