15 terms

Chapter 13

the science that analyzes and describes the origin, evolution, form, classification, and spatial distance of landfoms
partially weathered rock overlaying bedrock, whether residual or transported
the rock of the Earth's crust that is below the soil and is basically unweathered
Physical weathering
the breaking and disintegrating of rock without any chemical alteration
Chemical weathering
decomposition and decay of the constituent minerals in rock through chemical alteration of those minerals
Frost action
mechanical force that is produced as water expands up to 9% of its volume as it freezes.
-freezing in a cavity can break the rock if exceeds the rock's tensional strength
Talus slope
formed by angular rock fragments that cascade down a slope along the base of a mountain
Mass movement
all unit movements of materials propelled by gravity
Mass wasting
gravitational movement of non-unified material down a slope
Falls and Avalanches
class of mass movement including rock falls and debris avalanches
a volume of rock that falls through the air and hits a surface
Debris Avalanche
a mass of falling and tumbling rock, debris, and soil
a sudden rapid downslope movement of a cohesive mass of regolith and/or bedrock in a variety of mass movement forms under the influence of gravity
Includes earth flows and more fluid mudslides
1. soil particles are lifted and disturbed by the expansion of soil moisture as it freezes
2. by cycles of moisture and dryness
3. by diurnal temperature variations
4. or by grazing livestock (digging animals)