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100 terms


the amount of energy that is estimated to be contained in the nucleus of a grain of sand would
provide a year's worth of energy for the U.S.
which of the following is true about radioactive decay?
a helium proton was the first particle identified as a product of radioactive decay
electrons and protons differ in their
mass and charge
how do two isotopes of the same element differ?
their neutrons differ in number
the difference between nuclear fusion and nuclear fission is that
fusion combines two nuclei into one, fission splits a nucleus apart
a particular isotope has a half life of 10 minutes. if we state with 2,000 atoms now, in a half hour we will have how many atoms left?
250 atoms
how many protons, neutrons, and electors are contained in uranium-238
92 protons, 146 neutrons, and 92 electrons
which force holds the nucleus together?
strong force
a scientist who uses carbon-14 dating is actually measuring the
time of death of a living thing
a biography of Marie Curie would include the fact that she
won the Nobel Prize in physics and chemistry
most of the energy in a nuclear power plant is generated by conversion of
mass into heat energy
one characteristic of radon-222 is that
it is inert
safety features in nuclear power plants include
a self contained system for all cooling water coming in contact with the radioactive material
the Yucca mountain project for nuclear waste disposal
is a plan to bury nuclear wastes in underground tunnels
nuclear quantum leaps
shift particles in a nucleus to different energy levels
elements heavier than uranium have been produced by scientists who
bombard a heavy element like lead with krypton ions
which of these is not classified as a high level radioactive material?
medical wastes
matter is converted to energy in all except for which of the following?
all of the above convert matter into energy
if you plotted the number of neutrons against the number of protons of all atoms listed in the periodic table of the elements what would you discover?
all of the above
when we say that radioactivity is natures philosophers stone we mean that
radioactivity can change the number of protons in a given nucleus
which of the following statements is a characteristic of radioactivity
much of earths interior heat comes from alpha decay
an electron is to a beta particle as helium is to a(n)
alpha particle
if an atom emits two protons and two neutrons, the atom has
all of the above
long term effects of radioactive exposure will
cause birth defects
how to isotopes of the same elements differ
their neutrons differ in number
a scientist who uses carbon-14 dating is actually measuring the
time since death of a living thing
an electron is to a beta particle as helium is to an
alpha particle
which group below shows the building blocks of matter in order of their size, smallest to largest
quark, neutron, nucleus, atom, molecule
the difference between a quark and a lepton is
quarks exist in the nucleus; leptons do not
which two forces have infinite range
gravity and electromagnetic
quarks are one of the basic building blocks of matter. which of the following particles or structures would not contain any quarks at all
an electron
how do quarks differ from other elementary particles
only six kinds of quarks make up the hundreds of nuclear particles
the energy source of stars is primarily associated with
the reactions of nuclei in the star core
which of the following can be said about large stars
large stars have a shorter lifetime than smaller stars
the end products of fusion in the Sun's core are
helium isotopes, protons, and gamma rays
from what part of the electromagnetic spectrum is most of the Sun's energy emitted
visible light waves
which of the following is not an endpoint of stellar revolution
main sequence star
where were the heaviest chemical elements on Earth created
red giants can be described as
large stars that emit a lot of energy but have cool surfaces
what were the first three elements from in the Big Bang
hydrogen, lithium, and helium
which statement about dark matter is accepted by most astronomers
dark matter interacts with ordinary matter through a gravitational force
evidence for the Big Band includes the
all of these are correct
the total number of protons in the nucleus is called the
atomic number
which particle found in the nucleus of the atom has no electrical charge
which type of radioactive decay emits electrons
which of the following elements poses a health threat to people in a well-insulated tightly sealed building
this type of radioactive decay releases energy from the nucleus without changing the element
the nucleus of this element is created during alpha decay
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the
mass number
during nuclear fission, mass is converted into
this force holds the atomic nucleus together
the strong force
radium and polonium were first isolated by
marie curie
the existence of radioactivity was first discovered by
antoine becquerel
the existence of alpha decay in radioactive uranium was first discovered by
ernest rutherford
a form of an element having different numbers of neutrons in its nucleus is called
an isotope
during the nuclear fission reaction in a reactor that generates electricity, uranium-235 releases
the tine particle released during beta decay that has no electric charge is
a neutrino
the complete radioactive decay of radioactive uranium produces the stable element
the time it takes for half of the atoms of a given amount of radioactive element to spontaneous decay is termed as
the atomic number of oxygen is 8. oxygen-18 must have __ neutrons in its nucleus
a radioactive element that can be injected into a person to detect the presence of diseased cells that will accumulate the element is called
a tracer
the combination of two atomic nuclei is referred to as fusion, whereas the splitting of a single atom nucleus is
which of the following is not included in the six quarks
the graviton is the gauge particle for
which of these has the smallest mass
hardrons are found in
the nucleus
the antimatter equivalent of the proton is the
non-nuclear elementary particles are called
which of the following particles rain down continuously on the atmosphere of the Earth
cosmic rays
the elementary particle with the mass of an electron but a positive charge is the
which of the following forces has an infinite range
the first cyclotron was produced by
Earnest Lawrence
how many types of quarks exist
w and z particles are the gauge particles of
the weak force
the idea that at high enough temperatures all four fundamental forces unite is the basis of
the theory of everything
car anderson first discovered
cosmic rays originate from
outer space
which of the following is a lepton
which of the following is a hadron
hadrons are composed of
all hadrons
are found in the nucleus
which of the following is not classified as an elementary particle
which of the following is an immense fusion reactor in space
the Sun
which region of the electromagnetic spectrum can easily reach a telescope on earth's surface
radio waves
in the core of the sun, hydrogen nuclei fuse to form
the most abundant element in the universe is
the stream of charged particles that flow from the sun is called the
solar wind
which type of star is produced after a large star explodes in a supernova
a neutron star
the outer layer of the sun that radiates energy into space is the
the central portion of a star that produces energy through nuclear reactions is the
a small star that has a very high surface temperature but emits low amounts of energy is a
white dwarf
during helium burning, helium nuclei fuse to produce the element
the element that accumulates in the interior of large stars that does not release energy by any reaction is
elements on the periodic table higher iron are created during
an object in the universe that will not allow the escape of anything from its gravitation field is a
black hole
when a very large star explodes at the end of its life, it is called a
our sun is currently classified as a
main sequence star
which of the following is an earth-based telescope
keck telescope
the region of the suns interior that conducts energy between the innermost portion and the outermost portion is the
convection zone
from the inside out, the layers of our sun are
core, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona