Consumer Behavior Chapter 4
Terms in this set (56)
When is a consumer more likely to be involved with a product?
1. Important to the consumer
2. Emotional appeal
3. Continually of interest to the consumer
4. Entails significant risks
5. Is identified with the norms of the group
What are three consumer involvement categories?
1. Low involvement
2. High involvement -enduring (permanent)
3. High involvement- situational (temporary)
What are three aspects in a low involvement category?
1. Brand beliefs are formed first by passive learning
2. A purchase decision is made
3. The brand may or may not be evaluated afterward
Three aspects of high involvement hierarchy?
1. Brand beliefs are formed first by active learning
2. Brands are evaluated
3. A purchase decision is made
What is the main difference between low and high involvement?
When the purchase decision is made
What is the decision process for high involvement decision making?
Complex decision making
What is the decision process for low involvement decision making?
Limited decision making
What are the hierarchy of effects for high involvement decision making?
What is the theory behind high involvement decision making?
Cognitive learning theory
What are the hierarchy of effects in low involvement decision making?
Instrumental conditioning theory
Decision Process: Brand loyalty
Hierarchy of effects: Beliefs, evaluation, behavior
Habit and High involvement
Classical Conditioning theory
Decision Process: Inertia
involves habit and low involvement
Two reasons for unplanned purchasing behavior
1. When consumers buy largely on a reminder basis
2. Consumers may seek variety or novelty and thus buy on impulse
Krugman's Theory of Passive learning
-Television is a low-involvement medium that results in passive learning, the viewer retains information randomly because of repetition of the message
-TV creates brand recall, not brand attitude
-Print advertising is more effective in high involvement cases
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
-A theory about how high involvement consumers elaborate on a message
-More involved consumers are more likely to be influenced by stimuli that are central to the message
-Less involved consumers are more likely to be influenced by cues that are peripheral to the message
Sherif's Theory of Social Judgment
-Focuses on the consumer's latitude of acceptance or rejection of a message
-High involvement consumers have a narrow latitude of acceptance and consider many attributes for a few brands
-Low involvement consumers have a wide latitude of acceptance and consider few attributes for many brands
5 aspects of advertising for low-involvement products
1. Advertising dollars should be spent in a campaign of high repetition and should use short-duration messages
2. Advertising should focus on a few key points rather than on a broad-based information campaign
3. Visual and nonvisual components should be emphasized
4. Advertising should be the primary means of differentiating the product from that of the competition
5. Television rather than print media should be the primary vehicle for communication
Consumers buying _______________ products are more likely to be price sensitive than consumers buying _____________ products.
Low-involvement; high involvement
coupons, displays, or price deals are more likely to to be more important when consumers are uninvolved
When consumers purchase the brand at eye-level or the one with the largest shelf space
Widespread distribution is particulary important for low-involvement products because consumers are...
not motivated to search for a brand. In-store availability will discourage a brand switch
Consumers may form a favorable attitude toward the brand after the purchase. For instance, a consumer may try a free sample of toothepaste, like the taste, and purchase it
6 aspects of shifting consumers from low to high involvement:
1. Link the product to an involving issue
2. Create a problem and solve it
3. Link the product to an involving personal situation
4. Link the product to involving advertising
5. Change the importance of product benefits
6. Introduce an important characteristic of the product
Aspects of shifting consumers from inertia to variety seeking:
- If a brand is a market leader, it would be in the brand's interest for the marketer to encourage inertia
- If it is a lesser-known brand, the marketer should encourage variety seeking
- In a low-involvement situation, consumers may purchase the market leader because of familiarity. In such conditions, the marketer should use advertising as a reminder.
- For less familiar brands, the marketer would attempt to encourage variety seeking by using deals, lower prices, coupons, and free samples to encourage trial
Three strategic options of segmenting by involvement:
1. Separate products
2. One product, separate ad campaigns
3. One product, same ad campaign
Defined as the selection, organization, and interpretation of marketing and environmental stimuli into a coherent picture.
A mental process that uses previous knowledge to select, organize and interpret the stimuli that are registered by our senses.
What is the difference between perceptions and attitudes?
-Predispositions and predisposed to think of a stimulus in a certain away.
-Attitudes are formed from beliefs.
You must have certain perceptions in order to form an attitudes
-Attitude has valence (+ sign or - sign)
-Have to use the product to form an attitude but don't have to use it to form a perception
A favorable or unfavorable aspect
Are any physical, visual, or verbal communications that can influence an individual's response.
Are any communications or physical stimuli designed to influence consumers.
The product and its components (package, contents, physical properties)
Communications designed to influence consumer behavior that represent the product either through words, pictures, and symbolism or through other stimuli associated with the product (price, store in which it was purchased, effect of the salesperson)
Five sensory elements
sight, taste, smell, sound, feel
Another sensory factor that conditions consumers' brand perceptions
Particularly important for cosmetics and food products
Occurs when two stimuli are seen as similar (contiguous), and the effects of one, therefore, can be substituted for the effects of the other.
Why do you want stimulus generalization?
-want a high quality product to be associated with other products
-Want to feel reassured
extending a well known brand name to other products is one of the most direct and popular applications of stimulus generalization
Examples of a strategy of stimulus generalization
introducing a new product by linking the brand name tot he company name
Two characteristics are important in determining consumers' perception of stimuli:
1. The ability to discriminate between stimuli
2. The propensity to generalize from one stimulus to another
Just noticeable difference
determining a consumer's threshold level is that a differential threshold exists in comparing two stimuli
When might marketers not want stimulus noticed?
Betty Crocker Example - changing her picture every so often, while wearing the same type of outfit
relates to the audience changing throughout the years
this example starts below the JND
Example of strategy of stimulus discrimination
increase in size of the package to distinguish from its competitors
stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the change required for the subsequent stimulus to be seen as different
consumers senses are activated by a stimulus
guarantees exposure of ads on the necessary channels
the momentary focusing of a consumer cognitive capacity on a specific stimulus
The perceptual process is important for your...
Two aspects of selection
Exposure: No thoughts
When two consumers may perceive the identical ads, packages, or product differently
Consistency between the information they receive about a brand and their prior beliefs about the brand
Consumers group information from various sources into a meaningful whole to comprehend it better and action it
Three principles of perceptual organization
want ot make sure consumers recognize a brand as part of a product class but dont want their brand to be a direct duplicate of other brands
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