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Terms in this set (18)
Immature cells that can divide and differentiate into specialized cell types.
- one of the daughter cells remains an immature stem cell, while the other one specializes
An organized collection of a single cell type working to carry out a specific function.
- made up of different cell types that work together. (Neurons and glial cells are different cell types that work together to allow electrical impulses to travel faster through the nervous system.)
Adult (somatic) Stem Cells
Stem cells located in tissues that help maintain and regenerate those tissues.
The process by which a cell specializes to carry out a specific role.
Differential Gene Expression
The process by which genes are "turned on," or expressed, in different cell types.
What defines a cell's type?
- Same DNA
- Cell's pattern of gene expression (the proteins produced from those genes)
Describes a cell with the ability to differentiate into a limited number of cell types in the body.
Embryonic Stem Cells
Stem cells that make up an early embryo and which can differentiate into nearly every cell type in the body.
The stage of embryonic development in which the embryo is a hollow ball of cells. Researchers can derive embryonic stem cell lines during the blastocyst stage.
Describes a cell with the ability to differentiate into nearly any cell type in the body.
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell
A pluripotent stem cell that was generated by manipulation of a differentiated somatic cell.
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)
- the nucleus of an unfertilized egg is replaced by the nucleus of a donor cell to produce an embryo with the same genes as the donor cell.
E. All of the above.
The formation of an organ through the use of stem cells differentiated into multiple cell types. However, which of the following presents a hurdle to regenerating a new organ to replace a defective one?
a. the "turning off" of some genes and the "turning on" others
Cellular differentiation, or cell specialization, results from __________.
c. induced pluripotent stem cell technology
What is the technology used to de-differentiate somatic cells so they become like embryonic stem cells called?
a. an enucleated egg
In somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the nucleus from a specialized cell is inserted into __________.
stem cells from one individual are used to regenerate new tissues by surgically injecting them into a different individual.
Each of the following describe the 4 main approaches to regenerative medicine using stem cells, EXCEPT
d. All of the above are ways in which researchers obtain embryonic stem cells.
Which of the following is not a way in which researchers have obtained embryonic stem cells in the United States?
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