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50 terms

Biology Final Prep (Ch 3&4) - Pacific College of Oriental Medicine

Bio. final terms from Biology class at Pacific College of Oriental Medicine (Chpts. 3 &4)
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Organic Molecules
Molecules that contain both carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
4 Most Common Elements Found in Living Organisms
Isomer
Organic molecules that have identical molecular formulas but a different arrangement of atoms. They have variations in the molecular architecture of a molecule.
Dehydration Reaction
Synthesis of a biomolecule when subunits bond during this named reaction with the removal of H2O.
Monosaccharides
Monomers of carbohydrates
Polymer
Largest of the biomolecules
Monomer
Subunit of a polymer
Enzyme
A molecule that speeds a reaction by bringing reactants together
Disaccharide
Contains (2) monosaccharides that have joined during a dehydration reaction. It is also a carbohydrate.
Polysaccharide
Polymers of monosaccharides and are much larger than sugar. Also known as short-term energy storage molecules. When an organism requires energy, this molecule is broken down to release sugar molecules (pg. 42). It is also known as a carbohydrate.
Starch
Plants store this glucose and when in plants, it is called by this name.
Glycogen
Animals store glucose in liver cells containing granules where this glucose is stored until needed. The storage and release of this glucose from liver cells is under the control of hormones. What is this glucose called in animals / vertebrates?
Cellulose
A structural polysaccharide found in plants. It is also the most abundant carbohydrate and most abundant organic molecule on Earth.
Chitin
A structural polysaccharide found in animals and fungi and cannot be digested by animals. Seeds are also coated with this material. It has antibacterial and antiviral properties and is processed and used in medicine as a wound dressing and suture material. It is also useful during the production of cosmetics and various foods.
Peptidoglycan
A structural polysaccharide found in bacteria.
Triglycerides
Long term energy storage consisting of (2) types of subunit molecules: fatty acids and glycerol
Fatty Acid
Consists of a long hydrocarbon chain with a -COOH (carboxyl) group at one end. These subunit molecules are either saturated or unsaturated.
Saturated Fatty Acids
Have no double bonds between the carbon atoms (i.e. - milk and butter)
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Have double bond in the carbon chain wherever the number of hydrogens is less than (2) per carbon atom (i.e. - corn and corn oil). This fatty acid has a kink in its molecular chain.
Glycerol
A compound with 3 OH groups. It is soluble in water. Because there are (3) fatty acids attached to each molecule, fats and oils are sometimes called triglycerides. Nearly all animals use fat in preference to this molecule for long-term energy storage as gram for gram, fat stores more energy than this molecule.
Phospholipid
Contains a polar phosphate group and essentially is constructed like a fat, except that in place of the 3rd fatty acid attached to glycerol, there is a polar phosphate group.
Kinks
The fluidity of the plasma membrane is due to these in the phospholipids' tails.
Phospholipids
Have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails and tend to arrange themselves so that only the polar heads are adjacent to a watery medium.
Steroids
Lipids that have entirely different structures from those of fats. They have skeletons of four fused carbon rings. Each type of these lipids differs primarily by the types of functional groups attached to the carbon skeleton. Examples are: cholesterol and the sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen)
Waxes
Long-chain fatty acids that bond with alcohol. they are solid at normal temperatures because they have a high melting point. They are hydrophobic, are waterproof and resistant to degradation. In many animals, this lipid is involved in skin and fur maintenance. In humans, this lipid is produced by glands in the outer ear canal.
Functions of Proteins
important for metabolism, support, transport, defense, regulation and motion of cells.
Function of Metabolism Protein
In this protein function, enzymes bring reactants together and thereby speed chemical reactions in cells. They are specific for one particular type of a reaction and can function at body temperature.
Function of Support Protein
This protein has a structural function (i.e. - keratin makes up hair and nails, while collagen lends support to ligaments, tendons and skin).
Function of Transport Protein
Channel and carrier proteins in the plasma membrane allow substances to enter and exit cells. Some other proteins transport molecules in the blood of animals; hemoglobin is a complex protein that does this action with oxygen.
Function of Defense Protein
Antibodies are proteins. They combine with foreign substances called antigen. In this way, they prevent antigens from destroying cells and upsetting homeostasis. What is this proteins function?
Function of Regulation Protein
Hormones are this kind of protein that form this action. They serve as intercellular messengers that influence the metabolism of cells. The hormone insulin does this action with the content of glucose in the blood and in cells; the presence of growth hormone determines the height of an individual.
Function of Motion Protein
The contractile protein actin and myosin allow part of cells to do this action and causes muscles to contract. Muscle contraction accounts for the movement of animals from place to place. All cells contain proteins that allow cell components to do this action. Without such proteins, cells would not be able to function.
Proteins
These are polymers with amino acid monomers.
Polypeptide
This is a chain of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds. They contain 20 different kinds of amino acids
Peptide
2 or more amino acids bonded together
4 Structural Levels of Proteins
Primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure make up the shape of these polymers with amino acid monomers.
Globular Protein
A tertiary structure (3 dimentional) shape of the polypeptide that tends to ball up into rounded shapes. These proteins are enzymes that work best at body temperature.
Denatured
When a protein loses its shape due to a high temperature and change in pH that can disrupt the interactions that maintain the shape of the enzyme, it is said to be this:
Carbohydrates
Includes both the monomer (e.g. - glucose) and the polymers (e.g. starch, glycogen and cellulose).
Glucose
The immediate energy source of cells
Fats and Oils
Contain one glycerol and (3) fatty acids. They allow long-term energy storage.
Prokaryotic Cell
Cell that lacks a membrane bound nucleus and are present in the air, bodies of water, in the soil and they also live in and on other organisms. They have (2) different domains: archaea and bacteria.
Eukaryotic Cell
Suggested by some scientists that the nucleus of this type of cell evolved as the result of the invagination of the plasma membrane from the first cells on earth. This is because this cell has a membrane bounded nucleus.
Endomembrane System
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the smooth ER, the golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vesicles and enzymes make up this system in a cell.
Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Golgi Apparatus
Flattened saccules that work together to sort and package and modify lipids and proteins before being sent via a secretory vesicle for secretion outside the plasma membrane
Central Vacuole
This membranous sac may take up to 90% of the volume of the cell. It is filled with a watery fluid called cell sap that gives added support to the cell. A plant cell can quickly increase in size by enlarging this membranous sac. It maintains hydrostatic pressure or turgor pressure in plant cells.
Functions of the Cell Wall in Plants and bacteria
Outer surface that shapes, supports and protects cell. This structure is not in animal cells
Peroxisomes
Membrane-bounded vesicles that enclose enzymes. These vesicles also contain enzymes whose actions result in hydrogen peroxide. These vesicles are also metabolic assistants to other organelles. They are especially prevalent in cells that are synthesizing and breaking down lipids. Plants also have these vesicles.
Chloroplasts and Mitochondria
Both of these organelles are (2) eukaryotic membranous organelles that specialize in converting energy to a form that can be used by the cell.
Ribosome
This organelle is responsible for protein synthesis, is composed of rRNA