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128 terms

Massage Therapy - Pathology Chapter 3

STUDY
PLAY
diaphysis
the shaft of long bones
osteoblasts
bone builders
osteoclasts
bone clearers
calcitonin
hormone controlling osteoblasts and osteoclasts
myofibers
muscles are composed of specialized threadlike cells that have the power to contract while bearing weight
endomysium
myofibers are encased in this connective tissue envelope
fascicles
packets of wrapped myofibers are bound in another connective tissue envelope creating bundles called
epimysium
blends into the subcutaneous layer of the skin
aerobic metabolism
muscles that work when adequate supplies of oxygen are easily accessible and burn very cleanly
anaerobic metabolism
muscle that works without adequat oxygen
lactic acid
byproduct of anaerobic combustion that is also a nerve irritant
synarthroses
immovable joints (between cranial bones)
amphiarthroses
slightly movable joints (vertebrae)
diarthroses
freely movable joints
fibromyalgia
chronic pain syndrome involving sleep disorders and the development of a predictable pattern of tender points in muscles and other soft tissues
fibromyalgia
11 active tender points are found distributed among all quadrants of the body, along with fatigue, morning stifness, and poor quality sleep
yes, be careful not to overtreat
does fibromyalgia indicate massage
myofascial pain syndrome
a collection of signs and symptoms associated with the development of myofascial trigger points in muscles
myofascial pain syndrome
recognized mainly by the trigger points in predictable locations
yes
massage for myofascial pain syndrome?
myositis ossificans
means muscle inflammation with bone formation
myositis ossificans
the growth of a bony deposit in soft tissues.
locally contraindicated
massage on myositis ossificans?
shin splints
an umbrella term used to describe a variety of lower leg problems.
shin splints
a collection of lower leg injuries including compartment syndromes, muscle tears, periostitis, hairline fractures, and other problems - brought on by overuse and/or misalignment at the ankle
tiabialis anterior tibialist posterior
what muscles are associated with shin splints?
spasms, cramps
an involuntary contraction of a voluntary muscle
strain
torn muscle fibers
protection, rest, ice, compression, elevation, support
PRICES
PRICES
inflammation can be controlled by
avascular osteonecrosis
a condition in which blood supply to an area of bone is interrupted and the bone tissue consequently dies...occuring most frequently at the head of the femur
fracture
any kind of broken or cracked bone
simple fracture
bone is completely broken but little or no damage has occurred to the surrounding soft tissues
incomplete fracture
the bone is cracked but not completely broken
compound fracture
the bone is completely broken and a great deal of soft tissue damage has occurred - the bone protrudes through the skin and is susceptible to infection.
greenstick fracture
bone bends and partially breaks
comminuted fracture
shattering of the broken bone
impacted fracture
broken bone with one end wedged into the other
osteoporosis
literally means "porous bones"
osteopenia
significant bone thinning
osteoporosis
a loss of bone mass and density brought about by endocrine imbalances and poor metabolism of calcium
paget disease
chronic bone disorder in which healthy bone is rapidly reabsorbed and replaced with fibrous connective tissue that never fully calcifies
postural deviation
overdeveloped thoracic or lumbar curves or a lateral curve in the spine
hyperkyphosis
overdeveloped thoracic curve
hyperlordosis
overdeveloped lumbar curve
scoliosis
lateral curve of the spine
ankylosing spondylitis
progressive inflammatory arthritis of the spine
dislocation
injuries to joints in which the articulating bones are forcefully separated
gout
inflammatory arthritis caused by deposits of sodium urate (uric acid) in and around joints, especially feet
contraindicate
gouty joints locally _____________ massage at all times
lyme disease
an infection of a spirochetal infection called "borrelia burgdorferi"
bullseye
lyme disease causes a ____________ shaped rash
deer tick
carries lyme disease
osteoarthritis
degenerative joint disease
osteoarthritis
joint inflammation brought about by wear and tear causing cumulative damage to articular cartilage
osteoarthriits
bulges at the distal interphalangeal joints (DIPs) and at the proximal interphalangeal joints (PIPs)
patellofemoral syndrome
an overuse disorder that can lead to damage of the patellar cartilage
patellofemoral syndrome
causes pain at the knee, stiffness after immobility, and discomfort walking DOWNstairs
patellar tendonitis
discomfort walking UPstairs
rheumatoid arthritis
autoimmume disease in which the immune system agents attack synovial membranes, particularly of the joints in the hands and feet.
rheumatoid arthritis
complications: nodules on the sclera of eyes, dry eyes and mouth, pleuritis, inflammation of pericardial sac, hepatitis (infl. of liver), vasculitis, bursitis, anemia, Raynaud syndrome
spondylosis
degeneration of the bones and discs in the spine
spondylosis
osteoarthritis in the spine
spondylosis
"fusion" of vertebral bodies
sprain
injured ligament
temporomandibular joint disorders
a multitude of problems in and around the jaw
malocclusion
a dysfunctional bite
bruxism
teeth grinding
ehlers-danlos syndrome
a collection of genetic disorders that lead to problems with connective tissues. it affects the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and integumentary systems.
