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two successive rhyming lines of iambic pentameter; the second line is usually end-stopped
-indicates shift in thought
-turn in thought in a sonnet that is often indicated by such initial words as "But", "Yet", or "And yet"
Tenets of Romanticism
1. Intuition and feelings yield deeper insights into humanity than does pure reason
2. The individual, not God and the State, is at the center of life, and poetry must express unique experience of individual
3. Nature is catalyst for deep revelations of truth
4. Poetry seeks to move reader to intuitive reception of beauty, wonder, mystery
5. Emphasis on transcending material world to find the sublime
6. Fascination with the strange/wild/supernatural and heroic past
7. Rebellion against political and moral rules
Classical vs. Romantic poetry
-Classicism: truth through reason, rationality, society as harmonizing force, science, etc. → in writing: "prose with rhyme scheme", order, structure, restraint
-Romanticism: truth through imagination fused with reason, personal experience, emotional connection to nature, etc.
-Neoclassical (ordered, structured)
-Romantic Beautiful/Picturesque (unordered, sprawling)
-Romantic Sublime (contains elements of the sublime-supernatural, awe-inspiring, frightening)
-ultimate experience of divinity
-mix of awe, fear, enlightenment produced by contemplation of powerful, terrifying nature
-in contrast: Beauty- harmony and proportion give viewer sense of ordered whole
"Introduction" (Songs of Innocence), Blake
-simple, playful style/tone
-pastoral setting with child
-speaker is the "piper" conversing with child (mentions of "piping" appear frequently)
"The Chimney Sweep", Blake
-child responds to speaker's questions
-child is "a little black thing" (loss of purity of childhood)
-criticism of Industrial Revolution, Church, king
"The Sick Rose", Blake
-speaker addresses rose who is sick with "invisible worm"
-themes: love, sexuality (potential dangers thereof?)
"The Tyger", Blake
-every phrase is a question (inquiring as to tiger's creator)
-repetition: "fearful symmetry", "Tyger! Tyger!"
-the sublime: coexistence of beauty and potential for danger in one being
"The Garden of Love", Blake
-Blake's "radical protest": criticism of Church
-10 Commandments, etc. as constricting freedoms
-priests are ominous presences dressed in "black gowns" "binding" speaker's "joy & desires"
-themes: criticism of Industrialization/the Church/government institutions, working class victims, corruption of marriage/innocence (Harlot)
-speaker is upper class male
"A Poison Tree", Blake
-narrative: speaker's anger towards friend (growing "wrath")
-tree as symbol for human nature
-religious references: apple, garden (ref. Eden)
-themes: loss of innocence and liberty, transition from childhood to adolescence
-from point of view of woman
-falling in love, then sexual engagement with man causes loss of freedom (woman is put in "golden cage")
"And did those feet in ancient time", Blake
-GFS school song!
-critical of Industrialization ("satanic mills")
"My heart leaps up when I behold", Wordsworth
-Romantic elements: consistency of Man's relationship to nature and awe of nature ("rainbow in the sky"), nature as a spiritual force
-children are closer to God, more pure
"I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud", Wordsworth
-Romantic landscape (fields of daffodils)
-Romantic awe of nature
"Kubla Khan", Coleridge
-morphing landscapes: from formal gardens to wild, uncontrolled romantic landscape (paralleling change in art/philosophy in 18th century)
-pleasure dome, sacred river
-admiration for wonders of nature
-speaker recalls meeting traveller
-commoner's triumph over authority figure; this reflects Shelley's radical political views (statue's "face" in sand)
-ephemeral nature of art, political power
"Childe Harold's Pilgrimage", Byron
-Sublime landscape (10,000 fleets, ocean)
-Romantic ideas: finding fulfillment in the personal quest, transcendence of nature, nature allows one to connect with the Sublime, relationship between Man and Nature
"Ode on a Grecian Urn", Keats
-engagement with art
-static nature of urn in contrast to humans interacting with it
-the human, the mortal, the ephemeral vs. the immortal, the unchanging
-"Beauty is truth, truth beauty":
"Bright Star...", Keats
-the unchanging, eternal, inhuman (the star) vs. temporality of human sensual rapture
-paradox: Keats' desire for permanence though he inhabits world in which passing of time occurs
"La Belle Dame sans Merci", Keats
-knight tells speaker of the woman he loved and her abandonment of him
-narrative reflects Keats' broad imagination
"When I Have Fears", Keats
-Keats expresses fears of dying
-resolves fears by distancing himself from his own life, declaring uselessness of fame, love
-refers to Ancient Greece and Egypt
-Nepenthe = drug that one consumes to forget their troubles
"Essay on Man", Pope
-refers to scientific achievement/progress (Age of Enlightenment)
-written in heroic couplets
First generation Romantic poets
-William Blake: radical eccentric, social protest
-William Wordsworth: def. nature as spiritual and healing force
-Samuel Taylor Coleridge: opium-induced visions, the sublime
Second generation Romantic poets
-all died young!
-John Keats: emotion and imagination
-Percy Bysshe Shelley: radical political views
-Lord Byron: charismatic, flamboyant ("Byronic hero")
-octave (argument, narrative, etc.) + answering sestet (counter-argument, clarification, etc.)
-ABBA, ABBA, CDECDE or CDCDCD (note: rhyme scheme differs for Italian sonnets written in English)
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