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Classification

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taxonomy
the science that specializes in naming and classifying organisms
a useful classification
gives each organism a unique name AND shows evolutionary relationships
ORDERS are grouped together into what?
families
the largest and most inclusive of Linnaeus's taxonomic categories is what?
kingdom
phylogeny
the study of evolutionary relationships amoung organisms
cladogram
diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships amoung a group of organisms
derived character
a unique trait that is used to construct a cladogram showing evolutionary relationships between organisms
what is the scientific name for humans?
Homo-sapiens
which two languages are used today when determining scientific names?
latin and greek
How are genes used to help scientists classify organisms?
DNA & RNA help determine the hereditary.
taxon
a group or level of organization into which organisms are classified
Aristotle
greek philosopher who first classified organisms as plants or animals
phylum
a group of closely related classes
eukarya
domain of all organisms whose cell walls have nuclei, including protists, plants, fungi and animals
chitin
polysaccharide found in the cell walls of fungi
THERMophilies
organisms who like HOT environments
eukaryote
organism whose cells contain nuclei
HALOphile
organisms who like high SALT environments
anamilia
multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs whose cells do NOT have CELL WALLS or chloroplasts
archaebacteria
"ANCIENT" unicellular prokaryotes whose cell walls do NOT contain peptidoglycan and are often found in harsh environments
eubacteria
unicellular prokaryotes whose cell walls are MADE of peptidoglycan
protista
composed of eukaryotes that are NOT classified as plants, animals, or fungi
fungi
composed of heterotrophs including mushrooms, and yeast
plantae
multicelluar autotrophs that have cell walls containing cellulose and chloroplasts
domain
most inclusive taxonomic category based on RNA which is larger than a kingdom
Genus
part of scientific name that is ALWAYS capitalized
class
group of similar orders
order
group of similar families
peptidoglycan
substance made of sugars and peptides that is found in eubacteria
the Three-Domain system divides organisms into groups based on similarities based on what?
ribosomal RNA
Which of the original five kingdoms was divided in two to make the Eubacteria and Archebacteria groups used today?
Monera
which domain includes organisms from more than one kingdom?
eukarya
Linnaeus
scientist that developed the system of classifying organisms by a genus and species name
what are the THREE domains?
archaea, bacteria, eukarya
what are the six kingdoms?
animalia, archaebacteria, eubacteria, fungi, plantae, protista
eukarya goes with?
protista, fungi, plantae, animalia
bacteria goes with?
euBACTERIA
archaea goes with?
ARCHEbacteria
how are protists and plants alike?
their cell walls are made of cellulose
how are archaebacteria and eubacteria different?
EUbacteria contain peptidoglycan and ARCHAEbacteria lack peptidoglycan
how do plants differ from animals?
plants: have cell wall, autotrophic, photosynthesis
animals: lack cell wall, heterotrophic, phagocytosis
convergent evolution
organisms that have similar traits but evolve independently