Chapter 6 Review Bio
Terms in this set (40)
Eukaryotic cells can divide by:
mitosis and meiosis
Bacteria divide by a type of ______________________ called ____________________.
asexual reproduction; binary fission
In DNA replication, when the DNA molecule separates into two strands
it is possible to reconstruct perfectly all the information on the missing strand because one strand carries all the information needed to construct its complementary strand.
In DNA replication, when the DNA molecule separates into two strands
During DNA replication, errors occasionally occur when DNA strands are copied. However, there are many cellular mechanisms that help to remove many of these errors. Suppose an organism evolved such that DNA replication was seemingly perfect every time. What consequences might this hold for the organism?
It would evolve slowly and would therefore be more likely to become extinct
All of the following are cells that undergo mitosis, EXCEPT:
What is the difference between embryonic development and differentiation?
Development involves mitosis and embryonic growth; differentiation involves specialization of tissues.
The rate at which mitosis occurs varies dramatically for different types of cells. The most rapid cell division occurs:
in the blood and the cells lining the various tissues of organs.
I. two daughter nuclei are formed (telophase)
II. centromeres separate (early anaphase)
III. cytoplasm is divided (cytokinesis)
IV. chromosomes move toward opposite poles (anaphase)
V. chromosomes line up in single file (metaphase)
Which of the following represents the correct order of events in the mitotic cell cycle listed above?
V, II, IV, I, III
Side effects of undergoing chemotherapy for cancer treatment include
a.reduction of the rate at which red blood cells are produced, causing fatigue and shortness of breath.
b. reduction of the rate at which white blood cells are produced, causing increased susceptibility to infection.
c. reduction of the rate at which hair follicle cells divide, causing loss of hair
Radiation therapy for cancer works because a cell's DNA is exposed during mitosis and most vulnerable to damage from radiation. Because cancer cells are uncontrollably undergoing mitosis, they die when exposed to the treatment. The common side effects of radiation treatment are hair loss and vomiting. What does this imply?
Both stomach and skin cells are constantly being replaced.
The ability for cancer cells to divide indefinitely is made possible because
cancer cells rebuild their telomeres after every cell division.
When a male donkey is bred with a female horse, the offspring produced is a mule, which is healthy but sterile. Karyotyping experiments have revealed that horses and donkeys have different numbers of chromosomes, 64 for horses and 62 for donkeys. The mule therefore has 63 chromosomes. Knowing this, what is the best explanation for the inability of mules to produce offspring?
Proper pairing of homologues is impossible during meiosis I
For crossing over to increase genetic variation, it must involve the exchange of material between:
non-sister chromatids of a homologous pair of chromosomes
Seventy to ninety percent of the genetic material in a gamete made in your body could be inherited from your mother. How could this be?
You receive many mitochondria, which have their own genome, from your mother, but not from your father
Sexual reproduction leads to offspring that are all genetically different from one another and from either parent. What are the three aspects of sexual reproduction that lead to this variation?
crossing over during the production of gametes; shuffling and reassortment of homologues during meiosis; and combination of alleles from two parents at fertilization
Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of sexual reproduction?
Variability among offspring enables parents to produce a range of offspring, any one of which may be suitable to changes in the environment.
In many species of birds, males are XX and females are XZ. With birds like this, who is most likely to display a sex-linked recessive trait?
A classmate says that according to the graph above, women over 45 are very likely to have a child with Down syndrome? Is your classmate correct?
No, the likelihood of a woman over 45 having a baby with Down syndrome is around 1.9%
In multicellular organisms, the cells that undergo mitotic cellular division but not meiotic cell division are called:
Gap 1, S phase (DNA synthesis), and Gap 2 of the cell cycle are collectively called:
Which of the following is TRUE about prokaryotic reproduction?
A single circular DNA helix is replicated into two identical circular DNA helices.
Odometer is to an old, rusty car as __________ is to _________.
telomere, a cell after 50 cell divisions
DNA replication is facilitated by the fact that the base on one strand of the double helix (T, for example) always has the same partner (A, in this case) on the other strand. This feature of DNA is called:
Which process is necessary to prevent the doubling of genome size during sexual reproduction
Sex cells having the ___________ number of chromosomes are called ____________.
Which of the following is TRUE about meiosis in men and women?
Sperm production results in 4 cells from one starting cell; for eggs, only one egg results from one starting cell
How does crossing over introduce variation in meiosis?
It positions alleles next to each other that previously were not together
Bacteria reproduce asexually, whereas most plants and animals reproduce sexually. Which is the better method?
Neither method is better—each is effective in different environments for different kinds of organisms
If a cell containing 20 chromosomes divides by mitosis, a total number of how many daughter cells would be produced
The stage where the chromosomes are lined up in the center of the cell
Unrestrained cell division and reproduction causes
What is true about sex determination in humans
The fathers sperm determines the sex
In some species, sex is determined by the environment, this is true of
Which of the following in Not a method of sex determination that occurs in nature?
All of the above are naturally occurring examples of sex determination
Which of the following is NOT true about human sex chromosomes
All diploid cells have an x and y
is the unequal division of the genetic material during cell division.
What type of chromosomal abnormality leads to the phenotype known as Down syndrome?
can be used to diagnose Down syndrome in humans
can be used to determine the sex of a fetus in humans.
A man having the "super male" genotype, meaning he has one extra Y-chromosome (XYY) marries a woman who is "meta female," having an extra X-chromosome (XXX). All of the following are possible genotypes of their children, EXCEPT:
females with an XXX genotype
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