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APUSH Chapter 8: Varieties of American Nationalism
Terms in this set (21)
Second Bank of the United States
- (War of 1812 proved inadequate economic/banking system)
- State banks issued lots of bank notes, creating confusing currency of differing values, hard to determine actual worth, counterfeiting problem
- Needed national bank & Congress charter second national bank in 1816
- Similar to bank of 1791 but with more capital (could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but compelled state banks to issue only sound notes @ risk of going out of business)
Effectively limited competition from abroad on a wide range of items (i.e. cotton cloth) despite agricultural interests who had to pay higher prices for manufactured goods
John Jacob Astor, American Fur Co.
- Created new type of commerce
- Extended operations from Great Lakes to Rockies
- Fur trappers far west developed important relationships with Indians and Mexicans & changed society there
- Most profits flowed to merchants, not trappers
"Era of Good Feelings"
- End of First Party System & Virginia Dynasty
- Growth of white settlement, trade in West, no national threats, & creation of new states reflected rising nationalism spirit
- No political opposition (no more Federalists)
- Elected without opposition in 1816
- Chose Federalist members into his cabinet (i.e. John Quincy Adams, Calhoun) to bring Virginia Dynasty to an end; try to end partisan divisions
- Goodwill Tour through the country: welcomed everywhere
Adams Onís Treaty*
- Spain ceded all of Florida to the U.S. and gave up its claim to territory north of 42nd parallel in the Pacific Northwest
- Spanish government gave up claims to Texas
John Quincy Adams
- Great diplomat of the U.S. & promoted American expansion
- Florida: Adams negotiated w/ Spanish minister Onís w/ to gain entire territory while Jackson invaded Florida & seized Spanish forts at St. Marks & Pensacola (Seminole War) in efforts of stopping raids on American territories
- Adams implied that America could easily take Florida --> Adam- Onís Treaty
- Missouri enter as slave state, Maine enter as free state
- Any state above the southern boundary of Missouri (36-30' parallel) would be free
- Temporary resolution to strong sectionalism
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
- Republicans tried to make Dartmouth College convert into a state university
- Ruled for Dartmouth, claiming that the corporation charters were contracts and inviolable
- Restricted state governments ability to control corporations & further expanded meaning of Constitution
McCulloh v. Maryland*
- Marshall confirmed "implied powers" of Congress by upholding constitutionality of the Bank of the U.S.
- States in South & West tried to destroy national bank
- "Could Congress charter a bank? And if so, could individual states ban it or tax it?"
- Yes, No; Decided in favor of the Bank, b/c if states could tax, then it could destroy the Bank
Gibbons v. Odgen
- Court strengthened Congress' power to regulate interstate commerce
- New York state granted Robert Fulton's steamboat company exclusive rights to carry passengers on Hudson river, and Fulton gave Odgen business. Gibbons was granted a license under an act of Congress & competed w/ Odgen.
- Marshall supported power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce & declared Odgen's state monopoly void
- Promoted economic growth and protected corporations from local govn interference
Worcester v. Georgia*
- Invalidated a Georgia law that attempted to regulate access by U.S. citizens to a Cherokee country
- Stated only federal government could do that, tribes were sovereign entities similar to Georgia (w/ distinct political boundaries within authority)
- Affirmed rights of the tribes to remain free from the authority of state governments (but not federal)
- Defined role of Indian tribes in American political system, gave Indians basic property rights, declared sovereign entities not subject to state govn, but to federal govn (that was like a governing guardian w/ ultimate authority over tribal affairs)
- (Believed anti-spanish revolutions would strengthen America's position in the region; proclaimed neutrality in wars between Spain and its colonies but sold ships to revolutionaries (later est. diplomatic relations w/ 5 new nations)
- 1820s: Written by John Quincy Adams
- Stated: 1) Americas would no longer be subjects for colonization by any European powers (if did, would be considered unfriendly); 2) Europe should not interfere with internal concerns of its powers
- Symbol of growing nationalism in U.S. & its dominating power in the Western Hemisphere
Adams become president with Clay's support (ruled with many frustrations) & beat Jackson though had most popular and electoral votes than other candidates
"Tariff of Abominations"
- New tariff on imported goods
- Originated w/ demands of Mass. and RI, but enforced to win support of middle and western states
- Benefits of protecting U.S. manufactured goods from foreign competition weighed against prospects of having to pay for more raw materials (in South)
- Earned most animosity of southerners
- Captured Spanish forts & helped w/ Adam Onís Treaty
- Received more popular and electoral votes than any other candidate but not the majority, but 12th Amendment require that only electoral votes count; lose elections
- Supported by Democratic Republicans and opposed "economic aristocracy"
- Enter presidency and beginning of "era of the common man" & 2-party system re-emerge
What were the effects of the War of 1812 on banking, shipping, farming, industry, and transportation? What weaknesses were exposed by the war?
How and why were Americans expanding after the War of 1812? How was this expansion related to a growing interest in internal improvements?
How and why was the "era of good feelings" a transitional period?
What were the arguments advanced by the North and South during the debates over the admission of Missouri? How would these arguments influence sectional attitudes?
How was the status of the federal judiciary changed by the Marshall Court, and how did the Court's decisions alter the relationships between the federal government and the states and the federal government and business?
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