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The cardiovascular system is essentially a transport system. What does it transport besides blood?
substrates for energy production, immunocompetent cells, heat
What causes the valves of the heart to open and close, allowing the blood to pass from chamber to chamber ?
changes in pressure between the chambers
What is isovolumetric contraction?
contraction of the ventricle with increased pressure, but without change in volume
What is the correct order of receipt of action potentials in the heart?
SA node, AV node, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers
If the SA node fails, the AV node takes over heart rate determination. How do the rates of these two node compare?
AV node is slower
In regards to the heart, what does the parasympathetic nervous system not innervate?
left and right ventricles
What is the signal difference between the Goldberger method versus the Einthoven method?
Goldberger is stronger
What is the major difference between a vectorcardiogram and an electrocardiogram?
vectorcardiogram shows all 3 leads, while ECG shows just one
what is the main limitation of the vectorcardiogram?
cannot determine the duration of time when the heart is either completely repolarized or depolarized
What is a compensator pause?
time between ventricular extrasystole and supraventricular extrasystole
What is the minimum cardia output?
minimum amount of blood the tissues need to maintain their metabolism
What can cause an interruption of signal between the AV node and the Bundle of His?
extreme vagal tone, infection, ischemia
What is a decrease or stoppage in the rate of conduction of the impulse through the AV node and Bundle of His?
What happens after initial heart failure?
edema, overstretching of the heart muscle, ventricular dialation
Arterio-venous shunts and low resistance to blood flow cause what type of heart failure?
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