hypermobile joints
how is ehlers-danlos syndrome recognized?
marfan syndrome
genetic defect leading to problems in the construction of fibrillin, a connective tissue fiber. All connective tissues are affected with the most serious occuring in the skeleton, cardiovascular system, and eyes.
marfan syndrome
taller than average with very long fingers
muscular dystrophy
a group of related inherited disorders characterized by degeneration and wasting of muscle tissue
muscular dystrophy
X linked
osteogenesis imperfecta
a group of genetic disorders that affect the formation of type I collagen fibers. it results in bones that fracture easily, along with decreased muscle mass, ligament laxity, postural deviations, and several other problems.
osteogenesis imperfecta
fractures easily
baker cysts
synovial cysts found in the popliteal fossa, usually on the medial side.
locally contraindicate
baker cysts _____________ massage
thrombosis
baker cysts pose the threat of
bunion
a protrusion at the metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe that occurs when the toe is laterally deviated
bursa
fluid filled sac that acts as a protective cushion
bursitis
inflammation of the bursae
dupuytren contracture
idiopathic shrinking and thickening of the fascia on the palm of hand
palmar fascitis
dupuytren contracture also called
plantar fibromatosis
(ledderhose disease) is essentially the same as dupuytren contracture, but it develops on the plantar aspect of the foot
peyronie disease
a condition in which scar tissue develops under the skin of the shaft of the penis
ganglion cysts
small fluid-filled synovial sacs that are attached to tendinous sheaths or joint capsusles
ganglion cysts
form small bumps that usually appear on the hand, wrist, or ankle. not usually painful.
ganglion cysts
hyaluronic acid and glucosamine are inside _______________
hernia
a hole or rip through which the abdominal contents may protrude
epigastric hernia
hernia located superior to the umbilicus
osgood-schlatter disease
the result of chronic or traumatic irritation at the insertion of the quadriceps tendon in combination with adolescent growth spurts
osgood-schlatter disease
practically exclusive to youth athletes
tibial tuberosity
in osgood-schlatter disease the ______________ is hot, swollen, and painful
pes planus
"flat feet"
pes cavus
"caved feet" or hyperaccentuated/jammed arches
plantar fasciitis
a condition caused by repeated microscopic injury to the plantar fascia of the foot
immobility
plantar fasciitis is painful after prolonged ______________
plantar fasciitis
rolling ice log with foot is indicated for
scleroderma
chronic autoimmune disorder involving damage to small blood vessels, leading to abnormal accumulations of collagen in the skin and other tissues.
scleroderma
hardening or thickening of the skin
calcinosis, raynaud phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia
CREST symptoms for scleroderma
talangiectasia
spider veins
esophogeal dysmotility
chronic gastric problems
calcinosis
accumulation of calcium deposits in the skin, especially fingers
raynaud phenomenon
impaired circulation and vascular spasm in the hands
sclerodactyly
hardening of the fingers, result of accumulation of scar tissue in hands
tendinopathies
injury and damage to tendons
tenosynovitis
irritation and inflammation of tendons that pass through a synovial sheath
epitenon
also known as synovial sheath
tenosynovitis
usually caused by trauma, repetitive movement, infection, or gonorrhea
de quervain tenosynovitis
synovial sheath in thumb affected by tenosynovitis
whiplash
CAD (cervical acceleration-deceleration)
carpal tunnel syndrome
irritation of the median nerve as it passes under the transverse carpal ligament into the wrist.
carpal tunnel syndrome
tingling, numbness, and weakness in the thumb, pointer, middle, and medial half of ring finger.
tinel's test
carpal tunnel test - tapping on the inside of wrist
phalen's maneuver
carpal tunnel test - holding the wrist in flexion for 1 minute
disc disease
the nucleus pulposus or the surrounding anulus fibrosus of an intervetebral disc protrudes - putting pressure on nerve roots, the cauda equina, or the spinal cord
annulus fibrosus
tough outer wrapping on intervertebral disc
nucleus pulposus
soft, gelatinous center of intervertebral disc
degenerative disc disease
small, cumulative tears of the annulus, along with decreased disc height and dehydration of the nucleus.
internal disc disruption
nucleus protrudes through the annulus but stays within the boudaries of the whole disc.
parasthesia
pins-and-needles sensation is felt along the affected dermatones
cauda equina
extensions of the spinal nerves between L1 and S5
myasthenia gravis
neuromuscular disorder - autoimmune attacks acetylcholine receptors
myasthenia gravis
weakness in facial muscles, difficulty speech, eating, swallowing
thoracic outlet syndrome
occlusion of nerve and blood supply to the arm
wright and adsons
thoracic outlet syndrome tests