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Rocks and Minerals Study Guide

Chapter 3- Rocks and Minerals Review
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Igneous Rocks
When melted rock cools and hardens it forms Igneous Rocks.
Sedimentary Rocks
Layers of sediments pressed together over time.
Metamorphic Rocks
rocks formed deep within the earth by intense heat and pressure
sediments
tiny particles of rock, soil, and other materials
lava
magma that reaches Earth's surface
magma
melted rock inside the Earth
intrusive rock
Igneous rock that forms when magma cools and hardens below Earth's surface
extrusive rock
igneous rock that forms when lava cools and hardens above Earth's surface
Moh's Hardness Scale
shows the hardness of some common minerals; hardness is a property of minerals
diamond
the hardest mineral
mineral properties
1.color
2.streak
3.luster
4.cleavage
5.hardness
luster
shine; the way light reflects off the surface of a mineral
cleavage
the way a mineral splits
rock cycle
a process where rock changes from one form to another
granite
Igneous, intrusive rock used as a building material because it is very durable and strong (ex. The Great Wall of China)
Pumice
Igneous, extrusive rock- very light gray to a medium gray- contains a large number of gas bubbles- looks something like a sponge- very light weight- most pieces will float in water
Name a metamorphic rock.
Marble, which is used on statues and buildings
fossils
often found in sedimentary rocks; can show us what living things looked like in the past
How are rocks broken down?
Weathering or erosion; wind, water, and ice can break down rocks and carry sediments

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