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tissue composed of only a single kind of cell

simple tissue

tissue composed of two or more different kinds of cells

complex tissue

plant tissues that are neither vascular nor dermal, fulfilling a variety of functions, such as storage, photosynthesis, and support

ground tissue system

the primary tissue of higher plants, composed of thin-walled cells and forming the greater part of leaves, roots, the pulp of fruit, and the pith of stems

parenchyma tissue

a relatively unspecialized plant cell type that carries out most of the metabolism, synthesizes and stores organic products, and develops into a more differentiated cell type

parenchyma cell

parenchyma cell specialized for transfer of water soluble material to or from a neighboring cell, usually a phloem sieve tube or a xylem tracheid

transfer cell

in plants, a thin layer of adhesive extracellular material, primarily pectins, found between the primary walls of adjacent young cells

middle lamella

a plant tissue that consists of living usually elongated cells with unevenly thickened walls and acts as support especially in areas of primary growth

collenchyma tissue

a flexible plant cell type that occurs in strands or cylinders that support young parts of the plant without restraining growth

collenchyma cell

a supporting tissue in plants consisting of dead cells with thick lignified walls

sclerenchyma tissue

a short, irregular sclerenchyma cell in nutshells and seed coats; sclereids are scattered throughout the parenchyma of some plants


a lignified cell type that reinforces the xylem of angiosperms and functions in mechanical support; a slender, tapered sclerenchyma cell that usually occurs in bundles


a transport system formed by xylem and phloem throughout a vascular plant; xylem transports water and minerals; phloem transports sugars, the products of photosynthesis

vascular tissue system

vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from the roots to the rest of the plant

xylem tissue

the principal conductive cells of the xylem that conducts water and minerals from roots to the other parts of the plants

tracheary elements

a long, tapered water-conducting cell found in the xylem of nearly all vascular plants; functioning tracheids are no longer living


a cavity in the wall of a plant cell where there is no secondary wall, as in fibers, tracheids, and vessels


a short, wide water-conducting cell found in the xylem of most angiosperms and a few nonflowering vascular plants; dead at maturity, vessel elements are aligned end to end to form micropipes called vessels

vessel element

openings at both ends of the cell wall that connect the individual vessel elements


in plants, a relatively thin and flexible layer that surrounds the plasma membrane of a young cell

primary cell wall

in plant cells, a strong and durable matrix that is often deposited in several laminated layers around the plasma membrane and provides protection and support

secondary cell wall

vascular plant tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant

phloem tissue

a type of plant cell occuring within the phloem; sieve elements combine to form a series of tubes (sieve tubes) connecting the leaves, shoots, and roots in a fine network

sieve element

an elongated, food-conducting cell in phloem characteristic of gymnosperms; sieve cells have pore through which nutrients frlow from cell to cell, but they have no sieve plats like the more specialized sieve-tube elements of angiosperms

sieve cell

a portion of a sieve element wall containing small diameter pores through which protoplasts of adjacent cells are connected

lateral sieve area

a living cell that conducts sugars and other organic nutrients in the phloem of angiosperms; also called a sieve-tube member; connected end to end, they form sieve tubes

sieve-tube element

an area in the wall of a sieve-tube element, sieve cell, or parenchyma cell in which are clustered pores through which cytoplasmic connections pass to adjoining cells and which in sieve-tube elemtns are typically most highly developed on the end wall between adjacent elements where they constitute sieve plats

sieve area

an end wall in a sieve-tube element, which facilitates the flow phloem sap in angiosperm sieve tubes

sieve plate

a type of plant cell that is connected to a sieve-tube element by many plasmodesmata and whose nucleus and ribosomes may serve one or more adjacent sieve-tube elements

companion cell

one of the parenchyma cells adjacent to the sieve cells in gymnosperm wood, distinguished by staining deeply with cytoplasmic stains, and apparently associated physiologically with the sieve cells and joined to them by sieve areas

albuminous cell

the outer protective covering of plants

dermal tissue system

the dermal tissue system of nonwoody plants, usually consisting of a single layer of tightly packed cells


plant cell on the surface of a leaf or other young plant tissue, where bark is absent

epidermal cell

the two cells that flank the stomatal pore and regulate the opening and closing of the pore

guard cells

a microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant

stoma (-ata)

a minute opening in tissue, as in the skin of an animal, serving as an outlet for perspiration, or in a plant leaf or stem, serving as a means of absorption and transpiration


a hairlike or bristlelike outgrowth, as from the epidermis of a plant


the protective coat that replaces the epidermis in woody plants during secondary growth, formed of the cork and cork cambium


an organ in vascular plants that anchors the plant and enables it to absorb water and minerals from the soil


a main vertical root that develops from an embryonic root and gives rise to lateral (branch) roots

tap root system

a root system made up of many threadlike members of more or less equal length, as in most grasses

fibrous root system

a cone of cells at the tip of a plant root that protects the apical meristem

root cap

the slimy, viscous substance secrete by the roots of plants, consisting of a hydrated polysaccharide; lubricates the tips of roots as they push their way through the soil during gorwth


includes the root apical meristem and its derivatives; in this region, new root cells are produced, including cells of the root cap

region of cell division

where most of the growth occurs as root cells elongate; cell elongation in this zone pushes the tip farther into the soil; the root apical meristem keeps adding cells to the younger end of the zone

region of cell elongation

also called the zone of differentiation; where cells complete their differentiation and become distinct cell types

region of maturation

in plants, ground tissue that is between the vascular tissue and dermal tissue in a root or eudicot system


in plant roots, the innermost layer of the cortex that surrounds the vascular cylinder


also called the Casparian band; band-like structure composed of lignin and suberin found in the anticlinal (radial and transverse) walls of the exodermis and endodermis

Casparian strip

a core of vascular tissue located at the center of the root; contains the xylem and phloem as well as a specialized cell layer called the pericycle

vascular cylinder

the outermost layer in the vascular cylinder, from which lateral roots arise



endogenous root formation

a vascular plant organ consisting of an alternating system of nodes and internodes that support the leaves and reproductive structures


a dome-shapes mass of dividing cells at the shoot tip

shoot apical meristem

a finger-like projection along the flank of a shoot apical meristem, from which a leaf arises

leaf primordia

a structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot, or branch; the bud appears in the angle formed between a leaf and a stem

axillary bud

ground tissue that is internal to the vascular tissue in a stem; in many monocot roots, parenchyma cells that form the central core of the vascular cylinder


clusters of xylem and phloem conducting elements that conduct food, water, and minerals throughout the plant

vascular bundles

the main photosynthetic organ of vascular plants


the stalk of a leaf, which joins the leaf to a node of the stem


the flattened portion of a typical leaf


one of the usually small, paired parts resembling leaves at the base of a leafstalk in certain plants, such as roses and beans


leaves having only one blade per petiole


leaves having more than one blade or leaflet per petiole


having the leaflets growing opposite each other in pairs on either side of the stem


having three or more veins, leaflets, or lobes radiating from one point


type of leaf arrangement where the simple leaves are attached in the cotyledonary node and first node


having a whorl or whorls, radial arrangements of three or more petals, stamens, leaves, etc., around a stem


type of leaf arrangement where only one leaf is attached in all remaining nodes




any plant adapted to grow wholly or partly submerged in water or wet habitats; an aquatic plant; a wetland plant


any plant that grows in an environment having a moderate supply of water


any plant adapted to living in a dry arid habitat; a desert plant


leaf cells specialized for photosynthesis; sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermal layers


palisade parenchyma; consists of one or more layers of elongated parenchyma cells on the upper part of the leaf

palisade mesophyll

spongy parenchyma; located below the palisade mesophyll; parenchyma cells that are more loosely arranged, with a labyrinth of air spaces through which carbon dioxide and oxygen circulate around the cells and up to the palisade region

spongy mesophyll

in plants, a vascular bundle in a leaf


arrangement of veins in which the main veins are parallel with each other; common in leaves of monocotyledonous species

parrallel venation

arrangement of veins in leaves resembling a net; most common in dicotyledonous species; also called reticulate venation

netted venation

the separation of leaves, branches, flowers, and bark from plants by the formation of an abscission layer


growth produced by apical meristems, lengthening stems and roots

primary growth

growth produced by lateral meristems, thickening the roots and shoots of woody plants

secondary growth

embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and buds of shoots; the dividing cells of an apical meristem enable the plant to grow in length

apical meristem

cells that remain as sources of new cells


new cells displaced from the meristem


the primary meristem in vascular plants that gives rise to the nonvascular tissues, such as cortex, pericycle, and pith; within the seeds of angiosperms, it surrounds the procambium

ground meristem

undifferentiated plant tissue, just behind the growing tip in stems and roots, that develops into conducting tissues


a cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that adds layers of secondary vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem

vascular cambium

a cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that replaces the epidermis with thicker, tougher cork cells

cork cambium

vascular cambium that is initiated in parenchyma between adjacent vascular bundles in stems

interfascicular cambium

cambium that develops within the vascular bundles in the stem of a plant

fascicular cambium

division of a cell in which the new wall formed is parallel to the surface of the organ

periclinal division

division of a cell in which the new wall formed is at the right angle to the length of an existing cell

anticlinal division

a growth layer of wood formed in secondary xylem during a single period of growth

growth ring

the central core of dark hard wood in tree trunks, consisting of nonfunctioning xylem tissue that has become blocked with resins, tannins, and oils


the soft wood, just beneath the bark in tree trunks, that consists of living tissue


protective tissue (cork) formed by the phellogen; mature cells are dead with suberin and wax in their walls


tissue resembling cortex formed by the phellogen


all tissue external to the vascular cambium, consisting mainly of the secondary phloem and layers of periderm


plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for indeterminate growth


the primary meristem in vascular plants that gives rise to epidermis


those vascular cambial cells that produce the axial system; responsible for forming all the conducting and strengthening cells in the xylem and phloem areas of the stem and root

fusiform initials

those vascular cambial cells that produce the radial system

ray initials

the vascular transport system in a stem that runs vertically; carries water and raw minerals up the stem in the xylem and it carries glucose in the phloem up and down the stem; composed of fibers for strength, sieve-tube members and companion cells in the phloem and fibers, vessels and tracheids in the xylem

axial system

the vascular transport system in a stem that runs horizontally from the center of the setm; carries mostly food out to the margin of the stem; in both the xylem and phloem, the raidal system is made up of parenchyma cells

radial system

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